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Osborne County, Kansas

Osborne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 3,858; the largest city and county seat is Osborne. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1867, Osborne County was established. During the Civil War the Kansas legislature ordered the survey of western two-thirds of the new state in anticipation of future settlement. An escort of soldiers from Fort Riley accompanied U.

S. Deputy Surveyors D. E. Ballard and E. C. Manning as they commenced the survey of what is now Osborne County on September 8, 1862. Early the next year, they had to suspend their surveying efforts due to the proximity of, objections from, the natives of the area - the Indians. At this time the Solomon River valley was rich with beaver, antelope and buffalo. Several Indian tribes had hunted in the valley for decades and were in no mood to share the land with settlers bent on decimating the abundant game, plowing under the lush grass for farming, just changing the way things were; some 200 Cheyenne were encamped in the county when Ballard and Manning were ordered to resume the survey in 1866. While escorting the surveying party along Twin Creek on July 21, soldier Edward Roche of Company I, 2nd U. S. Cavalry, was killed by Indians, they buried him at what became the common corner of Corinth, Penn and Bloom Townships. On May 15, 1868, the survey of Osborne County was at last completed; the boundaries of the county were defined by the legislature on March 3, 1867.

The governor named it in honor of Captain Vincent B. Osborne, a Civil War soldier who lost a leg in a battle on January 17, 1865, at Joy's Ford on the Arkansas River. Osborne was elected State Representative of Ellsworth County in 1871 and served as Ellsworth County Probate Judge for a number of years prior to his death at age 40 of erysipelas on December 21, 1879. Oddly, Osborne never set foot in the county named after him. On January 14, 1870, George Wolberd filed the county's first homestead claim in the extreme northeast corner of Osborne County. John M. Boer filed a homestead claim next to Wolberd the same day. Both men were members of the Rotterdam Dutch Colony that settled in 1869 and 1870 along Oak Creek in what are now Mitchell, Osborne and Smith Counties. Zarah Hill came to the North Fork Solomon River valley on March 1, 1870, filed a claim on March 25 for land in the northeast corner of what became Bethany Township, he was the third man to homestead in the county. That same month brothers Charles and William Bullock made the first permanent non-native settlement in the county on the north side of the South Solomon River in what is now Tilden Township.

They constructed a double cabin with port holes surrounded with a log enclosure for their horses and the "Bullock Ranche" became the terminus for all early homestead and hunting parties in northwest Kansas over the next two years. After its creation in 1867 Osborne County was attached to Mitchell County for legal purposes, as the county had not formally organized; the first couple married in the county, Solomon Weatherman and Marinda Alling, had to travel to Beloit to obtain a marriage license before returning to their homestead two miles south of modern-day Bloomington. They were married there on March 1, 1871; the second town in Osborne County, was founded when Calvin Reasoner opened a log general store two miles east of present-day Bloomington in late 1870. On May 27, 1871, a meeting was held on the steps of Calvin Reasoner and Frank Thompson's general store in Arlington to discuss preliminary steps towards organization of the county. To no one's surprise, Reasoner was elected chairman of Thompson secretary.

A census committee of Charles Cunningham, William Bullock and A. B. Fleming was appointed to ascertain whether the county held the 700 residents required for securing state recognition of legal organization, it was decided to reconvene one week on Saturday, June 3, 1871, at Arlington with the results; the Pennsylvania Colony had founded the town of Osborne City on May 1, 1871, with the intention of making it the county seat - a hope that Calvin Reasoner desired for his own town of Arlington. He therefore kept secret the May 27th meeting from the Colony and did his best to do the same with the second meeting, he failed. "He sent runners north and west, notifying them to be at Arlington at seven p.m. that day for the purpose of locating a county seat. One of their men told. Our men started at once, north and south, telling every one to meet here at six p.m. that the county seat was to be located. Some forty men responded, they were told what Calvin Reasoner had done and all of them got to Arlington before seven p.m.

Of course the Arlington bunch was surprised." - Frank A. Rothenberger, Pennsylvania Colony member; the meeting was called to order with Calvin Reasoner as chairman. The Pennsylvania Colony held the majority of the persons attending; the census committee reported 724 inhabitants and 281 voters in the county, a sufficient number under law to further proceed with organization. "Afte

Johan Georg Ræder (1751–1808)

Johan Georg Ræder was a Norwegian military officer. He was born in Meldal as a son of Johan Christopher Rhäder and his second wife Cathrine Margrethe Riiber, he was the grandson of Johan Georg Rhäder, the person who immigrated to Norway and started the family branch there. In February 1782 in Copenhagen he married Catharina Margrethe Lind, they had nine children, including the sons Johan Christopher Ræder, Nicolai Ditlev Amund Ræder, Johan Philip Thomas Ræder, Jacob Thode Ræder and Severin Henrik Ræder. He was the grandfather of Jacques Ræder, Ole Munch Ræder, Nicolai Ditlev Ammon Ræder and Johan Georg Ræder and great-grandfather of Anton Henrik Ræder, Johan Christopher Ræder and Rudolf Falck Ræder. In Denmark he had the grandsons Carl Gustav Valdemar Ræder, Johan Georg Frederik Ræder and Oscar Alexander Ræder and great-grandson Hans Henning Ræder, he lived at Nes near Veblungsnes from 1787 to 1806 in Orkdalsøra until leaving to fight in the war in 1808. In the same year he contracted illness.

He died in November 1808 in Kongsvinger. He took his military education in Copenhagen, from 1787 to his death he served in the Trondhjemske Regiment, he headed the Romsdalske Kompani from 1787, the 2nd Battalion from 1804 and the 3rd Battalion from 1806. His forces were employed in the Theater War without entering battle, in the Dano-Swedish War. From 1807, at the outbreak of the Gunboat War, his forces were in active garrison in Trondhjem. In the war of 1808–1809 Ræder had notable roles in the victorious Battle of Trangen and the non-victorious Skirmish of Mobekk, he reached the rank of second lieutenant in 1769, premier lieutenant in 1782, captain in 1787, major in 1804 and lieutenant colonel in 1808. In 1808 he was decorated as a Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog, he died, Carl Oscar Munthe called it the biggest loss of a single man in the war

July 2019 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse occurred on the 16 and 17 July 2019. The Moon was covered about 65% by the Earth's umbral shadow at maximum eclipse; this was the last umbral lunar eclipse until May 2021. July 2019 calendar It was visible over most of Asia, Africa and South America. A partial solar eclipse on January 6. A total lunar eclipse on January 21. A total solar eclipse on July 2. A partial lunar eclipse on July 16. An annular solar eclipse on December 26, it is part of Saros cycle 139. A lunar eclipse will be followed by solar eclipses by 9 years and 5.5 days. This lunar eclipse is related to two total solar eclipses of Solar Saros 146. Lunar Saros series 139, repeating every 18 years and 11 days, has a total of 79 lunar eclipse events including 27 total lunar eclipses. First Penumbral Lunar Eclipse: 1658 Dec 09 First Partial Lunar Eclipse: 1947 Jun 03 First Total Lunar Eclipse: 2073 Aug 17 First Central Lunar Eclipse: 2109 Sep 09 Greatest Eclipse of Lunar Saros 139: 2199 Nov 02 Last Central Lunar Eclipse: 2488 Apr 26 Last Total Lunar Eclipse: 2542 May 30 Last Partial Lunar Eclipse: 2686 Aug 25 Last Penumbral Lunar Eclipse: 3065 Apr 13 List of lunar eclipses and List of 21st-century lunar eclipses Partial Lunar Eclipse 2019 Saros cycle 139 Hermit eclipse: 2019-07-16 2019 Jul 16 chart: Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA/GSFC

Niebla marinii

Niebla marinii is a fruticose lichen that grows on lava along the Pacific Coast of Baja California from near San Fernando Canyon south to Morro Santo Domingo. The epithet, marinii, is in honor of a field assistant, Richard Marin, who accompanied the author on lichen collecting expeditions to Baja California during 1985–1996, while he assisted in the gathering of samples of flowering plants for cancer research. Niebla marinii is distinguished by the thallus divided into linear-subterete or linear-prismatic branches from a common attachment base; the species recognized by containing salazinic acid, without triterpenes, but with an unknown scabrosin derivative. Pycnidia are prominent on the upper parts of branches. Niebla josecuervoi is similar, differing in the numerous short spine-like branchlets along the upper side of primary branches, the branches appearing comb-like. Niebla marinii—consistent in its morphological features at specific locations but variable in cortical features when viewed collectively from all locations—may comprise two species, one of which has distinctly raised cortical ridges.

This may be a hybrid with Niebla siphonoloba. Evidence for hybridization is seen by the same morphological variation in another species. 200 miles north of Cerro Elefante—which is about halfway up the northern Baja peninsula and just north of Punta Canoas—are both N. marinii and N. suffnessii that occur together on Mesa Camacho—a red lava mesa, 300–400 m in elevation. At this location, the thalli of both species have conspicuously raised sinuous cortical ridges. Although the same species of Niebla can vary in a particular feature such as in its cortical ridge patterns, it may retain other morphological and chemical taxonomic features at different locations. Sinuous cortical ridges are characteristic of the sekikaic-acid species Niebla siphonoloba throughout its geographical range, it occurs on Mesa Camacho; this species is recognized by its simple stubby branches in addition to having sekikaic acid and a prominent reticulated cortex. A logical explanation for the occurrence of the distinct cortical sinuous ridges in N. marinii and N. suffnessii on Mesa Camacho is hybridization, which in lichens is mentioned, when it is, it is in context with chemical variation.

Or vegetative diasporas such as soredia and isidia. In Niebla, the chemical features are believed to be genetically conserved and linked to morphological features for each species, while less genetically linked features are suggested to be exchanged; as a further example, in the Channel Islands, N. siphonoloba is suspected to hybridize with another sekikaic-acid species Niebla fimbriata as seen by their intermediates. The morphological variation in Niebla marinii, N. suffnessii and N. siphonoloba are just a few examples of the broad spectrum of morphological variation that can be found in each species, referred as morpho-syndrome variation, in contrast to chemo-syndromes recognized in the related genus Ramalina. Morpho-syndrome variation has not been recognized in lichens, because it would seem that environmentally induced variation is considered a more explanation. Niebla marinii was first recognized from thalli collected at Morro Santo Domingo, a peninsula 22 miles north of Guerrero Negro, collected 18 May 1986 towards a lichen flora of Baja California.

It was the dominant fruticose lichen on red lava. A common associated species was Niebla lobulata its type locality. Niebla marinii has been included under a broad species concept,. Under the broad species concept, the morphological differences are seen as environmentally induced variation, the chemical differences are viewed as belonging to a chemo-syndrome. Niebla marinii in Index FungorumWorld Botanical Associates, Niebla marinii, retrieved 28 Dec 2014,


Aitape is a small town of about 18,000 people on the north coast of Papua New Guinea in the Sandaun Province. It is a coastal settlement, equidistant from the provincial capitals of Wewak and Vanimo, marks the midpoint of the highway between these two capitals. Aitape has 240 V power, telephone, a bank, a post-office, a courthouse and a police station, a supermarket and many tradestores, a petrol station, two airstrips, two secondary schools, a mission office and a hospital. Aitape was established as a train station by German colonists in 1905 as part of German New Guinea. During the Second World War the town was occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army. Aitape can be reached by logging road from Wewak. Boats leave Aitape Harbor to Vanimo and Wewak. There are two airstrips: Tadji, where most flights land, Aitape. Tadji airstrip is located 10 km east of town. First contact between the Aitape area and the outside world is believed to have occurred during the 15th century when large sailing expeditions arrived from China.

It is certain that Malay fishing fleets were active along the Sepik coastline from the early 17th century when island inhabitants were recruited as navigators for these Malay fishing vessels. The first Christian missionary arrived in the Aitape area in 1896, it was Societatis Verbi Divini from Holland. The first mission station was established on the island of Tumleo in 1896. A second station was set up at Pro on the mainland the following year; the inhabitants of Pro requested that the mission station be established to protect them from raids by much larger settlements. The major native settlements at the time were at Sissano and Arop; the island settlements of Tumleo and Seleo made up the next group of main settlements. Both the Siau and Bakla would band together annually for major trading expeditions taking in the Aitape coastline to the south east areas around Wewak. German authorities found it difficult to colonize the Bakla of the Aitape area; the Aitape area was described as uncontrolled during the German colonial period.

Still, the Germans built a solid prison at Aitape and installed a powerful radio station which maintained quality communication with Europe. In 1908, the Aitape coastline was struck by a major tsunami event resulting in the collapse of an area of coastline between Arop and Sissano creating the Sissano Lagoon. By 1914 there were 6 new stations established along the coast; the town along with the rest of German New Guinea passed to Australian control after the First World War and became part of the Territory of New Guinea. During the Second World War the town was occupied, along with the rest of the Territory of New Guinea, by the Imperial Japanese Army. During the recapture American forces bypassed the Japanese 18th Army based at Wewak, taking Aitape on 22 April 1944. A base was repulsed a major Japanese counter-attack; the Americans were content to hold Aitape and not advance far towards Wewak. In fact, Aitape was captured as part of a 3-pronged invasion by the Allies. There was little or no strategic gain to be had in doing so as the Japanese force based at Wewak no longer posed a real threat – cut off, short of supplies, weakened from battle and diseases.

In mid-1944, General Douglas MacArthur, the American Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces in the South-West Pacific Area, secured an agreement from the Australian government for Australian forces to take over at Aitape. MacArthur continued island hopping in preparation for the re-capture of the Philippines; the Aitape-Wewak campaign was the final Australian military campaign on mainland New Guinea. It ran from November 1944 to the war's end in August 1945, it was fought by Australian Imperial Force with air and naval support. Australian intelligence soldier Leonard Siffleet was beheaded by Japanese on Aitape beach 24 October 1943. In July 1998, the area surrounding the town suffered from a destructive tsunami that killed over 2,000 people. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurred offshore and triggered a large undersea landslide that generated the tsunami. The area worst hit was Warapu village about 8 km west of Aitape; the village was situated on a narrow spit between a large lagoon. It is estimated that waves with an average height of 10.5 metres passed over the spit into the lagoon.

East Aitape Rural LLG West Aitape Rural LLG

Harold Michael Fong

Harold Michael Fong was an American lawyer and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. Fong was born on April 1938 in Honolulu, Hawaii, he attended the University of Southern California where he received an Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1960. He went to the University of Michigan Law School where he got a Juris Doctor in 1964, he was named the deputy prosecuting attorney for Honolulu the next year, serving until 1968, when he went into private practice. In 1969, Fong became an assistant federal prosecutor in the District of Hawaii, he was appointed United States Attorney in 1973 and served the same district until 1978, after which he returned to private practice until 1982. Fong was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on February 11, 1982, to a seat vacated by Judge Walter Meheula Heen on the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 18, 1982, received his commission on June 21, 1982.

He served as Chief Judge from 1984 to 1991. Fong died on April 20, 1995, from complications of heart surgery. Fong presided over a case involving Hawaii's ban on write-in votes and a case involving the assets of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos of the Philippines. Harold Michael Fong at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center