Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Honshu in Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with more than 20 million inhabitants. Osaka was traditionally considered Japan's economic hub. By the Kofun period it had developed into an important regional port, in the 7th and 8th centuries it served as the imperial capital. Osaka became known as a center of Japanese culture. Following the Meiji Restoration, Osaka expanded in size and underwent rapid industrialization. In 1889, Osaka was established as a municipality. Today, Osaka is a major financial center of Japan, it is home to the Osaka Securities Exchange as well as the multinational electronics corporations Panasonic and Sharp. Famous landmarks in Osaka include Osaka Castle - which played a pivotal role in the Siege of Osaka and was featured in the 1980 American television mini-series Shogun - and Shitennō-ji - the oldest Buddhist temple in Japan.

Ōsaka means "large hill" or "large slope". It is unclear when this name gained prominence over Naniwa, but the oldest written evidence for the name dates back to 1496; the name is written 大阪 in kanji, but it was written 大坂 until 1870, when the partisans for the Meiji Restoration changed it to avoid the second kanji being misinterpreted as 士反, meaning "samurai rebellion". The older kanji is still in limited use in historical contexts, but in Japanese the kanji 阪—pronounced han when standing alone—refers to Osaka City or Osaka Prefecture; some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC. It is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsula with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state.

The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital. In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan; the city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. Gallery In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace.

Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple. Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration.

Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century. Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse". Gallery The modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 squ

Steve Bartelstein

Steve Bartelstein is a baseball umpire and former American television journalist. He was a news anchor in New York City, first at WABC-TV, a flagship station of the ABC television network, WCBS-TV, a flagship station of CBS and in Chicago, Illinois at WBBM-TV, a television station owned and operated by the television network CBS, he was born in Evanston and graduated from Niles East High School, located in Skokie, Illinois. He attended the University of Evansville for two years, he is of Jewish descent. He began his broadcasting career at age nineteen, he worked in North Carolina. Following a period working at CNN in Atlanta, Georgia, he joined WABC-TV in New York City. On March 14, 2007, the Daily News reported that Bartelstein had been "fired" from WABC-TV after "sleeping through a newsbreak he was to anchor"; the Daily News article reported that WABC-TV had suspended him several times for persistent tardiness. On November 7, 2007, Mediaweek reported that WCBS-TV had announced that it had hired Bartelstein as a weekend news anchor.

The station soon began airing promotional announcements featuring him and making reference to an upcoming feature story about his cancer illness. On September 28, 2007, New York Post columnist Cindy Adams had reported that Bartelstein was being treated for testicular cancer. On March 18, 2009, WCBS-TV announced. Bartelstein felt unappreciated with his job. On August 12, 2010, it was announced that he would be joining WBBM-TV in Chicago as a morning-news anchor On July 3, 2011, it was announced that he left WBBM after only 10 months, putting an end to his broadcasting career. Bartelstein started up his new career as an baseball umpire by going into umpire school. Despite his dreams of joining into the Major Leagues, he went on to umpiring teams in the Pecos League for the 2013 and 2014 seasons

Smokers Die Younger

Smokers Die Younger are a four-piece rock band from Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Their debut album opens with hardcore grunge rock and closes with avant-garde art-rock, taking in dub, country music and rock and roll. Smokers Die Younger are part of the underground live music scene of Sheffield, which has produced such luminaries as Arctic Monkeys and the Makers, Little Man Tate, Monkey Swallows the Universe, The Long Blondes, they featured in a television documentary about music in Sheffield aired as Rockbyen Sheffield on Danish channel DR2 and as an episode of the Musikbyrån series on Swedish channel SVT in summer 2007. Having played at the Northern Sounds festival in France, they appeared on fashion mogul Karl Lagerfeld's compilation CD Les Musiques Que J'aime, published by Vogue magazine at the end of 2006. Earlier in their musical careers, Golf had helped to found the electro-noise outfit that became 65daysofstatic and Trout had been instrumental in many cult British bands including A.

C. Temple, Coping Saw, Kilgore Trout and Spoonfed Hybrid. James Goldthorpe: vocals, guitars Rhys Edwards: keyboards, vocals Amy Dutronc: Autoharp, vocals Ian Turley: bass Neil Piper: drums Katherine Jackson: violinFounding member, bass player Graham Booth, left the band in late 2007. Founding member and drummer Chris Trout left the band in 2009. SDY. 7" vinyl. Recordings. 6 December 2004 Five-O / Kermit Song. 7" vinyl. Thee Sheffield Phonographic Corporation. 18 July 2005 I Spy Dry Fear. Download-only single. Thee Sheffield Phonographic Corporation. 20 March 2006 X Wants The Meat. CD album. Recordings / Thee Sheffield Phonographic Corporation. 27 March 2006 Sketch Pads. 7" vinyl. Thee Sheffield Phonographic Corporation. 21 July 2008 Smokers Die Younger. Download & CD album. 21 September 2009 Official band site Myspace band site