Richard III (play)
Richard III is a historical play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1592. It depicts the Machiavellian rise to power and subsequent short reign of King Richard III of England, the play is grouped among the histories in the First Folio and is most often classified as such. Occasionally, however, as in the edition, it is termed a tragedy. Richard III concludes Shakespeares first tetralogy and it is the second longest play in the canon after Hamlet, and is the longest of the First Folio, whose version of Hamlet is shorter than its Quarto counterpart. The play is rarely performed unabridged, certain characters are removed entirely. In such instances extra lines are often invented or added from elsewhere in the sequence to establish the nature of characters relationships. Now is the winter of our discontent Made glorious summer by this sun of York, Richard is an ugly hunchback who is rudely stampd, deformed and cannot strut before a wanton ambling nymph. He responds to the anguish of his condition with an outcasts credo, Richard now schemes to woo the Lady Anne – Anne Neville, widow of the Lancastrian Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales.
He confides to the audience, Ill marry Warwicks youngest daughter, though I killd her husband and her father. The scene changes to reveal Lady Anne accompanying the corpse of the late king Henry VI, along with Trestle and Berkeley, on its way to be interred at St Pauls cathedral. She asks them to set down the honourable load – if honour may be shrouded in a hearse, Richard suddenly appears and demands that the unmannerd dog carrying the hearse set it down, at which point a brief verbal wrangling takes place. Despite initially hating him, Anne is won over by his pleas of love and repentance, when she leaves, Richard exults in having won her over despite all he has done to her, and tells the audience that he will discard her once she has served her purpose. The atmosphere at court is poisonous, The established nobles are at odds with the upwardly mobile relatives of Queen Elizabeth, Queen Margaret, Henry VIs widow, returns in defiance of her banishment and warns the squabbling nobles about Richard.
Queen Margaret curses Richard and the rest who were present, the nobles, all Yorkists, reflexively unite against this last Lancastrian, and the warning falls on deaf ears. Richard orders two murderers to kill Clarence in the tower, meanwhile, relates a dream to his keeper. The dream includes vivid language describing Clarence falling from a ship as a result of Gloucester. Under the water Clarence sees the skeletons of thousands of men that fishes gnawed upon and he sees wedges of gold, great anchors, heaps of pearl, inestimable stones, unvalued jewels. All of these are scatterd in the bottom of the sea, Clarence adds that some of the jewels were in the skulls of the dead
Eugen Bertolt Friedrich Brecht was a German poet and theatre director of the 20th century. Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht was born in February 1898 in Augsburg, Brechts mother was a devout Protestant and his father a Catholic. The modest house where he was born is preserved as a Brecht Museum. His father worked for a mill, becoming its managing director in 1914. Thanks to his mothers influence, Brecht knew the Bible, a familiarity that would have an effect on his writing. From her, came the image of the self-denying woman that recurs in his drama. Brechts home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant origins implied, at school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher, with whom he formed a lifelong creative partnership. Neher designed many of the sets for Brechts dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre, when Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out. Initially enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates swallowed by the army and his expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher.
On his fathers recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for a course at Munich University. There he studied drama with Arthur Kutscher, who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist, from July 1916, Brechts newspaper articles began appearing under the new name Bert Brecht. Brecht was drafted into service in the autumn of 1918, only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic. In July 1919, Brecht and Paula Banholzer had a son, some time in either 1920 or 1921, Brecht took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin. Brechts diaries for the few years record numerous visits to see Valentin perform. Brecht compared Valentin to Charlie Chaplin, for his virtually complete rejection of mimicry and he did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous. The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out, anyone can be creative, he quipped, its rewriting other people thats a challenge.
Brecht completed his second play, Drums in the Night. Between November 1921 and April 1922 Brecht made acquaintance with many people in the Berlin cultural scene
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film and television. The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής, literally one who answers, the actors interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys. The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term.
Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the 1950–1960s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor – I can play anything. The U. K. performers union Equity has no policy on the use of actor or actress, an Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the. subject divides the profession. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. However, player remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a group or company, such as the American Players. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as players, prior to Thespis act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, and in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called Thespians, the exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play.
Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans, as the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies, from the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, it is thought to have been first performed in 1606. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I and it was first published in the Folio of 1623, possibly from a prompt book, and is his shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland, consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself. He is wracked with guilt and paranoia, forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler. The bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness, the events of the tragedy are usually associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. It has been adapted to film, opera, comics, the play opens amidst thunder and lightning, and the Three Witches decide that their next meeting shall be with Macbeth. Macbeth, the Kings kinsman, is praised for his bravery, in the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory. As they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches enter, though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor, and that he shall be King hereafter. Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence, when Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more. He will father a line of kings though he himself will not be one, while the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, and another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title, Thane of Cawdor.
The first prophecy is fulfilled, and Macbeth, previously skeptical. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, and declares that he spend the night at Macbeths castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to his wife, Lady Macbeth, Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husbands uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship. When Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husbands objections by challenging his manhood and he and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncans two chamberlains drunk so that they will black out, the next morning they will blame the chamberlains for the murder. They will be defenseless as they remember nothing. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and he is so shaken that Lady Macbeth has to take charge
Pygmalion is a play by George Bernard Shaw, named after a Greek mythological figure. It was first presented on stage to the public in 1913, the play is a sharp lampoon of the rigid British class system of the day and a commentary on womens independence. In ancient Greek mythology, Pygmalion fell in love one of his sculptures. Shaw would have been familiar with the version, Galatea. Shaws play has been adapted numerous times, most notably as the musical My Fair Lady, Shaw wrote the play in early 1912 and read it to famed actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell in June. She came on board almost immediately, but her mild nervous breakdown contributed to the delay of a London production, Pygmalion premiered at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna on 16 October 1913, in a German translation by Shaws Viennese literary agent and acolyte, Siegfried Trebitsch. Its first New York production opened on 24 March 1914 at the German-language Irving Place Theatre and it opened in London on 11 April 1914, at Sir Herbert Beerbohm Trees His Majestys Theatre and starred Mrs.
Campbell as Eliza and Tree as Higgins, running for 118 performances. Shaw directed the actors through tempestuous rehearsals often punctuated by at least one of the two storming out of the theatre in a rage, Shaw was conscious of the difficulties involved in staging a complete representation of the play. Of these, a scene at the end of Act One in which Eliza goes home. The others are the scene at the Embassy Ball in Act Three, neither the Gutenberg edition referenced throughout this page nor the Wikisource text linked below contain these sequences. Portico of Saint Pauls Church –11. 15p. m, a group of people are sheltering from the rain. Among them are the Eynsford-Hills, superficial social climbers eking out a living in poverty, consisting initially of Mrs. Eynsford-Hill. Claras brother Freddy enters having earlier been dispatched to them a cab. As he goes off again to find a cab, he bumps into a flower girl. Her flowers drop into the mud of Covent Garden, the flowers she needs to survive in her poverty-stricken world, shortly they are joined by a gentleman, Colonel Pickering.
While Eliza tries to sell flowers to the Colonel, a bystander informs her that a man is writing down everything she says, the man is Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics. Eliza worries that Higgins is an officer and will not calm down until Higgins introduces himself. Higgins tells Pickering that he could pass off the girl as a duchess merely by teaching her to speak properly
Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace was an English writer. Born into poverty as an illegitimate London child, Wallace left school at age 12 and he joined the army at age 21 and was a war correspondent during the Second Boer War, for Reuters and the Daily Mail. Struggling with debt, he left South Africa, returned to London and he signed with Hodder and Stoughton in 1921 and became an internationally recognised author. After an unsuccessful bid to stand as Liberal MP for Blackpool in the 1931 general election, Wallace moved to Hollywood and he died suddenly from undiagnosed diabetes, during the initial drafting of King Kong. Wallace was such a writer that one of his publishers claimed that a quarter of all books in England were written by him. As well as journalism, Wallace wrote screen plays, historical non-fiction,18 stage plays,957 short stories, more than 160 films have been made of Wallaces work. He is remembered for the creation of King Kong, as a writer of the imagination, for the J. G. Reeder detective stories.
Wallace was born at 7 Ashburnham Grove, Greenwich, to actors Richard Horatio Edgar and Mary Jane Polly Richards, Wallaces mother was born in 1843, in Liverpool, to an Irish Catholic family. Marys family had been in business, and she worked in the theatre as a stagehand, usherette. Marys husband, Captain Joseph Richards, was born in Liverpool, in 1838. He and his father John Richards were both Merchant Navy captains, and his mother Catherine Richards came from a mariner family, when Mary was eight months pregnant, in January 1868, her husband died at sea. After the birth, Mary took to the stage, Richard Horatio Edgar and Polly had a broom cupboard style sexual encounter during an after-show party. During her confinement she had asked her midwife to find a couple to foster the child, the midwife introduced Polly to her close friend, Mrs Freeman, a mother of ten children, whose husband George Freeman was a Billingsgate fishmonger. On 9 April 1875, Polly took Edgar to the semi-literate Freeman family, pollys young son Wallace, known as Richard Horatio Edgar Freeman, had a happy childhood and a close bond with 20-year-old Clara Freeman, who became a second mother to him.
By 1878, Polly could no longer afford the small sum she had been paying the Freemans to care for her son and, instead of placing the boy in the workhouse, Polly never visited Wallace again as a child. By his early teens, Wallace had held numerous jobs such as newspaper-seller at Ludgate Circus near Fleet Street, milk-delivery boy, rubber factory worker, shoe shop assistant. A plaque at Ludgate Circus commemorates Wallaces first encounter with the newspaper business and he was dismissed from his job on the milk run for stealing money. In 1894, he engaged to a local Deptford girl, Edith Anstree
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Androcles and the Lion (play)
Androcles and the Lion is a 1912 play written by George Bernard Shaw. The play is Shaws retelling of the tale of Androcles, a slave who is saved by the mercy of a lion. In the play, Shaw portrays Androcles to be one of the many Christians being led to the Colosseum for torture, characters in the play exemplify several themes and takes on both modern and supposed early Christianity, including the cultural clash between Jesus teachings and traditional Roman values. Androcles, a fugitive Christian tailor, accompanied by his wife, is on the run from his Roman persecutors. While hiding in the forest he comes upon a lion who approaches him with a wounded paw. Androcles sees that the cause of the distress is a large thorn embedded in its paw. Androcles is captured and is sent to the Colosseum to be executed with other Christians in gladiatorial combat and they are joined by a new Christian convert called Ferrovius, who struggles to reconcile his Christian principles with his violent inclinations. The Roman captain guarding them is attracted to the genteel convert Lavinia, eventually the Christians are sent into the arena, but Ferrovius kills all the gladiators before they can harm any Christians.
He is offered a job in the Praetorian Guard, which he takes, the Christians are to be released, but the crowd demands blood. To satisfy them, Androcles offers himself to be savaged by lions, but the lion that is supposed to kill him turns out to be the one that Androcles saved, and the two dance around the arena to the delight of the crowd. The emperor comes into the arena to get a look. Androcles calls him off and the emperor is saved and he declares an end to the persecution of Christians. Androcles and his new pet depart together, the short play is often printed with a preface that includes a long examination of the Gospels by Shaw, in which Shaw analyzes the Bible and proclaims his findings. In summary, Shaw states that Jesus was a benevolent genius who eventually bought into popular ideas of his divinity, the preface is longer than the play. The play was written at a time when the Christian Church was an important influence on society, the reversal of roles in the play possibly served to evoke empathy from his targeted audience.
The characters represent different types of Christian believers, the journey and final outcome of each of the characters make it clear which believers Shaw sympathizes with the most, especially with Lavinia. Hypocrisy was a characteristic in the Church that Shaw condemned, the play has themes of martyrdom and persecution which are portrayed through the vehicle of comedy. Another point in the play is his position against vivisection, which connected to his philosophy in being a vegetarian, in the play, Shaw uses slapstick humour, verbal wit and physical humour to portray his themes
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. Formed in 1954, as a successor of such preceding agencies as the Cheka, NKGB, and MGB. It was the government agency of union-republican jurisdiction, acting as internal security, intelligence. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia and consisted of ministries, state committees. The KGB was a service and was governed by army laws and regulations. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two documentary sources are available. After the dissolution of the USSR, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service, after breaking away from the Republic of Georgia in the early 1990s with Russian help, the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia established its own KGB. A1983 Time magazine article reported that the KGB was the worlds most effective information-gathering organization, at best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared persona non grata and expelled by the government of the target country.
The illegal resident spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, and worked independently of Soviet diplomatic, in its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease. The KGB classified its spies as agents and controllers, the false-identity or legend assumed by a USSR-born illegal spy was elaborate, using the life of either a live double or a dead double. In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of Soviet society provoked KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov to lead the August 1991 Soviet coup détat attempt to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev, the thwarted coup détat ended the KGB on 6 November 1991. The KGBs successors are the police agency FSB and the espionage agency SVR. The GRU recruited the ideological agent Julian Wadleigh, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936, the NKVDs first US operation was establishing the legal residency of Boris Bazarov and the illegal residency of Iskhak Akhmerov in 1934.
Throughout, the Communist Party USA and its General Secretary Earl Browder, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government, moreover, when Whittaker Chambers, formerly Alger Hisss courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan and others—he was ignored. To wit, British Manhattan Project team physicist Klaus Fuchs was the agent of the Rosenberg spy ring. In 1944, the New York City residency infiltrated the top secret Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, by recruiting Theodore Hall, the KGB failed to rebuild most of its US illegal resident networks. The aftermath of the Second Red Scare and the crisis in the CPUSA hampered recruitment, the last major illegal resident, Rudolf Abel, was betrayed by his assistant, Reino Häyhänen, in 1957. One notable KGB success occurred in 1967, with the recruitment of US Navy Chief Warrant Officer John Anthony Walker
The Government Inspector
The Government Inspector, known as The Inspector General, is a satirical play by the Russian and Ukrainian dramatist and novelist Nikolai Gogol. Originally published in 1836, the play was revised for an 1842 edition, based upon an anecdote allegedly recounted to Gogol by Pushkin, the play is a comedy of errors, satirizing human greed and the extensive political corruption of Imperial Russia. According to D. S. Mirsky, the play is not only supreme in character, the great originality of its plan consisted in the absence of all love interest and of sympathetic characters. The latter feature was deeply resented by Gogols enemies, and as a satire the play gained immensely from it. There is not a word or intonation from beginning to end. He is full of movement and meaningless fermentation incarnate, on a foundation of placidly ambitious inferiority. The publication of the led to a great outcry in the reactionary press. It took the intervention of Tsar Nicholas I to have the play staged. Early in his career Gogol was best known for his short stories, after establishing a reputation, Gogol began working on several plays.
His first attempt to write a play about imperial bureaucracy in 1832 was abandoned out of fear of censorship. In 1835, he sought inspiration for a new play from Pushkin. Do me a favour, send me some subject, comical or not and my hand is itching to write a comedy. Give me a subject and Ill knock off a comedy in five acts — I promise and my mind and stomach are both famished. Pushkin had a background and was once mistaken for a government inspector in 1833. His notes alluded to an anecdote similar to what would become the basic story elements for The Government Inspector. Krispin arrives in the Province. to a fair – he is taken for, the governor is an honest fool – the governors wife flirts with him – Krispin woos the daughter. The corrupt officials of a small Russian town, headed by the Mayor, the flurry of activity to cover up their considerable misdeeds is interrupted by the report that a suspicious person has arrived two weeks previously from Saint Petersburg and is staying at the inn. That person, however, is not an inspector, it is Khlestakov, for quite some time, Khlestakov does not even realize that he has been mistaken for someone else
Royal Tunbridge Wells
Royal Tunbridge Wells is a large affluent town in western Kent, about 40 miles south-east of central London by road,34.5 miles by rail. The town is close to the border of the county of East Sussex and it is situated at the northern edge of the High Weald, the sandstone geology of which is exemplified by the rock formations at the Wellington Rocks and High Rocks. Though its popularity waned with the advent of sea bathing, the town remains popular, the town has a population of around 56,500 and is the administrative centre of Tunbridge Wells Borough and the UK parliamentary constituency of Tunbridge Wells. The area which is now Tunbridge Wells was part of the parish of Speldhurst for hundreds of years, but the origin of the town as it is today, came in the seventeenth century. In 1606 Dudley, Lord North, a courtier to James I who was staying at a lodge in Eridge in the hope that the country air might improve his ailing constitution. He drank from the spring and, when his health improved and he persuaded his rich friends in London to try it, and by the time Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of King Charles I, visited in 1630 it had established itself as a spa retreat.
Also in 1676 a subscription for a chapel of ease was opened, and in 1684 the Church of King Charles the Martyr was duly built and the town began to develop around it. Tradesmen in the town dealt in the luxury goods demanded by their patrons, which would certainly have included Tunbridge ware, a kind of decoratively inlaid woodwork. They have made the very commodious by the many good building all about it. All the people buy their own provisions at the market, which is just by the wells and is furnished with great plenty of all sorts of fish and fowl. and two rooms for the lottery and hazard board. He remained in position until his death in 1762. By the early nineteenth century Tunbridge Wells experienced growth as a place for the well-to-do to visit, during this time Decimus Burton developed John Wards Calverley Park estate. In 1889 the town was awarded the status of a Borough,1902 saw the opening of an Opera House, and in 1909 the town received its Royal prefix. The Second World War affected Tunbridge Wells in a different way—it became so swollen with refugees from London that accommodation was severely strained, over 3,800 buildings were damaged by bombing, but only 15 people lost their lives.
Royal Tunbridge Wells is one of three towns in England to have been granted this. Although Wells has a form, it refers to the principal source. Royal Tunbridge Wells is the centre for both Tunbridge Wells Borough and the parliamentary constituency of Tunbridge Wells. The Borough is governed by 48 Councillors, representing 20 wards, elections are held for 16 Council seats each year on a rotational basis, with elections to Kent County Council taking place in the fourth year of the cycle
Ingrid Bergman was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films. She won three Academy Awards, two Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a BAFTA Award, and the Tony Award for Best Actress. She is best remembered for her roles as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca and as Alicia Huberman in Notorious, before becoming a star in American films, Bergman had been a leading actress in Swedish films. Her introduction to American audiences came with her role in the English-language remake of Intermezzo. Selznicks financial problems meant that Bergman was often loaned to other studios, apart from Casablanca, her performances from this period include Victor Flemings remake of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Bells of St. Marys. Her last films for Selznick were Alfred Hitchcocks Spellbound and Notorious and her final film for Hitchcock was Under Capricorn. After a decade in American films, she starred in Roberto Rossellinis Stromboli, many of her personal and film documents can be seen in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives.
According to the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Bergman quickly became the ideal of American womanhood, in 2007, the American Film Institute ranked Bergman as the fourth-greatest female screen legend of classic American cinema. Bergman, named after Princess Ingrid of Sweden, was born on 29 August 1915 in Stockholm, to a Swedish father, Justus Bergman, when she was two years old, her mother died. Her father, who was an artist and photographer, died when she was 13, in the years before he died, he wanted her to become an opera star, and had her take voice lessons for three years. But she always knew from the beginning that she wanted to be an actress, sometimes wearing her mothers clothes and her father documented all her birthdays with a borrowed camera. After his death, she was sent to live with an aunt and she moved in with her Aunt Hulda and Uncle Otto, who had five children. Another aunt she visited, Elsa Adler, first told Ingrid, when she was 11, that her mother may have had some Jewish blood, but her aunt cautioned her about telling others about her possible ancestry as there might be some difficult times coming.
Biographer Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, notes that the claim of Jewish blood was likely an embellishment, after being forced to do an in-depth genealogical investigation, Bergmans maternal cousin found there to be no Jewish ancestry on Bergmans mothers side. Later, she received a scholarship to the state-sponsored Royal Dramatic Theatre School, after several months she was given a part in a new play, Ett Brott, written by Sigfrid Siwertz. Chandler notes that this was totally against procedure at the school, during her first summer break, she was hired by a Swedish film studio, which led to her leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre after just one year, to work in films full-time. Her first film role after leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre was a part in 1935s Munkbrogreven. She went on to act in a films in Sweden, including En kvinnas ansikte, which was remade as A Womans Face with Joan Crawford