Osage Nation

The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.

The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.

Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.

The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.

They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they


Beatrijs is a poem written in last quarter of 14th century by Diederic van Assenede, is an original Dutch poem about the legend of a nun, who deserted her convent for the love of a man, lives with him for seven years and has two children. When their money is low he deserts her and she becomes a prostitute to support her children for another seven years. One day she is near her old convent, so she inquires discreetly what has become of the nun Beatrijs, learns that people think Beatrijs is still at the convent. One night a voice urges her to return to the convent, when she returns, Beatrijs learns that Mary has been acting in her role at the convent, she can return without anyone knowing of her absence; the Dutch poem was created out of a legend recorded in Latin, Dialogus Miraculorum and Libri Octo Miraculorum written by Caesarius von Heisterbach. Although Hilka claims that Caesarius von Heisterbach was not the true author of the latter text, as Duinhoven points out, he was the author of record during the Middle Ages.

The subject matter is of Dutch origin during his travels in the Netherlands. However the Dutch version was not a word-for-word translation; the tale is translated into English, Frisian, German, Old Norse and Arabic. In the 20th century several modern adaptations have been produced: Poem: Beatrijs by Dutch poet P. C. Boutens Play: Ik dien by Herman Teirlinck Opera libretto: Beatrijs by Felix Rutten Dutch folklore Duinhoven, A. M. De geschiedenis van Beatrijs. Utrecht: HES, 1989. Die Wundergeschichten des Caesarius von Heisterbach." Ed. An Alfons Hilka. Gesellschaft für rheinische Geschichtskunde, Publikationen 43, 1933. Meijer, Reinder. Literature of the Low Countries: A Short History of Dutch Literature in the Netherlands and Belgium. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. 1971, page 20-21. Beatrijs at the Digital Library for Dutch Literature


Perak is a state of Malaysia on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Perak has land borders with the Malaysian states of Kedah to the north, Penang to the northwest and Pahang to the east, Selangor to the south. Thailand's Yala and Narathiwat provinces both lie to the northeast. Perak's capital city, was known for its tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped affecting the state's economy; the royal capital remains Kuala Kangsar. As of 2018, the state's population was 2,500,000. Perak has an equatorial climate; the state's mountain ranges belong to the Titiwangsa Range, part of the larger Tenasserim Range connecting Thailand and Malaysia. Perak's Mount Korbu is the highest point of the range; the discovery of an ancient skeleton in Perak supplied missing information on the migration of Homo sapiens from mainland Asia through Southeast Asia to the Australian continent. Known as Perak Man, the skeleton is dated at around 10,000 years old. An early Hindu or Buddhist kingdom, followed by several other minor kingdoms, existed before the arrival of Islam.

By 1528, a Muslim sultanate began to emerge in Perak, out of the remnants of the Malaccan Sultanate. Although able to resist Siamese occupation for more than two hundred years, the Sultanate was controlled by the Sumatra-based Aceh Sultanate; this was the case after the Aceh lineage took over the royal succession. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company, the VOC's increasing conflicts with Aceh, Perak began to distance itself from Acehnese control; the presence of the English East India Company in the nearby Straits Settlements of Penang provided additional protection for the state, with further Siamese attempts to conquer Perak thwarted by British expeditionary forces. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed to prevent further conflict between the British and the Dutch, it enabled the British to expand their control in the Malay Peninsula without interference from other foreign powers. The 1874 Pangkor Treaty provided for direct British intervention, with Perak appointing a British Resident.

Following Perak's subsequent absorption into the Federated Malay States, the British reformed administration of the sultanate through a new style of government promoting a market-driven economy and maintaining law and order while combatting the slavery practised across Perak at the time. The three-year Japanese occupation in World War II halted further progress. After the war, Perak became part of the temporary Malayan Union, before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya, it gained full independence through the Federation, which subsequently became Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Perak is ethnically and linguistically diverse; the state is known for several traditional dances: bubu and labu sayong, the latter name referring to Perak's unique traditional pottery. The head of state is the Sultan of Perak, the head of government is the Menteri Besar. Government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion, other religions may be practised freely.

Malay and English are recognised as the official languages of Perak. The economy is based on services and manufacturing. There are many theories about the origin of the name Perak. Although not used until after 1529, the most popular etymology is "silver"; this is associated with tin mining from the state's large mineral deposits, reflecting the Perak's position as one of the world's largest sources of tin. The first Islamic kingdom established in the state was of the lineage of the Sultanate of Malacca; some local historians have suggested that Perak was named after Tun Perak. In maps prior to 1561, the area is marked as Perat. Other historians believe that the name Perak derives from the Malay phrase "kilatan ikan dalam air", which looks like silver. Perak has been translated into Arabic as دار الرضوان, "abode of grace". Among the prehistoric sites in Malaysia where artefacts from the Middle Palaeolithic era have been found are Bukit Bunuh, Bukit Gua Harimau, Bukit Jawa, Bukit Kepala Gajah, Kota Tampan in the Lenggong Archaeological Heritage Valley.

Of these, Bukit Bunuh and Kota Tampan are ancient lakeside sites, the geology of Bukit Bunuh showing evidence of meteoric impact. The 10,000-year-old skeleton known as Perak Man was found inside the Bukit Gunung Runtuh cave at Bukit Kepala Gajah. Ancient tools discovered in the area of Kota Tampan, including anvils, cores and hammerstones, provide information on the migrations of Homo sapiens. Other important Neolithic sites in the country include Bukit Gua Harimau, Gua Badak, Gua Pondok, Padang Rengas, containing evidence of human presence in the Mesolithic Hoabinhian era. In 1959, a British artillery officer stationed at an inland army base during the Malayan Emergency discovered Gua Tambun, identified by archaeologists as the largest rock art site in the Malay Peninsula. Most of the paintings are located high at an elevation of 6 -- 10 metres. Seashells and coral fragments scattered along the cave floor are evidence that the area was once underwater; the significant numbers of statues of Hindu deities and of the Buddha found in Bidor, Kuala Selensing and Pengkalan Pegoh indicate that, before the arrival of Islam, the inhabitants of Perak were Hindu or Buddhist.

The influence of Indian culture and beliefs on society and values in the Malay Peninsula from early times is believed to have culminated in t