Osaka Loop Line
The Osaka Loop Line is a railway loop line in Japan operated by the West Japan Railway Company. It encircles central Osaka. Part of a second, proposed outer second loop line, the Osaka Higashi Line, from Hanaten to Kyuhoji was opened on March 15, 2008, the line from Shigino to Shin-Ōsaka opened in March 2019; this entry covers the original central loop line. This loop line consists of two tracks around the heart of metropolitan Osaka. Most trains consist of 8 carriages, with distinctive orange colour with white JR graphics on the front and sides; the train schedule varies, but on average, two trains leave Tennōji Station and Ōsaka Station every seven minutes, in opposite directions. On this line, JR West operates several types of trains; the line serves as a link between Ōsaka Station in northern Osaka, Tennōji in southern central Osaka. Some Limited Express trains linking north and south of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto area use the line as a bypass between the Tōkaidō Main Line in the north and the Hanwa Line in the south.
Traffic is heavier in the eastern half, Osaka - Kyōbashi - Tennōji, than in the western half via Nishi-Kujō. The loop shaped Osaka Loop Line is unable to use the'up' and'down' train direction convention applied in Japanese railways, e.g. trains traveling to Tokyo are usually'up' trains and vice versa. Instead, the words "outer circle" and the "inner circle" are used to refer to the direction; the outer is clockwise, the inner counterclockwise. If rules, such as the registration of the line at Ministry of Land and Transport apply, the inner loop is down. Local trains are operated all day; some operate over the complete loop, while some serve the eastern half between Osaka and Tennōji via Kyōbashi. Eight-car EMUs of 201 series and 323 series are used. Trains of the Sakurajima Line are now operated through to the loop line to/from Kyōbashi and Tennoji. Eight-car 201 series and 323 series EMUs are used. Through trains to the Kansai Main Line began operated in 1973. "Yamatoji Rapid" and "Regional Rapid" trains originate at Tennōji on the loop, passing the loop as "inner" via Osaka, after stopping at Tennōji after a complete circuit, exit the loop onto the Kansai Main Line and terminate at Kamo, Nara or Ōji.
In the loop, Yamatoji Rapids pass some stations. For "Yamatoji Rapid", 6 or 8-car 221 series EMUs are used, while 8-car 103 series of light green livery and 6 or 8-car 221 series are for "Regional Rapid". Trains to the Hanwa Line, "Kansai Airport Rapid" for Kansai Airport and Kishūji Rapid for Wakayama originate at either Tennoji or Kyobashi, together with other types of rapid trains, operate on the inner loop via Osaka, pausing at Tennoji and exiting from the loop; this pattern commenced in 1989, but increased in 1994 on the opening of Kansai Airport. 8-car 223 series and 225 series EMUs in 4+4 formations are used for Kansai Airport and Kishūji rapids. 113 series 4-car units were used for rapids of Shin-Ōsaka - Kii-Tanabe in early morning and late night. They were withdrawn in 2010. Charged Limited Expresses such as Haruka for Kansai International Airport, south bound Kuroshio on the Hanwa Line and Kisei Main Line heading for the scenic southern Wakayama Prefecture utilise the Osaka Loop Line to bypass the Tōkaidō Main Line and reach the Hanwa Line.
On the loop, aside from Tennōji, limited numbers of trains stop only at Nishi-Kujō. Between the Tōkaidō Main Line and the Osaka Loop Line, trains utilse the "Umeda freight line" which crosses west of Ōsaka Station, not stopping at Osaka because no passenger facilities are installed on the freight line, until it merges the main line at Shin-Ōsaka; this route was introduced in 1989 on the completion of a bypass track from the Hanwa Line to platforms of the Kansai Main Line at Tennōji. Until no through operations were possible from the Hanwa Line. 281 series EMUs are used for Haruka, 283 series EMUs, 287 series EMUs and 289 series EMUs for Kuroshio. After the abandonment of the Naniwa freight terminal, freight trains on the line operate only between Fukushima and Nishikujō, from the "Umeda Freight Line" to Ajikawaguchi on the Sakurajima Line. Listed counterclockwise: All stations are in the city of Osaka, Osaka Prefecture. TrainsLoop: Osaka Loop Line local trains Yumesaki: JR Yumesaki Line through local trains Reg R: Regional Rapid Service Yamatoji R: Yamatoji Rapid Service Dir R: Direct Rapid Service BR: B Rapid Service Kishuji R: Kishuji Rapid Service Kansai Apt.
R: Kansai Airport Rapid Service R: Rapid Service StationsS: Trains stop. Outer: Outer track trains stop. Number: Track numbers to arrive at and depart from. |, ↑: Trains pass. 201 series 323 series The first of a fleet of 21 new 323 series eight-car EMU trains were introduced from 24 December 2016, scheduled to replace the fleet of 23 103 and 201 series trains by 2018. 221 series 223 series 225 series 281 series 283 series 287 series 289 series Locomotives seen hauling freight trains include the M250 series, EF65, EF66, EF81, EF210 and DE10. 101 series 103 series 113 series 381 series 72 series DD51 A special discount rate is applied for travels within the Os
Azuchi Castle was one of the primary castles of Oda Nobunaga. It was built on the shores of Lake Biwa, in Ōmi Province. Nobunaga intentionally built it close enough to Kyoto that he could watch over and guard the approaches to the capital, being outside the city, his fortress would be immune to the fires and conflicts that consumed the capital; this location was strategically advantageous in managing the communications and transportation routes between his greatest foes - the Uesugi clan to the north, the Takeda clan in the east, the Mōri clan to the west. Niwa Nagahide had responsibility for constructing the castle, which began in 1576 and completed in 1579. Unlike earlier castles and fortresses, Azuchi was not intended to be a military structure alone, cold and foreboding. Nobunaga intended it as a mansion which would impress and intimidate his rivals not only with its defenses, but with its lavish apartments and decorations, flourishing town, religious life; the keep, called tenshu, rather than being the center of the castle's defences, was a seven-story building containing audience halls, private chambers, a treasury, as though it were a royal palace.
All seven storeys were decorated by Kanō Eitoku. In addition to being one of the first Japanese castles with a tower keep, Azuchi was unique in that its uppermost story was octagonal. In addition, the facade of Azuchi, unlike the solid white or black of other castles, was colorfully decorated with tigers and dragons. There were five main militaristic features of Azuchi Castle that differentiated it from earlier castle designs. Firstly, it was a massive structure, with the walls of the castle ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 meters in thickness. The second feature of Azuchi Castle is the predominant use of stone; the walls were constructed from huge granite stones fitted together without the use of mortar. A third innovation of the Azuchi Castle was donjon; the tower allowed for increased visibility for the use of guns against an opposing force. Builder’s plans for the castle show the donjon to be 40 meters, with seven levels. Fourthly, Azuchi Castle had irregularly formed inner citadels; these inner citadels gave defenders ample defensive positions against intruders.
Nobunaga chose Azuchi-yama for the location of Azuchi Castle, which rises 100 meters above Lake Biwa. The site was strategically placed at the intersection of three highways converging on Kyoto from the east. Nobunaga desired a full castle town, built well-defended homes for his generals, a Jōdo-shū Buddhist temple called Jōgon-in, a number of homes for commoners a short distance away on the shore of the lake, he had trouble convincing people to move into these homes at first, however. In the summer of 1577, he issued a municipal charter, guaranteeing residents immunity from taxes, building or transport levies, moratoria, forced all travelers on the Nakasendō highway to stop in the town overnight for lodging, thus bringing business to his town's innkeepers. By 1582, the town's inhabitants numbered 5,000. In addition to welcoming many of Nobunaga's powerful political guests, such as Tokugawa Ieyasu and Niwa Nagahide, Azuchi castle hosted an event in 1579 which has come to be known as the Azuchi religious debate, taking place between leaders of the Nichiren and Jōdo-shū sects of Buddhism.
In the summer of 1582, just after Nobunaga's death at Honnō-ji, the castle was taken over by the forces of Akechi Mitsuhide, Nobunaga's betrayer. The castle was set aflame a week or so with some accounts claiming this might have been the work of looting townspeople, or of one of Nobunaga's sons; the Azuchi-Momoyama Period of Japanese history takes its name, in part, from this castle. In 1976, the Japanese architectural historian Naitō Akira published what he believed to be a conclusive summary of the features of Azuchi Castle, he concluded. An atrium rose from the basement level to the fourth floor ceiling influenced by the Jesuits, but with a stupa at the atrium floor center. However, the external design of Azuchi Castle is still debated, another Japanese Architectural Historian, Miyakami Shigetaka, has accused Professor Naitō Akira of failing to corroborate enough documentation to come to the conclusion he did. All that remains of the castle today is the stone base. However, an approximate reproduction of Azuchi, based on illustrations and historical descriptions, stands in Ise Sengoku Village, a samurai theme park near Ise.
In addition, a full-scale replica of the top floors of the donjon is on display at the Nobunaga no Yakata Museum near the original castle ruins. List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments Golden Tea Room Elison and Smith, Bardwell L.. "Warlords, Artist, & Commoners." Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. Erdmann, Mark Karl. "Azuchi Castle: Architectural Innovation and Political Legitimacy in Sixteenth-Century Japan". Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences. Turnbull, Stephen. "Japanese Castles 1540-1640." Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 65–68. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Nobunaga no Yakata Museum Azuchi Castle NOBUNAKAOU reporter Photos and models of Azuchi castle
Toyotomi Hideyori was the son and designated successor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the general who first united all of Japan. His mother, Yodo-dono, was the niece of Oda Nobunaga; when Hideyoshi died in 1598, the five regents he had appointed to rule in Hideyori's place began jockeying amongst themselves for power. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized control in 1600, after his victory over the others at the Battle of Sekigahara. Hideyori's arranged marriage to Senhime, the seven-year-old granddaughter of Ieyasu, was designed to mitigate Toyotomi clan dissension and plotting. In this period, the eight-year-old boy practiced calligraphy with phrases wishing for peace throughout the world. However, Ieyasu continued to view the young Hideyori as a potential threat. Tokugawa forces attacked Hideyori in the Siege of Osaka in the winter of 1614; the attack failed, but Hideyori was induced to sign a truce and dismantle the defenses of his stronghold at Osaka Castle. In April 1615, Ieyasu received word that Toyotomi Hideyori was gathering more troops than in the previous November, that he was trying to stop the filling of the moat of Osaka Castle.
Toyotomi forces began to attack contingents of the shōgun's forces near Osaka. On June 5, 1615, as Toyotomi's forces began to lose the battle, a smaller force led directly by Hideyori sallied forth from Osaka Castle too late, was chased right back into the castle by the advancing enemies. There was no time to set up a proper defense of the castle, it was soon set ablaze and pummeled by artillery fire. Hideyori and his mother committed seppuku, the final major uprising against Tokugawa rule for another 250 or so years was put to an end, his widow remarried but became a Buddhist nun. According to James Murdoch's A History of Japan During The Century of Early Foreign Discourse, based upon the works of many Japanese sources as well as based on the writings of the Jesuits, their annual letters, the letters of Will Adams and the diaries of Adams' Dutch comrades, the events of Hideyori's death and the final fall of Osaka Castle were as such – Sanada Yukimura had been tactician of the climactic battle outside the gates of Osaka.
Recognizing that they had a serious numerical disadvantage, they decided to attempt a tactic of inducing surprise and confusion in the Tokugawa camp. This was to be effected by first, Osaka captain Akashi Morishige getting behind the Tokugawa van, which would be taken with Akashi's surprise attack, fall on Akashi, allowing Sanada with his troops and Mōri Katsunaga, in charge of the Osaka rōnin, to fall into the Tokugawa front; when the confusion was to be at its height, Hideyori would have marched out of Osaka castle with his home troops and would in theory be the final blow to the Tokugawas. What happened, according to Murdoch, was that Akashi was not able to get behind the Tokugawa troops, having been discovered and engaged before he emerged from the lanes; the plans fell apart as Mōri's rōnin eager to fight, began shooting at the Tokugawa ranks, not waiting for Sanada to command them to do so. Sanada at once told the rōnin to stop but they only doubled their efforts. Mori Katsunaga, deciding to take advantage of his rōnin's eagerness decided to launch them forward nevertheless.
Upon this, Sanada realized in order to keep any structure of his original plan, he too, would need to engage alongside the rōnin. He decided to launch himself alongside Katsunaga's force, straight into the Tokugawas, while dispatching a messenger to Hideyori to march out at that moment instead of a bit further on as had been decided in the plan. Hideyori began moving with his troops to leave Osaka. Meanwhile, the Osaka troops had been doing quite well in spite of the numerical disadvantage, it has been said, in Murdoch's book, as he goes to show in an extract from a missionaries letter regarding the event that the Osaka assault was quite successful and drove the Tokugawa back quite promptly. The plan of creating Tokugawa confusion worked and according to the Jesuits, Ieyasu himself, serving as the ultimate reinforcement to the center force, had told his men to kill him if victory seemed for nigh. Not only did the Jesuits write this, but, in another account, Murdoch states that Ieyasu had at least for some time had designs of seppuku because victory seemed to be escaping him.
According to Siebold, at this critical moment, as Hideyori was leaving Osaka to enter the fray, Ieyasu sent forth into Osaka the son of Osaka captain Ōno Harunaga, a hostage to the Tokugawa. Ono Harunaga's son entered the castle and dispatched a letter from Tokugawa to his father; the letter said "Do not let Hideyori leave the castle. In the castle is a conspiracy and as soon as Hideyori leaves it he will be attacked from the rear." It is according to Siebold, that Hideyori's portion of the plan miscarried. He was just about to leave when he was brought word of its contents, at this point, stalled in entering the fray. Despite the ferocity and initial victories of the Osaka troops, the numerical advantage of the Tokugawa forces proved too much. According to the Nihon Senshi: "Hideyori, when he received intelligence of the defeat of his rōnin, said, "Death is what I have been ready to meet for long", was about to sally from the castle in order to fight his last battle when he was stopped by Hayami, one of his seven captains, who urged that a commander-in-chief should not expose his person among the promiscuous dead.
Let Hideyori de
Ikkō-ikki were rebellious or autonomous groups of people that were formed in several regions of Japan in 15th-16th centuries. Consisting of priests, peasants and local lords who followed the sect, they sometimes associated with non-followers of the sect, they were at first organized to only a small degree. Rennyo's attitude to the Ikkō-ikki was, however ambivalent and pragmatic. Whilst he may have used the religious fervour of the Ikkō-ikki in the defence of his temple settlements, he was careful to distance himself from the wider social rebellion of the Ikkō movement as a whole, from offensive violence in particular. According to Sansom, "The Ikko sect of Nenbutsu, or Buddha-calling... is a branch of the worship of Amida developed from the teaching of Shinran into an aggressive doctrine of salvation by faith." In the 13th century, the jizamurai, a new class of small landowners, "formed leagues for mutual defence", since they came from "good warrior families, long established in their own districts, they were determined to protect their interests, both economic and social, against newcomers", according to Sansom The Shirahata-Ikki, "White Flag Uprising", Mikazuki-Ikki, "Crescent Uprising", were examples of the numerous risings against the Ashikaga shogunate.
An uprising involving an entire province was called a Kuni-Ikki. Uprisings took place in 1351, 1353, 1369, 1377, 1384–1386, 1366–1369; the risings in the 15th century, Tsuchi-Ikki or Do-Ikki, were better organized "and the peasants appear to have played a more prominent part". At the conclusion of the Ōnin War, in 1477, "many of the members of the numerous ikki" occupied the monasteries and shrines, "would ring the warning bells day and night, hoping to terrify the rich citizens", according to Sansom; the Ikkō-ikki were, at first and disorganized followers of Rennyo's teachings. His missionary work, his appointment to the position of abbot of the Kyoto Hongan-ji, was in 1457, allowed him to "express in words and deeds" his unorthodox views. In 1465, Rennyo was forced to flee Kyoto, established a new Hongan-ji branch temple, Yoshizaki-gobō, in Echizen Province in 1471, it was at this temple that he began to attract a significant following among farmers. About 1486 brought the first violent uprising, the first major organized action on the part of the Ikkō-ikki.
They overthrew the governor of Kaga Province, took control of it for themselves. The Ikko-ikki fought Asakura Norikage in the Battle of Kuzuryūgawa of 1506 and defeated Nagao Tamekage in the 1536 Battle of Sendanno, they fought Asakura Norikage again in the 1555 Battle of Daishoji-omote. Rennyo was a taught pacifism, he advocated self-defense only as a guard against the tumultuous times in which he lived. Daimyō, samurai warlords, fought one another for territory nearly across the entire country. Rennyo thus saw to it that the temples of his sect were defended from attackers. Though it was his charismatic leadership and populist teachings that inspired the fervor which powered the Ikkō-ikki uprisings, he never advocated or supported them; the uprisings continued past Rennyo's death in 1499, the sub-sect of Jōdo Shinshū that he had founded spread as well. They established themselves in fortresses at Ishiyama Hongan-ji, just outside Osaka, in Nagashima, on the borders of Owari and Ise Provinces and in a series of temples in Mikawa Province as well.
Towards the end of the 16th century, their growing numbers and strength caught the attention and concern of the great samurai leaders of the time. Tokugawa Ieyasu worried that sōhei of Mikawa Province would seize the province. In 1564, his forces, with the help of Jōdo-shū sōhei, defeated the Mikawa Ikkō-ikki in the Battle of Azukizaka; the ikki attracted the ire of the likes of Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga due to the economic and political threat they posed, more so than as a result of their military might. The Ishiyama Hongan-ji and other strongholds of the ikki lay across major trade routes and occupied the same areas that Nobunaga saw as his primary territorial objectives. Nearly every road to the capital from this western part of the country was controlled by the ikki or their allies, the populist roots of the ikki movement gave them significant economic power as well. Nobunaga in particular sought the destruction of the Ikkō-ikki for these reasons, because they allied themselves with nearly every one of his major enemies or rivals.
Ashikaga Yoshiaki was once supported in his claim to become Shōgun by Nobunaga, but turned to the ikki when their relationship soured. The ikki had powerful allies in the Mōri, Asakura clans. In the Asakura stronghold of Echizen province, today's Fukui-prefecture, Nobunaga ordered his generals to kill the people in Ajimano village in August 1575 as noted in The Chronicle of Lord Nobunaga; the Ishiyama Hongan-ji and Nagashima fortresses were besieged several times by the forces of Oda Nobunaga. After several failed attempts at seizing each emplacement, he succeeded. In the 1580s, the last of the Ikkō-ikki courted Toyotomi Hideyoshi, fought alongside his forces against warrior monks of other sects; the Ikkō-ikki bands of the 16th century, due to their origins as countryside mobs, used quite varied armor and armament. Many wore the more traditional mo
Toho Co. Ltd. is a Japanese film, theater production, distribution company. It has its headquarters in Yūrakuchō, Tokyo, is one of the core companies of the Hankyu Hanshin Toho Group. Outside Japan, it is best known as the producer and distributor of many kaiju and tokusatsu films, the Chouseishin tokusatsu superhero television franchise, the films of Akira Kurosawa, the anime films of Studio Ghibli and TMS Entertainment. Other famous directors, including Yasujirō Ozu, Kenji Mizoguchi, Masaki Kobayashi, Mikio Naruse directed films for Toho. Toho's most famous creation is Godzilla, featured in 33 of the company's films. Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah and Mechagodzilla are described as Toho's Big Five because of the monsters' numerous appearances in all three eras of the franchise, as well as spin-offs. Toho has been involved in the production of numerous anime titles, its subdivisions are Toho-Towa Distribution, Toho Pictures Incorporated, Toho International Company Limited, Toho E. B. Company Limited, Toho Music Corporation & Toho Costume Company Limited.
The company is the largest shareholder of Fuji Media Holdings Inc. Toho is a member of the Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan, is one of Japan's Big Four film studios. Toho was created by the founder of Hankyu Railway, Ichizō Kobayashi, in 1932 as the Tokyo-Takarazuka Theater Company, it managed much of the kabuki in Tokyo and, among other properties, the Tokyo Takarazuka Theater and the Imperial Garden Theater in Tokyo. Toho and Shochiku competed with the influx of Hollywood films and boosted the film industry by focusing on new directors of the likes of Akira Kurosawa, Ichikawa Kon, Kinoshita Keisuke and Shindo Kaneto. After several successful film exports to the United States during the 1950s through Henry G. Saperstein, Toho took over the La Brea Theatre in Los Angeles to show its own films without the need to sell them to a distributor, it was known as the Toho Theatre from the late 1960s until the 1970s. Toho had a theater in San Francisco and opened a theater in New York City in 1963.
The Shintoho Company, which existed until 1961, was named New Toho because it broke off from the original company. Toho has contributed to the production of some American films, including Sam Raimi's 1998 film, A Simple Plan. Ike! Godman Warrior Of Love: Rainbowman Zone Fighter Ike! Greenman Warrior Of Light: Diamond Eye Flying Saucer War Bankid Megaloman Electronic Brain Police Cybercop Seven Stars Fighting God Guyferd Stickin' Around Godzilla Island Chouseishin Gransazer Genseishin Justirisers Chousei Kantai Sazer-X Kawaii! Jenny Belle and Sebastian Igano Kabamaru Touch Kimagure Orange Road Midori Days Psycho-Pass Yowamushi Pedal Haikyū!! Blood Blockade Battlefront My Hero Academia Three Leaves, Three Colors FLCL Progressive FLCL Alternative Dr. Stone Cliff HangerIn more recent years and for a period, they have produced video games. One of their first video game was the 1990 NES game titled Circus Caper, they followed with a series of games based on Godzilla and a 1992 game called Serizawa Nobuo no Birdy Try.
It published games such as Super Aleste. They worked with Bandai on Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, released in Japan in 1988 and in the United States in 1989. Toho's headquarters, the Toho Hibiya Building, are in Yūrakuchō, Tokyo; the company moved into its current headquarters in April 2005. TohoScope Tomisaburo Wakayama Tsuburaya Productions Toho Studios Daiei Film Nikkatsu Toei Company Studio Ponoc OLM, Inc. Studio Ghibli Telecom Animation Film Shochiku Shintoho Kadokawa Pictures Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men: The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda, Peter H. Brothers; the Toho Studios Story: A History and Complete Filmography, Stuart Galbraith IV Official website Official website Official Toho's YouTube channel. Toho Pictures official website TOHO-TOWA Company, Limited official website TOWA PICTURES Company, Ltd. official website Toho Company on IMDb Toho at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Yodo-dono or Yodogimi was a prominently placed figure in late-Sengoku period. She was a concubine and second wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the most powerful man in Japan, she became the mother of his son and successor, Hideyori. She was known as Lady Chacha. After the death of Hideyoshi, she took the tonsure, becoming a Buddhist nun and taking the name Daikōin; the great wealth and changing fortunes of her husband and son affected Yodo-dono's life as well. Surviving record books from luxury goods merchants provide insight into patterns of patronage and taste amongst the privileged class of women like Yodo-dono and her sisters. Father: Azai Nagamasa Mother: Oichi Adopted mother: Nene Husband: Toyotomi Hideyoshi Sons: Toyotomi Tsurumatsu Toyotomi Hideyori Adopted Daughter: Toyotomi Sadako, daughter of Oeyo married Kujō Yukiie Yodo-dono called Chacha in her youth, was the eldest of three daughters of the Sengoku period daimyō Azai Nagamasa, her mother, Oichi was the younger sister of Oda Nobunaga. It was speculated that Chacha wasn’t Nagamasa’s Daughter but Oda Nobunaga’s daughter since Oichi married Nagamasa in September 1567 and Yodo was born in December 1567.
After Nagamasa's death, Toyotomi Hideyoshi became the adoptive protector of Chacha. Her status changed once when she became his concubine, once again when she became the mother of his heir. Yodo-dono's middle sister, was the wife of Kyōgoku Takatsugu and the mother of Kyōgoku Tadataka. Yodo-dono's youngest sister, Oeyo known as Ogō, was the principal wife of Shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada and the mother of his successor Tokugawa Iemitsu. In 1570, Chacha's father, broke his alliance with Oda Nobunaga and there was a three-year period of fighting until 1573 when Nobunaga's army surrounded Nagamasa at Odani Castle. Nobunaga, requested the safe return of his sister, Oichi. Chacha, along with her two sisters, left the castle with her. Odani castle fell, amongst those who died were Nagamasa and Manpukumaru, Chacha's only brother. Nobunaga's death in 1582 caused open hostilities between Shibata Katsuie and Hashiba Hideyoshi over the issue of succession. Katsuie's forces were defeated at the Battle of Shizugatake, he was forced retreat to Kitanosho castle.
With Hideyoshi's army laying siege to his home, Katsuie set the castle ablaze. However, before Oichi died, she passed Chacha and Ohatsu to the care and protection of Hideyoshi. Yodo-dono soon moved to Yodo Castle. Hideyoshi's wife, was said to have been unable to conceive, she had two sons with Hideyoshi, who died young, Hideyori, born in 1593, who became Hideyoshi's designated successor. Hideyoshi was the enemy of her parents, first her father her step-father and mother. In 1594, the family moved to Fushimi Castle, but tragedy befell when Hideyoshi died in 1598 and the Toyotomi clan lost much of its influence and importance. Yodo-dono moved to Osaka Castle with her son Hideyori and plotted the restoration of the Toyotomi clan, she became the true head of Osaka Castle. Tokugawa Ieyasu, who seized control from Hideyori after the death of Hideyoshi, now viewed Hideyori as an obstacle to his unification of Japan. In 1614, Ieyasu laid siege to Osaka Castle. Yodo-dono defended the castle alongside her son, a truce was signed.
However, in 1615, Ieyasu once again attacked Osaka Castle. Subsequently, Yodo-dono and her son Hideyori committed suicide. A fictional character based on Yodo-dono appears in James Clavell's Shōgun; this contrived protagonist is Lady Ochiba, who dislikes Toranaga because he suspected her son was not fathered by the Taikō. However, she admires and trusts the Taikō's widow, who urges both her and Toranaga to marry so that Japan would remain united, when the heir, Yaemon comes of age, he can safely take control. In James Clavell's novels it is revealed that, just as in real history, Toranaga besieged Ochiba and Yaemon in their castle, prompting them to commit suicide. In the 2009 film Goemon, Cha-Cha is portrayed by Ryōko Hirosue, is depicted as being in love with Ishikawa Goemon, she is forced to marry Hideyoshi, though Goemon attempts to save Cha-Cha to no avail, dying in the attempt. In the 2011 Taiga drama, Gō: Hime-tachi no Sengoku, Cha-cha was portrayed by Japanese actress Rie Miyazawa. In the drama series Nobunaga no Chef - Episode 5, Chacha makes her appearance as a child by her parents' side.
A great part of this episode revolves around the fact that she would not eat meat. Out of her mother's concern, the main character of this series is asked to make a dish that will make Chacha like meat, she eternized in the book"The Yodo Castle" In Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider Gaim & Wizard: The Fateful Sengoku Movie Battle, Cha-Cha appears in Gaim's portion of the film, in the World of the Sengoku Period. Among video games, she appears in Capcom's most recent addition of the Onimusha series, Onimusha: Dawn of Dreams, as Toyotomi Hideyoshi's concubine and sister to playable character Ohatsu, who affectionately calls Yodo by her childhood name, "Cha-Cha", she appears as a playable character in Samurai Warriors: Sanada Maru. She appears under the name Chacha, a Berserker-class Servant in Fate/Grand Order. Yodo-dono appears as a