Oscar Hammerstein II

Oscar Greeley Clendenning Ritter von Hammerstein II was an American lyricist, theatrical producer, director in the musical theater for 40 years. He won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Many of his songs are standard repertoire for vocalists and jazz musicians, he co-wrote 850 songs. He is best known for his collaborations with composer Richard Rodgers, as the duo Rodgers and Hammerstein, whose musicals include Oklahoma!, South Pacific, The King and I, The Sound of Music. Described by Stephen Sondheim as an "experimental playwright," Hammerstein helped bring the American musical to a new maturity by popularizing musicals that focused on stories and character rather than the light-hearted entertainment that the musical had been known for beforehand, he collaborated with Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Richard A. Whiting, Sigmund Romberg. Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was born in New York City, the son of Alice Hammerstein and theatrical manager William Hammerstein.

His grandfather was the German theatre impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. His father was from a Jewish family, his mother was the daughter of Scottish and English parents, he attended the Church of the Divine Paternity, now the Fourth Universalist Society in the City of New York. Although Hammerstein's father managed the Victoria Theatre for his father and was a producer of vaudeville shows, he was opposed to his son's desire to participate in the arts. Hammerstein attended Columbia University and studied at Columbia Law School until 1917; as a student, he engaged in numerous extracurricular activities. These included playing first base on the baseball team, performing in the Varsity Show and becoming an active member of Pi Lambda Phi, a Jewish fraternity. After his father's death, in June 1914, when he was 19, he participated in his first play with the Varsity Show, entitled On Your Way. Throughout the rest of his college career, Hammerstein performed in several Varsity Shows. After quitting law school to pursue theatre, Hammerstein began his first professional collaboration, with Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel.

He went on to form a 20-year collaboration with Harbach. Out of this collaboration came his first musical, Always You, for which he wrote the book and lyrics, it opened on Broadway in 1920. In 1921 Hammerstein joined The Lambs club. Throughout the next forty years, Hammerstein teamed with many other composers, including Jerome Kern, with whom Hammerstein enjoyed a successful collaboration. In 1927, Kern and Hammerstein had their biggest hit, Show Boat, revived and is still considered one of the masterpieces of the American musical theatre. "Here we come to a new genre — the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy. Now... the play was the thing, everything else was subservient to that play. Now... came complete integration of song and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity." Many years Hammerstein's wife Dorothy bristled when she overheard someone remark that Jerome Kern had written "Ol' Man River". "Indeed not," she retorted. "Jerome Kern wrote'dum, dum-dum'. My husband wrote'Ol' Man River'."Other Kern-Hammerstein musicals include Sweet Adeline, Music in the Air, Three Sisters, Very Warm for May.

Hammerstein collaborated with Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Sigmund Romberg. Hammerstein's most successful and sustained collaboration began when he teamed up with Richard Rodgers to write a musical adaptation of the play Green Grow the Lilacs. Rodgers' first partner, Lorenz Hart planned to collaborate with Rodgers on this piece, but his alcoholism had become out of control, he was unable to write. Hart was not certain that the idea had much merit, the two therefore separated; the adaptation became the first Rodgers and Hammerstein collaboration, entitled Oklahoma!, which opened on Broadway in 1943. It furthered the revolution begun by Show Boat, by integrating all the aspects of musical theatre, with the songs and dances arising out of and further developing the plot and characters. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird wrote that this was a "show, like'Show Boat', became a milestone, so that historians writing about important moments in twentieth-century theatre would begin to identify eras according to their relationship to'Oklahoma.'"

After Oklahoma!, Rodgers and Hammerstein were the most important contributors to the musical-play form – with such masterworks as Carousel, The King and I and South Pacific. The examples they set in creating vital plays rich with social thought, provided the necessary encouragement for other gifted writers to create musical plays of their own"; the partnership went on to produce these and other Broadway musicals such as Allegro, Me and Juliet, Pipe Dream, Flower Drum Song, The Sound of Music, as well as the musical film State Fair, the television musical Cinderella, all featured in the revue A Grand Night for Singing. Hammerstein wrote the book and lyrics for Carmen Jones, an adaptation of Georges Bizet's opera Carmen with an all-black cast that became a 1943 Broadway musical and a 1954 film. An active advocate for writers' rights within the theatre industry, Hammerstein was a member of the Dramatists Guild of America. In 1956, he was elected as the eleventh president of the non-profit organization.

He continued his presidency at the Guild until 1960. Hammerstein died of stomach cancer on August 23, 1960, at his home High


Redondavenator is a genus of sphenosuchian, a type of basal crocodylomorph, the clade that comprises the crocodilians and their closest kin. It is known from a partial upper jaw and left shoulder girdle found in rocks of the Norian-Rhaetian-age Upper Triassic Redonda Formation, northeastern New Mexico, it is notable for its large size. Redondavenator is based on NMMNH P–125615, a partial anterior skull and associated partial left scapula and coracoid; these fossils were collected during one of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science expeditions to the Redonda Formation of Quay County, New Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. A partial lower jaw was found to have come from a phytosaur; the fossils were found in a conglomerate layer high in the formation, above lacustrine shales with fossils of semionotid fish. The conglomerate is interpreted as debris flows along a lake margin. Redondavenator was named in 2005 by colleagues; the type species is R. quayensis. The preserved portion of the skull includes the premaxillae and parts of the maxillae and nasals, in front of the antorbital fenestra.

The fourth and fifth teeth of the maxilla were enlarged. Ridges and other sculpting were present on the upper surface of the snout; the shoulder bones were robust. Nesbitt and colleagues described their new genus as a basal sphenosuchian, they interpreted it as filling a large terrestrial predator role, left empty by the extinction of "rauisuchians"

Eleocharis rostellata

Eleocharis rostellata is a species of spikesedge known by the common name beaked spikerush. It is widespread across North America, with isolated populations in Argentina. Eleocharis rostellata occurs in many types of wetland habitat saline and alkaline water bodies such as hot springs and salt marshes. Eleocharis rostellata is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing up to 1.2 meters tall with spongy, compressible stems. The stem bends and droops and if the tip touches moist soil it may root there and grow more stems; the plant reproduces by seed and vegetatively by sprouting from bits of rhizome. The inflorescence is a single spikelet up to 2 centimeters long made up of many tiny flowers covered in light brown, sometimes purple-spotted bracts. Jepson Manual Treatment - Eleocharis rostellata Eleocharis rostellata Photo gallery