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Osama bin Laden

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. He was a Saudi Arabian citizen until a member of the wealthy bin Laden family. Bin Laden's father was Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire from Hadhramaut and the founder of the construction company, Saudi Binladin Group, his mother, Alia Ghanem, was from a secular middle-class family based in Syria. He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, he helped to fund the Mujahideen by funneling arms and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, gained popularity among many Arabs. In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda, he was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, shifted his base to Sudan, until U. S. pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.

Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings. Bin Laden is most well known for his role in masterminding the September 11 attacks, which resulted in the deaths of nearly 3,000 and prompted the United States to initiate the War on Terror, he subsequently became the subject of a decade-long international manhunt. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI offered a $25 million bounty in their search for him. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed by US Navy SEALs inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan; the covert operation was conducted by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency SAD/SOG operators on the orders of U. S. President Barack Obama. Under his leadership, the al-Qaeda organization was responsible for, in addition to the September 11 attacks in the United States, many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English. The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency, as well as other U. S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin"; the decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions and patronymics uncapitalized in surnames. The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years. Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden. The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner.

According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani", but bin Laden's father, Mohammed bin Laden, never registered the name. Osama bin Laden had assumed the kunyah "Abū'Abdāllāh", his admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir", the "Sheik", the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid", "Hajj", the "Director". The word usāmah means "lion", earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik". Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Yemeni Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a millionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family, Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Syrian Hamida al-Attas. In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida. Mohammed recommended Hamida to an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, they are still together; the couple had four children, bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.

The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama inherited around $25–30 million. Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni Muslim. From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School, he studied economics and business administration at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979, or a degree in public administration in 1981. One source described him as "hard working". At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work. Other interests included writing poetry.

Immersia

Immersia is a held software development company co-founded by Guy Bar-ner, Karen Shlimovich and Paul Kuklis in 2013. Its headquarters are located in Israel; the company is known for their series of online language-learning adventure games and was listed in The Next Web as one of the "7 startups to check out" in November 2014. Immersia was co-founded in 2013 by entrepreneurs Guy Bar-ner, Karen Shlimovich and Paul Kuklis. Bar-ner and Shlimovich met at a French language course in a class. After learning how to conjugate different verbs and after having to memorize table after table, for upcoming tests, the two became disillusioned with the fact that they still could not, in their words, "order'La Soupe' at the Brasserie"; the team, which consisted of an SAT teacher, an English teacher and a linguist, came to the conclusion that they were tired of memorizing words. They wanted to engage in conversation and simulate real-life situations as though they were on a trip to Paris, they released their first French language-learning game and soon to follow were games for learning Spanish, German and Japanese.

Immersia's initial self-titled series of online language-learning games is set within the animated backdrop of a bar. Different types of characters occupy the bar among which are an elderly bartender, an attractive blue-eyed woman and a couple situated at one of the tables; the object of the game is to engage in conversation with the various characters either via the built-in speech recognition technology or by typing words using a keyboard and thus progress through the game by scoring points and improving language skills. This method of language learning is known as language immersion. In June 2015, Immersia launched their first Android app entitled Spanish Injection. Official website

Sleath Farmhouse, Llangua

Sleath Farmhouse, Monmouthshire is a farmhouse dating from the mid 16th century. Standing close to the Church of St James, in the far north of the county close to the border with Herefordshire, the farmhouse is a Grade II* listed building, its listing noting that it is an "extremely rare survival" of a Welsh framed hall house. Sleath farmhouse known as Lech Farm, has been tree-ring dated to c.1520. After the Norman conquest a monastic foundation had been established at Llangua by William FitzOsbern. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the early 16th century, the foundation's lands and buildings were granted to the Scudamore family of Kentchurch Court, just across the border in Herefordshire; the original hall house was constructed just prior to this date, the Oxford Dendrochronology Laboratory giving a specific date of the spring of 1514. The first explicit reference to the farm is in the Kentchurch Muniments where it is referred to as Llech Farm in a lease dated 30 September 1642; the Scudamores retained possession until the early 20th century' and the farmhouse remains a private dwelling.

A survey carried out during rebuilding at the farm in 2011 found no significant archaeological remains. Many of the associated farm buildings were derelict as at 2012 but contain significant architectural fragments, including a crook-frame barn dating from the 16th century; the building is of one and a half storeys and the original timber frame has been encased in subsequent renovations, in brick on three sides and in rubble on the fourth. The original crucks and trusses survive intact