Orthomyxoviridae is a family of RNA viruses. It includes seven genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Influenzavirus D, Isavirus and Quaranjavirus; the first four genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds and other mammals. Isaviruses infect salmon; the four genera of Influenza virus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein, infect vertebrates as follows: Influenzavirus A infects humans, other mammals, birds, causes all flu pandemics Influenzavirus B infects humans and seals Influenzavirus C infects humans and dogs. Influenzavirus D infects pigs and cattle In a phylogenetic-based taxonomy, the category "RNA virus" includes the category "negative-sense ssRNA virus", which includes the Order "Mononegavirales", the Family "Orthomyxovirus"; the genera-associated species and serotypes of Orthomyxovirus are shown in the following table. Group: ssRNA There are four genera of influenza virus, each containing only a single species, or type.
Influenza A and C infect a variety of species, while influenza B exclusively infects humans, influenza D infects cattle and pigs. Influenza A viruses are further classified, based on the viral surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Sixteen H subtypes and nine N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. Further variation exists. Examples of the nomenclature are: A/Brisbane/59/2007 A/Moscow/10/99; the type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. The serotypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are: H1N1 caused "Spanish flu" in 1918 and "Swine flu" in 2009. H2N2 caused "Asian Flu". H3N2 caused "Hong Kong Flu". H5N1, "avian" or "bird flu". H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential. H1N2 is endemic in pigs. H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7. Influenza B virus is exclusively a human pathogen, is less common than influenza A; the only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal.
This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2–3 times lower than type A and is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype. As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is acquired at an early age. However, influenza B mutates enough; this reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range, ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, can cause severe illness and local epidemics. However, influenza C is less common than the other types and seems to cause mild disease in children; this is a genus, classified in 2016, the members of which were first isolated in 2011. This genus appears to be most related to Influenza C, from which it diverged several hundred years ago. There are at least two strains of this genus in extant; the main hosts appear to be cattle. The virion is pleomorphic. In general, the virus's morphology is ellipsoidal with particles 80 to 120 nm in diameter, or filamentous virions 80–120 nm in diameter and up to 20 µm long.
There are some 500 distinct spike-like surface projections of the envelope each projecting 10 to 14 nm from the surface with varying surface densities. The major glycoprotein is interposed irregularly by clusters of neuraminidase, with a ratio of HA to NA of about 4–5 to 1. Cholesterol-laden membranes with protruding glycoproteins enclose the nucleocapsids; the ribonuclear proteins are filamentous and fall in the range of 50 to 130 nm long and 9 to 15 nm in diameter. They have a helical symmetry. Viruses of this family contain 6 to 8 segments of linear negative-sense single stranded RNA; the total genome length is 12000–15000 nucleotides. The size of each segment is as follows: The Genome sequence has terminal repeated sequences. Terminal repeats at the 5'-end 12–13 nucleotides long. Nucleotide sequences of 3'-terminus identical. Terminal repeats at the 3'-end 9–11 nucleotides long. Encapsidated nucleic acid is genomic; each virion may contain defective interfering copies. In Influenza A PB1-F2 is produced from an alternative reading frame in PB1.
The M and NS genes produce 2 different genes via alternative splicing. The following applies for Influenza A viruses, although other influenza strains are similar in structure:The influenza A virus particle or virion is 80–120 nm in diameter producing both ellipsoidal and filamentous particles. Unusually for a virus, the influenza A genome is not a single piece of nucleic acid; the best-characterised of these viral proteins are hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, two large glycoproteins found on the outs
State Route 67 is a 47.107-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Alabama that connects the city of Decatur to U. S. Route 231 at Rainbow Crossing in Blount County; this highway serves as a connector between Gadsden. SR 67 begins at the entrance to the 3M plant along State Docks Road. Past this point, the road continues as a road servicing several important power plants in north Decatur. After a half-mile concurrency between The Beltline and State Docks Road with SR-20 and US-72 Alt.—both State Docks Road and The Beltline carry SR-67's name—the route turns south onto The Beltline. This junction is believed to be the northern terminus of the route; the mile-long stretch between here and SR 24 carries on the Corridor V name. It loses the name at the Parclo interchange with SR 24; the route continues south as The Beltline. It passes by a Martin's—a clothing chain known known as Wakefield's in Oxford, it continues east across a railroad bridge to US 31. The majority of this stretch is four-laned to six-laned.
It continues southeast to Priceville, where it passes by a Publix supermarket—the second one along the route—and continues to another strip of restaurants and gas stations, junctioning with I-65—where it loses The Beltline name and continuing to a FoodLand supermarket. About half of a mile the route loses two lanes and climbs up a hill and exits Priceville a few miles later; the route continues for about five miles to Somerville. It passes by a post office and continues onward to another part of Somerville—referred to by some as Pence—where it passes by a Jack's and junctions with SR 36. After this junction is mile marker 24; the route continues for about four miles to Brewer, just north of Eva. it continues onward through hilly terrain until it gains a lane southbound and climbs up another hill into Hulaco. It crosses into Cullman County, it junctions with SR 69 in Baileyton. It passes through hilly terrain to the Blount County line, it continues south and turns east again and junctions with US 231 directly above its US 231's junction with US 278.
This is SR 67's southern terminus. Over time, The Beltline has its own traffic problem and provided ample space for large businesses with interest in Decatur. Plans are underway to widen The Beltline from its current size of four lanes to six lanes to help move traffic along more smoothly. One of the businesses that has contributed to congestion is the Decatur Mall, the only mall in the Decatur metropolitan area. U. S. Roads portal United States portal
"Just Like Heaven" is a song by British alternative rock band the Cure. The group wrote most of the song during recording sessions in southern France in 1987; the lyrics were written by their frontman Robert Smith, who drew inspiration from a past trip to the sea shore with his future wife. Smith's memories of the trip formed the basis for the song's accompanying music video. Before Smith had completed the lyrics, an instrumental version of the song was used as the theme for the French television show Les Enfants du Rock. "Just Like Heaven" was the third single released from their 1987 album Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me. The song became the Cure's first American hit and reached number 40 on the Billboard charts in 1988, it has been covered by artists such as Dinosaur Jr. and Katie Melua. Smith has said. In order to develop material for Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Smith forced himself to write music for 15 days of each month. During this regimen, he developed the chords and melody which form the basis of "Just Like Heaven".
Structurally, Smith found what he had written was similar to the Only Ones's 1979 hit "Another Girl, Another Planet". When he brought an instrumental demo of the song to the album recording sessions in Southern France, Cure drummer Boris Williams increased the tempo and added an opening drum fill which inspired Smith to introduce each instrument singularly and in sequence; when the French TV show Les Enfants du Rock asked The Cure to provide a theme song, Smith offered the instrumental version. As he explained, "It meant the music would be familiar to millions of Europeans before it was released", he completed the lyrics when the group moved the sessions to Studio Miraval, located in Le Val, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The band completed the song and at the time Smith considered it to be the most obvious potential single from the songs the band had recorded during their two-week stay at Miraval. "Just Like Heaven" is written in the key of A major and consists of an A–E–Bm–D chord progression which repeats throughout the song, except during the chorus when the band plays an F♯m–G–D progression.
The song's central hook is formed from a descending guitar riff which appears between song verses and in parts of the bridge and the last verse. This guitar line contrasts with the "fuzzier mix" of the rhythm guitars. According to Smith, "The song is about hyperventilating—kissing and fainting to the floor." The lyrics were inspired by a trip with his then-girlfriend Mary Poole to Beachy Head in southern England. Smith said the opening line of the song refers to his childhood memories of mastering magic tricks, but added "on another, it's about a seduction trick, from much in my life". "Just Like Heaven" was the third single released from the band's Kiss Me Kiss Me Kiss Me album. Melody Maker's review of the single was undecided; the song was the Cure's eleventh top 40 hit in the UK, stayed on the charts there for five weeks during October and November 1987, peaking at number 29. In the United States, "Just Like Heaven" became the Cure's first top 40 hit when it reached number 40 on the Billboard Hot 100 for one week in January 1988.
Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic said "the stately'Just Like Heaven' is remarkable and helps make the album one of the group's best". Ned Raggett of AllMusic, wrote that the song was "instantly memorable, sparkling with rough energy it's a perfect showcase for Robert Smith's ear for wistful, romantic numbers, his main guitar line, a descending chiming melody, contrasts against the fuzzier mix of the rhythm guitars, while Simon Gallup's bass and Boris Williams' strong, immediate drums make for a great introduction to the track." Barry Walsh of Slant magazine said the Cure "...is at the top of its game on the stellar'Just Like Heaven'. Glistening descending guitar lines, Gallup's throbbing bass line, Williams' authoritative thumping frame a lovelorn Smith lyric, with the end result being one of the Cure's finest singles, one of the best pop singles of the late'80s."Although the singles "Lovesong" and "Friday I'm in Love" reached higher chart positions, "Just Like Heaven" was the band's American breakthrough, has been described as "in American terms, at least, the one Cure song everyone seems to know."
The song inspired the name of, was used in the 2005 film Just Like Heaven. In 2004 Rolling Stone magazine ranked it number 483 on their list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". In 2005 Entertainment Weekly ranked "Just Like Heaven" 25th on its list of "The 50 Greatest Love Songs", saying, "Turns out guys who wear black eyeliner can be happy." The following year the song placed at number 22 on VH1's poll "100 Greatest Songs of the 80s". Robert Smith said he considers "Just Like Heaven" to be one of the band's strongest works, called it "the best pop song the Cure have done". Several high-profile fans have expressed their appreciation of the song. Musician Ben Folds told Blender "everything about it -- the music -- is state of the art. It's as good. Anytime I hear it on the radio or a mix tape, I jump around like a freak." J Mascis said his band Dinosaur Jr.'s affection for the song inspired them to record a cover version, released in 1989. On 16 July 2006, "Just Like Heaven" was played as a wake-up call for the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on their flight STS-121 at the request of astronaut Piers Sellers' family.
Suarau Olayiwola Alani Bankole is a Nigerian Egba businessman and chieftain from Ogun State. He was the Chairman of West African Aluminum Products Plc, he holds the Yoruba aristocratic titles of the Oluwo of Iporo Ake and the Seriki Jagunmolu of Egbaland. He is an alumnus of the prestigious Baptist Boys' High School in Abeokuta, he is married to Atinuke Bankole, the Ekerin Iyalode of Egbaland, their son is Dimeji Bankole, a former Speaker of the House of Representatives. He is the founder of Freight Agencies Nigeria Ltd, the first freight company in West Africa; some of his protégés include, Chief Sanya Abiola Chairman CEO Altimax Metal Industries and several captains of industries, governors and house of representatives members. He was an Ogun State gubernatorial candidate on three separate occasions, he joined the National Republican Party in 1989, became a member of the All Nigeria Peoples Party. He became National Vice Chairman and acting National Chairman before leaving that party for the People's Democratic Party in 2000.
In 2004, he predicted a reorganization of Nigerian politics in which the ANPP, PDP, Alliance for Democracy would break apart and the remnants would regroup as two parties
Andrew Welsh Imbrie was an American contemporary classical music composer and pianist. Imbrie was born in New York on April 6, 1921, began his musical training as a pianist when he was 4. In 1937, he went to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger, he returned to the United States the next year to attend Princeton University where he studied with Roger Sessions, receiving his undergraduate degree in 1942. His senior thesis there, a string quartet, was recorded by the Juilliard Quartet. During World War II he served in the U. S. Army. Afterwards, he went to the University of California, where he received an M. A. in Music in 1947. Imbrie taught composition and analysis at Berkeley from 1949 until his retirement in 1991. In the summer of 1991 he was Composer-in-Residence at Tanglewood in Massachusetts. In addition to his principal teaching job at Berkeley, he served as a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, Brandeis University, Northwestern University, New York University, the University of Alabama, Harvard University, had a regular teaching post at the San Francisco Conservatory.
He died at his home in Berkeley, California at the age of 86. His notable students include Larry Austin, Richard Festinger, Alden Jenks, Frank La Rocca, Neil Rolnick, Allen Shearer, Tamar Diesendruck, Laura Schwendinger, Nils Frykdahl, Kurt Rohde, Hi Kyung Kim, Leslie Wildman and Carolyn Yarnell. Imbrie's style was influenced early by Béla Bartók, by Roger Sessions, his teacher at both Princeton and Berkeley. Imbrie preferred harmony, non-triadic, or if triadic, non-functional, a organized atonal, contrapuntal texture with attention to careful motivic development. Imbrie was attentive to melodic line and shape to make a free atonal language accessible. Imbrie's body of work spans many genres, his chief works are: Three Against Christmas Angle of Repose Dandelion Wine To a Traveler Sextet for Six Friends Drumtaps for chorus with orchestra Prometheus Bound for chorus with orchestra Adam for chorus with orchestra Requiem Three symphonies Eight concertos Songs for voice Sonatas for various instruments Chamber works for diverse instrumental ensembles Works for choral ensembles Five string quartets First Recordings of Two Naumburg Award Compositions.
Columbia Records, MS 6597 Violin ConcertoAndrew Imbrie. New York: Composers Recordings Inc. 1973. Rereleased, New World Records, 2007. Symphony No. 3 Serenade for flute and piano Sonata for cello and pianoNew Music for Virtuosos. New York: New World Records, 1977. Three SketchesAndrew Imbrie and Gunther Schuller. New York: New World Records, 1978. String Quartet No. 4New Music Series Vol. 3. Neuma Records, 1993 Short StoryCollage New Music. Boston: GM Recordings, 1989. PilgrimageAndrew Imbrie. Boston: GM Recordings, 1993. String Quartets 5 Impromptu for Violin and PianoMusic of Andrew Imbrie. New York: CRI, 1994. Symphony No. 3 Serenade for Flute and Piano Sonata for cello and pianoDream Sequence – Chamber Music of Andrew Imbrie. New York: New World Records, 1995. Dream Sequence Roethke Songs Three Piece Suite Campion Songs To a TravelerAndrew Imbrie, Requiem. New Rochelle, NY: Bridge Records, 2000. Requiem Piano Concerto No. 3Andrew Imbrie. Albany, NY: Albany Records, 2002. Spring Fever Chicago Bells Songs of Then and Now Ann P. Basart, Martin Brody: "Andrew Imbrie", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy Kennedy, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4 Imbrie's San Francisco Conservatory Of Music faculty page Collage page about Andrew Imbrie and his music Art of the States: Andrew Imbrie three works by the composer Kozinn, Allan.
"Andrew Imbrie, 86, Composer and Teacher, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-05-17. Andrew Imbrie interview, April 26, 1986
Oakland Municipal Garage and Repair Shop was located in Oakland, California, US, a short distance from the city hall. The plant was under the supervision of the Street Department of the City of Oakland, it was established by the city in 1913 for the repair of all municipal automobiles. It was said to be the most economically operated in the United States when comparison was made with corresponding costs of cars operated by large public service corporations, mercantile establishments, garages operated by other municipalities. In 1913, the city of Oakland found that its automobile service called for attention, lest the operating cost should run beyond all fair proportions. To this end, with the cooperation of the Commissioner of Streets, the municipal garage was established in March, 1913, where every city department car could be brought under systematic control and supervision; the only exceptions were the police and the fire department machines, which were required to be handled within those departments.
For the first year of operation, ended July 1, 1914, the average cost per mile was $0.075, showing a reduction of $0.011 per mile for the first half of the second year's work. This comparison was in line with data collected. City machines were under individual department control. For the six months ended December 31, 1914, the cost per mile for each city machine was $0.064, as compared with $0.082 and $0.094 by the two largest private users of automobiles. Further comparisons showed that city cars had operated at an average cost of $40 per month against $60 to $65 a month in private business, where the number of cars in service was in fair ratio to those of the municipality. Machine shops and all accessories for the entire care of the city machines was installed; the service rendered included not only washing, oiling and tire supply and ordinary repairing, but the overhauling or reconstruction of machines, after they had been run 10,000 miles or more. Repainting, body-building and reupholstering were done by the city garage force.
The municipal garage and repair shops included a complete machine-shop, blacksmith-shop, paint-shop, two garages which provided storage for cars belonging to the following city departments: Street, Park, Harbor, Auditors, Electrical and Public affairs. The garage and repair shops maintained and repaired all these cars as well as the motorized fire apparatus and battalion chiefs' cars, two patrol wagons and all the cars operated by the Police Department. A number of different pieces of apparatus were constructed in the municipal shop, these including fire apparatus, oil spreaders, trucks; the department constructed a number of oil spreaders for spreading hot oil for use in new streets and in repair work. The shops constructed a combination hose and chemical truck, used in connection with the high pressure fire protection system. Steam engine fire trucks were motorized by installing front drive tractors, as well as several ladder trucks. At a cost of about $800 each, a number of Fords were equipped with Ralston truck attachment and specially designed four-yard dump bodies, which were employed in picking up the contents of the street sweepers' cans and hauling them to the dump.
The machine shop has built a number of trucks for the sewer repair crews, using second hand Cadillac chassis and installing a small wagon bed in the rear of the seat, capable of carrying about 1,500 lbs. of material such as sewer pipe, brick and other tools. Two patrol wagons were built, using Cadillac chassis, the bodies being made at the municipal shop and all necessary changes to the chassis, the cost being $1,800 each; these wagons were used for police ambulance calls. A stock room was operated in connection with the machine shop, it carried parts for all of the makes of cars in the various city departments. Gasoline for operating the automotive vehicles was bought in the open market and stored in two underground tanks with a combined capacity of 560 gallons. Lubricating oil was stored in two in each garage. There were three hostlers at the municipal shops whose duties consist of seeing that the automobiles were properly supplied with gasoline and oil, were washed when necessary, the intervals between washings averaging about three months.
In case a car was wanted at the city hall in a hurry by a department head, it was delivered by one of the hostlers. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: A. H. Grant & H. S. Buttenheim's "The American City" This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chilton Company's "Operation & Maintenance"