Katano is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on November 3, 1971; as of October 2016, the city has an estimated population of 76,383 and a population density of 3,000 persons per km2. The total area is 25.55 square kilometres. Botanical Gardens Faculty of Science Osaka City University Keihan Electric Railway Katano Line Kōzu Station - Katano-shi Station - Kawachi-Mori Station - Kisaichi Station West Japan Railway Company Katamachi Line Hoshida Station - Kawachi-Iwafune Station Route 168 Collingwood, Canada - Sister city agreement concluded in 1981 Ikioi Shōta sumo wrestler I Love Katano
Shinya Yamanaka is a Japanese Nobel Prize-winning stem cell researcher. He serves as the director of Center for iPS Cell Research and Application and a professor at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences at Kyoto University. Yamanaka is a past president of the International Society for Stem Cell Research, he received the 2010 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the biomedicine category, the 2011 Wolf Prize in Medicine with Rudolf Jaenisch, the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize together with Linus Torvalds. In 2012 he and John Gurdon were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells. In 2013 he was awarded the $3 million Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for his work. Yamanaka was born in Higashiōsaka, Japan, in 1962. After graduating from Tennōji High School attached to Osaka Kyoiku University, he received his M. D. at Kobe University in 1987 and his PhD at Osaka City University Graduate School in 1993. After this, he went through a residency in orthopedic surgery at National Osaka Hospital and a postdoctoral fellowship at the J. David Gladstone Institutes of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco.
Afterwards he worked at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, US, Nara Institute of Science and Technology in Japan. Yamanaka is a professor at Kyoto University, where he directs its Center for iPS Research and Application, he is a senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes as well as the director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application. Between 1987 and 1989, Yamanaka was a resident in orthopedic surgery at the National Osaka Hospital, his first operation was to remove a benign tumor from his friend Shuichi Hirata, a task he could not complete after one hour when a skilled surgeon would have taken ten minutes or so. Some seniors referred to him as "Jamanaka", a pun on the Japanese word for obstacle. From 1993 to 1996, he was at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease. Between 1996 and 1999, he was an assistant professor at Osaka City University Medical School, but found himself looking after mice in the laboratory, not doing actual research, his wife advised him to become a practicing doctor, but instead he applied for a position at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology.
He stated that he could and would clarify the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, this can-do attitude won him the job. From 1999–2003, he was an associate professor there, started the research that would win him the 2012 Nobel Prize, he became a full professor and remained at the institute in that position from 2003–2005. Between 2004 and 2010, Yamanaka was a professor at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences. Yamanaka is the director and a professor at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University. In 2006, he and his team generated induced pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse fibroblasts. IPS cells resemble embryonic stem cells, the in vitro equivalent of the part of the blastocyst which grows to become the embryo proper, they could show that his iPS cells were pluripotent, i.e. capable of generating all cell lineages of the body. He and his team generated iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts, again as the first group to do so. A key difference from previous attempts by the field was his team's use of multiple transcription factors, instead of transfecting one transcription factor per experiment.
They started with 24 transcription factors known to be important in the early embryo, but could in the end reduce it to 4 transcription factors – Sox2, Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc. The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent." There are different types of stem cells. These are some types of cells; the prevalent view during the early 20th century was that mature cells were permanently locked into the differentiated state and cannot return to a immature, pluripotent stem cell state. They thought. Therefore, non-differentiated egg/early embryo cells can only develop into specialized cells. However, stem cells with limited potency remain in bone marrow, skin etc. to act as a source of cell replacement. The fact that differentiated cell types had specific patterns of proteins suggested irreversible epigenetic modifications or genetic alterations to be the cause of unidirectional cell differentiation.
So, cells progressively become more restricted in the differentiation potential and lose pluripotency. In 1962, John B. Gurdon demonstrated that the nucleus from a differentiated frog intestinal epithelial cell can generate a functional tadpole via transplantation to an enucleated egg. Gurdon used somatic cell nuclear transfer as a method to understand reprogramming and how cells change in specialization, he concluded. This was a paradigm shift during the time, it showed that a differentiated cell nucleus has retained the capacity to revert to an undifferentiated state, with the potential to restart development. However, the question still remained whether an intact differentiated cell could be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. Shinya Yamanaka prove
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries; the Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics and Literature; the reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation; as of 2015, 106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 12 women.
The first one was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes; some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal lobotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over, included in the award; the 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz, not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins for their work on DNA structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin who had died by the time of the nomination.
Since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, considering prizes are awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients. In the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, resulting in controversial exclusions. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France and Italy to conduct experiments in blood transfusions. Keeping abreast of scientific findings, he was generous in his donations to Ivan Pavlov's laboratory in Russia, was optimistic about the progress resulting from scientific discoveries made in laboratories. In 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper.
As it happened, it was Nobel's brother Ludvig who had died, but Nobel, unhappy with the content of the obituary and concerned that his legacy would reflect poorly on him, was inspired to change his will. In his last will, Nobel requested that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63; because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting until 26 April 1897. After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II. According to Nobel's will, the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, a medical school and research center, is responsible for the Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, the prize is referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a "discovery" and that it be of "greatest benefit on mankind". Per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award; these include members of academies around the world, professors of medicine in Sweden, Norway and Finland, as well as professors of selected universities and research institutions in other countries. Past Nobel laureates may nominate; until 1977, all professors of Karolinska Institute together decided on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. That year, changes in Swedish law forced the Institute to make public any documents pertaining to the Nobel Prize and it was considered necessary to establish a independent body for the Prize work. Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, it elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary, in charge of the organization, each year 10 adjunct members to assist in the evaluation of candidates. In 1968, a provision was added.
True to its mandate, the Committee has chosen researchers working in the basic sciences over those who have made applied science contributions. Harvey Cushing, a pioneering American neurosurgeon who identified Cushing's syndrome, was not awarded the prize, nor was Sigmund Freud, as his psychoanalysis lacks hypotheses that can be experimentally confirmed; the public expected Jonas Salk or Albert Sabin to receive th
Doshisha University referred to as Dodai, is a private university in Kyoto City, Japan. Established in 1875, it is one of Japan's oldest private institutions of higher learning, has 30,000 students enrolled on four different campuses in Kyoto, it is one of the Japanese "Global 30" universities and one of the "Kankandoritsu", a group of the four leading private universities in western Japan's Kansai region. Doshisha was founded by Joseph Hardy Neesima as "Doshisha English School", in 1920 it was granted university status; the university now encompasses 14 faculties and 16 graduate schools with numerous affiliated institutions including Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts. Doshisha University was founded in 1875 as Doshisha English School by Protestant educator Niijima Jō, as a school to advance Christian education in Japan; as a young man, Niijima left Japan for the United States in 1864, despite the ban on overseas travel imposed on Japanese nationals. He studied at Phillips Academy and Amherst College, returned to Japan in 1874.
The next year, Niijima established the Doshisha School. Niijima served as president of the university from 1875 to 1890. Other early university presidents included educator and author Yamamoto Kakuma, Seito Saibara, the first Christian member of the Japanese Diet, prominent chemical engineer Kotaro Shimomura. By 1920, Doshisha was granted university status and developed into a full-fledged university in the Anglo-American academic tradition. During World War II, its buildings were given Japanese names and its curriculum was stripped of its pro-Western elements; the prewar conditions were restored after the surrender of Japan. The first graduate degree programs were instituted in 1953. Amherst College has maintained a close relationship with Doshisha University, since 1972, Doshisha has collaborated with a consortium of American liberal arts colleges including Amherst to host the Associated Kyoto Program, an 8-month long study abroad program offered every year to students from American colleges and universities.
Doshisha houses the Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies, another program affiliated with American universities and centered on advanced Japanese language training. Doshisha University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan today, with strong influence in the Kansai region; the university has been ranked 12th and 14th in 2009 and 2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai. The university is considered one of the most selective private universities in Japan; the acceptance rate for the 40,924 applicants for the 2014 academic year was 35.6%, with acceptance rate in some departments under 15%. In 2013, the university was ranked fourth among Japanese private universities for "schools to which parents wish to send their child," following Waseda University, Keio University, Meiji University in Tokyo. Doshisha has graduate degree programs in Theology, Psychology, Global Studies, Economics, Commerce and Management, Culture and Information Science and Engineering, Life and Medical Sciences and Sports Science, Social Studies.
The libraries at the Imadegawa and Kyotanabe campuses hold more than 2.5 million volumes. As of 2013, Doshisha University employs 777 full-time and 1,411 part-time faculty members across its Kyoto campuses. In terms of research, Doshisha has filed the 36th-highest number of patents in the nation. Doshisha University has two main campuses at Imadegawa in central Kyoto and at Kyotanabe in southern Kyoto. Imadegawa is the main campus, located in the former residence of Satsuma Domain, it has been in use. Located in the center of Kyoto City, the campus is situated next to Shōkoku-ji, overlooking Kyoto Imperial Palace. Five buildings in the Imadegawa campus have been designated as Important Cultural Properties of Japan, including Doshisha Chapel and Clark Memorial Hall; this campus is for the liberal arts, business and law faculties. A large learning commons with over 40,000 square meters of space, the Ryoshinkan, was opened in 2012 and included the incorporation of Imadegawa Station, a station on the Karasuma Line of the Kyoto Municipal Subway.
The Kyotanabe Campus is part of Kansai Science City. Over 195 acres in area, it serves as the campus for the science and engineering faculties. In 2012, a new Karasuma Campus was established 300 meters from the Imadegawa Campus; the Karasuma Campus houses the International Education Institute, the Graduate School of Global Studies, the Faculty of Global and Regional Studies. There are over 400 organizations in Doshisha University. Doshisha Eve Doshisha Kyotanabe Festival Sports Festival Doshisha is part of the Kansai Big Six Baseball League; the baseball team is known for their rivalry with Ritsumeikan University. Doshisha's rugby team has a long history, had won 4 championships in All-Japan University Rugby Championship from 1980 to 1984; the men's basketball program is noted for its frequent participation in All Japan Intercollegiate Basketball Championship. Doshisha is renowned for its strong connection to business in the Kansai region, according to the 2011 university rankings by Toyo Keizai, 533 alumni served as executives in listed companies.
As of 2013, around 25.5% of undergraduates were able to enter one of the top 400 companies in Japan, which ranks eighth nationwide among all private institutions in Japan and first among private universities in Kansai. Doshisha alumni include Takako Doi, the first female Lower Hou
Bukkyo University is a private university in Kita-ku, Kyoto in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The school's predecessor was founded in 1912, it was chartered as a junior college in 1949. Bukkyo means Buddhism in Japanese, the university's philosophy is based on Pure Land Buddhism. Official website
Nomura Securities Co. Ltd. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Nomura Holdings, Inc. which forms part of the Nomura Group. It plays a central role in the Group's core business. Nomura is global investment bank. Based in Tokyo and with regional headquarters in Hong Kong and New York, Nomura employs about 26,000 staff worldwide, it operates through five business divisions: retail, global markets, investment banking, merchant banking, asset management. Established December 25, 1925 in Osaka, it is the oldest brokerage firm in Japan, it is named after a wealthy Japanese stockbroking tycoon. Nomura Securities operates in Asia. In the USA it is known as Nomura Securities International and in EMEA it is Nomura International plc. Nomura was founded by Tokushichi Nomura, father of Nomura Securities founder Tokushichi Nomura II as a money changing business; this was just before the Meiji Restoration, the move to setting up a bank was a logical extension and progression of this business as times changed. Changes included the founding of stock exchanges in Tokyo and Osaka as the country became industrialised.
Key amongst these changes was the Japanese government's decision to issue foreign currency denominated public bonds to fund the Russo-Japanese war. By 1906 Nomura had founded an in-house research department headed up by former Osaka newspaper journalist Kisaku Hashimoto; this was responsible for publishing the Osaka Nomura Business News with trading news, stock analysis and current economic trends. Research combined with a substantial newspaper advertising campaign helped raise the profile of Nomura. By 1917, Nomura had gone public and soon after Osaka Nomura Bank was set up, within this business there was a securities section to handle bond sales and underwriting. On December 25, 1925, the Nomura Securities Co. Ltd. was established in Osaka, as a spin-off from Securities Dept. of Osaka Nomura Bank Co.. NSC focused on the bond market, it was named after its founder Tokushichi Nomura II, the son of Tokushichi Nomura and a wealthy Japanese stockbroking tycoon. He had earlier established Osaka Nomura bank in 1918, based on the Mitsui zaibatsu model with a capital of ¥10 million.
Like the majority of Japanese conglomerate, or zaibatsu, its origins were in Osaka, but today Is based in Tokyo. By 1927, Nomura had opened a New York office. NSC gained the authority to trade stock in 1938, went public in 1961. In 1981, the company became a member of the New York Stock Exchange, followed five years by its membership in the London Stock Exchange. On October 1, 2001 Nomura adopt a holding company structure with the establishment of Nomura Holdings, Inc. and Nomura Securities Co. became a owned subsidiary of Nomura Holdings. In February 2007 it purchased the US based trading technology provider Instinet. In October 2008 Nomura acquired Lehman Brothers' business in the Asia Pacific region including Japan, Hong Kong and Australia. In 2007, Lehman international businesses were responsible for half of the bank's total revenue; the acquisition made Nomura the world's largest independent investment bank with Y20,300bn assets under management according to the Financial Times. According to Bloomberg, in the wake of the financial crisis, Nomura did not take any government bail-out money In 2010 Nomura acquired a stake in Bank of Ireland according to publicly available data.
In a bid to move the company's focus from Japan to global markets, the global headquarters for investment banking was moved out of Tokyo to London in April 2009 as part of a stated aim by Hiromi Yamaji, Nomura’s chief executive of global investment banking to move the company's focus from Japan to global markets. On July 27, 2009 the Federal Reserve Bank of New York designated Nomura a primary dealer for Federal Reserve System open market operations and U. S. Treasury securities auctions. Tricorn Partners LLP was acquired on December 16, 2009 to further expand its investment banking business. Nomura holds a number of primary dealerships. Nomura has been number one on the London Stock Exchange since the summer of 2007. In late May 2017, Nomura Securities paid for Venezuelan government bonds valued at $100 million, paying $30 million for the debt at a steep discount. In 2017, Nomura has chosen Frankfurt am Germany as its new EU hub after brexit. Nomura provides a range of services through the capital markets including equities and fixed income trading, underwriting, secondary offering and private placement of securities.
The investment banking arm provides leveraged financing. Nomura made most of its profits in the Japanese retail banking market but has expanded its international investment banking capabilities. Nomura divides its operations up into three regional areas, Asia-Pacific and Europe, Middle East & Africa; the American operations are predominantly focused on offices in the New York and New Jersey areas with additional offices in Toronto and Bermuda, employing 1,300 staff in the US. There are 32 offices across the Asia Pacific region headquarters are located in Hong Kong, including Australia, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Taiwan. EMEA employs 4,500 people in 18 countries, the chairman is Colin