Erik Gustaf Boström
Erik Gustaf Bernhard Boström was a Swedish landowner and politician, a member of the Swedish Parliament and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Sweden of the 19th century. He served twice, first from 1891 to 1900 and again from 1902 to 1905, he was known as E. G. Boström or E. Gust. Boström. In 1871, he married Carolina "Lina" Almqvist, with whom he had one son. Brother of County Governor Filip Boström and nephew of the philosopher Christopher Jacob Boström. Boström’s governmental policy was marked by its pragmatism. Over time, Boström gained a good reputation as being a rallying national icon despite being the first prime minister to have neither an academic education nor experience with upper governmental positions, he was quite popular with King Oscar II. Boström’s eventual downfall was caused by his refusal to budge on the issue of Norway. Erik Gustaf Boström was born in Stockholm, the son of Eric Samuel Boström, chief judge of the district court and his wife Elisabet Gustava Fredenheim; the family was one branch of the Laestadius family of priests from Norrland.
His paternal grandfather Christopher Laestander, a townsman and ship carpenter in the city of Piteå, took the surname Boström. He was tutored by Kristian Claëson, whose first cousin served as the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs under Boström in 1898. In 1854, he became a student at the Uppsala Cathedral School, the year his father died, it is worth noting that five of his fellow cabinet members during his first term attended the same school: Axel Rappe, Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Ludvig Annerstedt, Gustaf Gilljam and Lars Åkerhielm. In 1861, he transferred to Uppsala University, where he studied until 1863 when his mother died and he had to take over her manor at Östanå Castle; as a youth he availed himself of the opportunity to pay to avoid conscription, last possible in 1872. Boström was quite successful as a farmer and he started to get involved in local politics. In January 1870, he became a member of the executive committee of the Agricultural Society of Stockholm County and of the county council of Stockholm County, where he served as vice-chairperson and chairperson for many years.
In 1871, he married daughter of Justice Councillor and Minister Ludvig Almqvist. In 1875, he was elected to the lower house of parliament to represent the judicial district of Södra Roslagen. In parliament, he joined the Lantmanna Party and positioned himself as a leading protectionist, supporting tariff protection, in the Standing Committees of Ways and Means and of Banking. In addition, he was interested in a strong defence, which he considered to have manifested itself as a strong marine defence, a strong opposition to the abolition of the Swedish allotment system. After he retired from his position as Prime Minister, Boström became the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, where he tried unsuccessfully to prevent Bengt Lidforss from continuing on as associate professor at Lund University, he tendered his resignation from his position as chancellor, although he retracted it. Boström continued to be interested in politics and in a letter that he wrote to his dear old friend Carl Herslow on 4 June, he stated that it would be desirable for the retired government to have been able to stay on.
He said in a letter that Karl Staaff's government could take of social policy better than a conservative government could and that Staaff appeared to possess the ability to accomplish a lot, although he chose a different way. Boström died in his home in Stockholm on 21 February 1907. A few days the bells pealed out over Stockholm to commemorate the former Prime Minister. One brother, County Governor of Södermanland County Filip Boström. One sister Ebba Augusta. Six daughters: Hedvig, Carolina Elisabeth, Sofia Lovisa, Clara Gustafva, Ingeborg Maria and Eva Margareta. One son: Chamberlain Gustaf Samuel Boström. Married to Carolina Almqvist, daughter of Councillor of Justice and Minister Ludvig Almqvist
Salomon Arvid Achates Lindman was a Swedish rear admiral and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1906 to 1911 and again from 1928 to 1930. He was the leader of the right-wing General Electoral Union between 1912 and 1935 as well as leader of Lantmanna- och borgarepartiet from 1913 to 1935, except for a short while during 1917 when he served as Minister for Foreign Affairs, his two tenures as Prime Minister, from 1906 to 1911 and from 1928 to 1930, spanned the introduction of parliamentarianism and universal suffrage. Lindman married Annie Almström in 1888, with, he was a cousin of Alex Lindman. Arvid Lindman was born in Österbybruk, the son of managing director Achates Lindman and Ebba Dahlgren, his career as a naval officer 1882–92 reached its peak in 1907 when he was appointed as Rear Admiral in the naval reserve. During his political career following this he became known as "the Admiral". Lindman was CEO of Iggesunds Bruk from 1892 to 1903 and of Strömbacka bruks AB between 1903 and 1923.
In 1904 he became Director-general of Televerket. In 1902 he had declined the post as Minister for Finance in Boström's second cabinet but started a political career in 1905 when he became both Ministry for Naval Affairs in Lundeberg's broad-based cabinet and a member of the Riksdag's first chamber. Staaff's liberal cabinet had hoped to instate complete suffrage for all draft-abiding male citizens under the first past the post system, with implicit support for women's suffrage as well. Through great political skill Lindman managed to enact universal suffrage for male citizens according to the principle of "double proportionality" – in both chambers of parliament – in 1907–09, his six-year government oversaw a number of reforms in the areas of industry and social politics. A defence committee was appointed, decisions were made to build up the navy, the international position of Sweden was confirmed in the Nordic and Baltic Sea agreements. Political and economic opposition resulted in the general strike of 1909, but the strike failed, Lindman's government was allowed to remain in power, ostensibly supported by the king.
Extended suffrage and proportional representation had preserved the right as a parliamentary force yet contributed to a success for the left-wing coalition, when the Liberals and the Social Democrats won the election for the second chamber in 1911. Lindman transferred to the second chamber where he was chairman for the second-chamber right 1912-35, with an interruption in 1917 when he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in Swartz's cabinet; as a leading right-wing politician he had given advice to the King about the creation of the Hammarskjöld and Swartz cabinets, with the goal of blocking the more hard-edged conservative leader of the first-chamber right, Ernst Trygger. During the years 1913-35 Lindman was chairman for the national organisation of right-wing parties, the General Electoral Union – the predecessor of the present Moderate Party – and as such was a driving force in the work to modernize the party organisation after the constitutional change in 1918 which instituted universal male suffrage.
Among other innovations he hired an airplane to take him on speaking tours of the country and introduced the political poster. The GEU lost its status as largest party in 1917 to the Social Democrats, which has retained it since. Proportional representation, managed to sustain a considerable support though surpassed by both Liberals and Social Democrats. After a hard-fought electoral campaign in 1928, when the Social Democrats had controversially formed a coalition with some Communists and suffered great losses in the election, Lindman formed a right-wing government in minority, after the liberals and the Freeminded had turned down the King's request for a broader center-right majority government. Among the things this government did, the calling of the conference on peace in the workplace in 1928 is worth mentioning; the government resigned in 1930 after the Freeminded and the Social Democrats blocked the proposition for raised customs duty on grain, the goal of, the strengthening of the agrarian sector.
No party or union commanded a majority, which made early 1930s notoriously turbulent. Lindman was a modern kind of party leader, who with involvement and eloquence turned directly to the voters. Both as an industrialist and as a politician he was goal-oriented, he was a pragmatic conservative without losing his principles and an effective political peace-broker, who sought a policy of compromise with his adversaries. During the growth of the anti-democratic movements in Europe he acted as a guardian for the principles of government by the people, he spoke out against nazism and fascism; when his party's youth organisation started organising uniformed fascist action groups in the 1930s, he saw to it that they were expelled from the party. The "honest thanks over the battle lines" from the social democratic leader Per Albin Hansson when Lindman resigned as party leader in favor of the younger academic and professor Gösta Bagge in 1935 was an expression of the wide-ranging respect that he had. Lindman died in an aircraft crash on 9 December 1936, when the Douglas DC-2
Karl Hjalmar Branting was a Swedish politician. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Prime Minister during three separate periods; when Branting came to power in 1920, he was the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden. When he took office for a second term after the general election of 1921, he became the first socialist politician in Europe to do so following elections with universal suffrage. In 1921, Sweden's Prime Minister Hjalmar Branting shared the Nobel Peace Prize with the Norwegian secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Christian Lous Lange, he was born to the noblewoman and pianist Emma af Georgii. Branting was educated at Uppsala University, he developed a scientific background in mathematical astronomy and was an assistant at the Stockholm Observatory, but gave up his devotion to scientific work to become a journalist in 1884 and began editing the newspapers Tiden and Social-Demokraten. His decision to publish an article by the more radical socialist Axel Danielsson - a piece denounced by opponents as insulting to religious sensitivities - resulted in political convictions for blasphemy and imprisonment for both men.
Branting was imprisoned for three months in 1888. Together with August Palm, Branting was in 1889 one of the main organizers of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, he was its first Member of Parliament from 1896, for six years the only one. In the early years of the 20th century, Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden; when the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!" The Social Democrats organized resistance to a call-up of reserves and a general strike against a war, are credited with a substantial share in preventing one. Hjalmar Branting accepted Eduard Bernstein's revision of Marxism and became a reformist socialist, advocating a peaceful transition from capitalism towards socialism, he believed. Branting supported the February Revolution in Russia in 1917, he was pro-Menshevik and defended the government of Alexander Kerensky, whom he personally visited in Petrograd. When the October Revolution broke out the same year, Branting condemned the Bolshevik seizure of power.
1917 saw a split in the Swedish Social Democratic Party on this question, the youth league and the revolutionary sections of the party broke away and formed the Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden, headed by Zeth Höglund. This group soon became the Swedish Communist Party. Zeth Höglund returned to the Social Democratic Party, wrote a two-volume biography about Hjalmar Branting; as Prime Minister he brought Sweden into the League of Nations and was active as a delegate within it. When the question of whether Åland should be handed over to Sweden after the independence of Finland from Russia was brought up, he let the League of Nation decide upon the issue, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1921 for his work in the League of Nations, sharing the prize with the Norwegian Christian Lous Lange. Branting is commemorated by the Branting Monument in Stockholm. Additionally in Gothenburg, there is a tram and bus interchange named after Branting, in Swedish it is Hjalmar Brantingsplatsen. Stockholms Plads in Copenhagen was renamed Hjalmar Brantings Plads in 1925.
Swedish general election, 1921 Works by or about Hjalmar Branting at Internet Archive Nobel Committee information on 1921 Laureates. Hjalmar Branting at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about Hjalmar Branting in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Swedish Social Democratic Party
The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and referred to just as the Social Democrats, is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014. Founded in 1889, a schism occurred in 1917 when the left socialists split from the Social Democrats to form the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party; the symbol of the SAP is traditionally a red rose, believed to have been Fredrik Ström's idea. The words of honour, as recorded by the 2001 party programme, are "freedom and solidarity." The party had influences from Marxism in its early days, however these were removed in the years leading up to the split in 1917. In 2007, the Social Democrats elected Mona Sahlin as its first female party leader. On 7 December 2009, the Social Democrats launched a political and electoral coalition known as the Red-Greens together with the Greens and the Left Party; the parties contested the 2010 election on a joint manifesto, but lost the election to the incumbent centre-right coalition The Alliance.
On 26 November 2010 the Red-Green alliance was dissolved. The Social Democratic Party has about 100,000 members, with about 2,540 local party associations and 500 workplace associations, it has been the largest party in the Riksdag since 1914. The member base is diverse, but prominently features organized blue-collar workers and public sector employees; the party has a historical relationship with the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. Organisations within the Swedish social democratic movement: The National Federation of Social Democratic Women in Sweden organizes women; the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League organizes youth. The Social Democratic Students of Sweden organizes university students; the Religious Social Democrats of Sweden organizes all members with religious beliefs. The LGBT Social Democrats of Sweden organizes LGBT-people; the Swedish Social Democratic Party had its golden age during the mid-1930s to mid-1980s when in half of all general elections they got between 44.6% and 46.2% of the votes, making it one of the most successful political parties in the history of the liberal democratic world.
In two of the general elections, in 1940 and 1968, they got more than 50%. In 1940 all established Swedish parties, except for the Communist Party, had a coalition government due to the pressures of the Second World War, it led to voters most wanting one party to be in majority to give a parliament that couldn't be hung. In 1944 the tides of the war had turned and the allied nations looked to win, giving voters more confidence in voting by preference and explaining the more normal electoral result of 46.6%. There might well have among parts of the public regarding how the Communist Party was held out of the government, in 1944 they got 10.3%. In 1968 the established Communist Party, most due to bad press about the Soviets overtaking of Czechoslovakia, got a very bad result of 3% of the votes, while the Social Democrats enjoyed 50.1% and their own majority in parliament. Only in a brief period between the elections of 1973 to 1979 did the Social Democrats get below the normal interval of 44.6% to 46.2%, instead scoring an average of 43.2%, losing in 1976, the first time in 44 years, again just in 1979.
However, they won back power in 1982 with a normal result of 45.6%. The voter base consists of a diverse swathe of people throughout Swedish society, although it is strong amongst organised blue-collar workers. In the 2006 general election, the Social Democratic Party received the smallest share of votes in a general election with universal suffrage, resulting in the loss of office to the opposition, the centre-right coalition Alliance for Sweden. Among the support that the Social Democratic Party lost in the 2006 election was the vote of pensioners, blue-collar trade unionists; the combined Social Democratic Party and Left Party vote of citizens with non-Nordic foreign backgrounds sank from 73% in 2002 to 48% in 2006. Stockholm County votes for the centre-right parties. Only 23% of Stockholm City residents voted for S in 2006. From 2006 to 2014, the Social Democrats lost two consecutive terms to the centre-right Alliance, due to the centrist liberal attitudes of Prime Minister Frederik Reinfeldt attracted some of the S voters.
In 2010, 2014 and 2018, the vote shares of S declined, some of these votes were lost to the right-wing populist Sweden Democrats. In the 2018 Swedish general election The Social Democrats' vote share fell to 28.3 percent, its lowest level of support since 1911. In the 1890s the Social Democrats stood on the same ticket as the Liberals; the party's first chapter in its statutes says "the intension of the Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party is the struggle towards the Democratic Socialism," that is, a society with a democratic economy based on the socialist principle, "From each ac
Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It is the seat of Kalmar Municipality, it is the capital of Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 236,399 inhabitants. From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Kalmar was one of Sweden's most important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the episcopal see of Kalmar Diocese, with a bishop, the Kalmar Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic architecture, it became a fortified city, with the Kalmar Castle as the center. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Kalmar's importance diminished, until the industry sector was initiated in the 19th century; the city is home to parts of Linnaeus University. Kalmar is adjacent to the main route to the island of Öland over the Öland Bridge; the area around Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times. Excavations have found traces of stone age gravefields. However, the oldest evidence for there being a town is from the 11th century.
According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian king Saint Olav had his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of Kalmar is from somewhere between 1255 and 1267, making it the oldest known city seal in Scandinavia. In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were established, with the construction of a round tower for guard and lookout; the tower was continuously expanded in the 13th century, as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between the heads of state of Sweden and Norway, on 13 July 1397, the Kalmar Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's strategic location, near the Danish border, its harbour and trade involved it in several feuds. There are two events independently labelled the Kalmar Bloodbath, 1505: the first in 1505, when King John of Denmark and Sweden had the mayor and city council of Kalmar executed. In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa, his sons Erik XIV of Sweden and John III of Sweden would organize a rebuilding of the castle into the magnificent Renaissance castle it is today.
Kalmar became a diocese in 1603, a position it held until 1915. In 1634, Kalmar County was founded, with Kalmar as the natural capital. In 1660, the Kalmar Cathedral was begun by drawings of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, it would be inaugurated in 1703. In 1611 -- 1613, it suffered in the Kalmar War. 1611 by no means the only dark year. The last was during the Scanian War in the 1670s, so there have been 22 sieges altogether. After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the strategic importance of Kalmar diminished as the borders were redrawn further south. In 1689, the King established his main naval base further south in Karlskrona and Kalmar lost its status as one of Sweden's main military outposts; the new city of Kalmar was built on Kvarnholmen around the mid-1600s. The transfer from the old town was completed by 1658; the new, fortified town was planned following current baroque patterns. Cathedral and town hall face each other across Stortorget; the cathedral was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and is one of the foremost examples of baroque classicism in Sweden.
Its design reflects the complex interaction between the new style, liturgical considerations and the fortress-city requirements. The work began in 1660, but it was interrupted on several occasions, including when the Scanian War raged. Construction resumed, Kalmar Cathedral stood finished in 1703. In more recent times, Kalmar has been an industrial city with Kalmar Verkstad making steam engines and large machinery bought by Bombardier who closed the factory in 2005. A shipyard, Kalmar Varv, was founded in 1679 and closed 1981. Volvo opened their Kalmar factory for building cars i.e. 264, 740, 760, 960 in 1974, but closed it 1994 and due to further relocation of industry jobs in the 1990s and 2000s around 2000 industrial jobs were lost. Kalmar has a research facility for Telia Sonera. Kalmar has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has installed computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use by 10 percent, paying off the cost of the devices in just a year.
The company is now looking to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel. A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once released as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, generates enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000 homes. Bicycle lanes are common. Building codes now require thermal insulation and efficient windows for new construction or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs, car dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles. In 2011 Guldfågeln Arena was initiated, it is the new stadium of the football team of the city, Kalmar FF. The capacity of the stadium is 12,000 people and it is one of the newest stadiums in Sweden; the stadium was built to host concerts and did so in the summer of 2011 when Swedish artists Håkan Hellström and The Ark performed. Kalmar has a cold oceanic climate, it is somewhat continental with warm summers and cold winters which averages just above the freezing point during days and goes somewhat below it at
Gustaf V of Sweden
Gustaf V was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death in 1950. He was the eldest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Sophia of Nassau, a half-sister of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Reigning from the death of his father Oscar II in 1907 until his own death 43 years he holds the record of being the oldest monarch of Sweden and the third-longest reigning after Magnus IV and Carl XVI Gustaf, he was the last Swedish monarch to exercise his royal prerogatives, which died with him, although formally abolished only with the remaking of the Swedish constitution in 1974. He was the first Swedish king since the High Middle Ages not to have a coronation and hence never wore a crown, a tradition continuing to date. Gustaf's early reign saw the rise of parliamentary rule in Sweden, although the leadup to World War I pre-empted his overthrow of Liberal Prime Minister Karl Staaff in 1914, replacing him with his own figurehead Hjalmar Hammarskjöld for most of the war. However, after the Liberals and Social Democrats secured a parliamentary majority under Staaff's successor, Nils Edén, he allowed Edén to form a new government which de facto stripped the monarchy of all virtual powers and enacted universal and equal suffrage, including for women, by 1919.
Bowing to the principles of parliamentary democracy, he remained a popular figurehead for the remaining 31 years of his rule, although not without influence – during World War II he urged Per Albin Hansson's coalition government to accept requests from Nazi Germany for logistics support, refusing which might have provoked an invasion. This remains controversial to date, although he is not known to have shown much support for fascism or radical nationalism. Following his death at age 92, he was implicated in a homosexual affair in the Haijby affair, his supposed lover – career criminal Kurt Haijby – was imprisoned in 1952 for blackmail of the court in the 1930s. An avid hunter and sportsman, he presided over the 1912 Olympic Games and chaired the Swedish Association of Sports from 1897 to 1907. Most notably, he represented Sweden as a competitive tennis player, keeping up competitive tennis until his 80s, when his eyesight deteriorated rapidly, he was succeeded by his son, Gustaf VI Adolf. Gustaf V was born in Drottningholm Palace in Ekerö, Stockholm County, the son of Prince Oscar and Princess Sofia of Nassau.
At birth Gustaf was created Duke of Värmland. Upon his father's accession to the throne in 1872, Gustaf became crown prince of both Sweden and Norway. On 8 December 1907, he succeeded his father on the Swedish throne, separated from the Norwegian throne two years earlier. On 20 September 1881 he married Princess Victoria of Baden in Germany, she was the granddaughter of Sophie, Grand Duchess of Baden, the daughter of deposed Gustav IV Adolf of Vasa Dynasty. Victoria's marriage to Gustaf V united the reigning Bernadotte dynasty with the former royal house of Holstein-Gottorp, thus was popular throughout Sweden; when he ascended the throne, Gustaf V was, at least on paper, a near-autocrat. The 1809 Instrument of Government made the king both head of state and head of government, ministers were responsible to him. However, his father had been forced to accept a government chosen by the majority in Parliament in 1905. Since prime ministers had been chosen according to parliamentary support. At first, Gustaf V seemed to be willing to accept parliamentary rule.
After the Liberals won a massive landslide in 1911, Gustaf appointed Liberal leader Karl Staaff as Prime Minister. However, during the runup to World War I, the elites objected to Staaff's defence policy. In February 1914, a large crowd of farmers gathered at the royal palace and demanded that the country's defences be strengthened. In his reply, the so-called Courtyard Speech—which was written by explorer Sven Hedin, an ardent conservative—Gustaf promised to strengthen the country's defences. Staaff was outraged, telling the king parliamentary rule called for the Crown to stay out of partisan politics, he was angered that he had not been consulted in advance of the speech. However, Gustaf retorted that he still had the right to "communicate with the Swedish people." The Staaff government resigned in protest, Gustaf appointed a government of civil servants headed by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld in its place. The 1917 elections showed a heavy gain for Social Democrats. Despite this, Gustaf tried to appoint a Conservative government headed by Johan Widén.
However, Widén was unable to attract enough support for a coalition. It was now apparent that Gustaf could no longer appoint a government of his own choosing, nor could he keep a government in office against the will of Parliament. With no choice but to appoint a Liberal as prime minister, he appointed a Liberal-Social Democratic coalition government headed by Staaff's successor as Liberal leader, Nils Edén; the Edén government promptly arrogated most of the king's political powers to itself and enacted numerous reforms, most notably the institution of complete universal suffrage in 1918–1919. While Gustaf still formally appointed the ministers, they now had to have the confidence of Parliament, he was now bound to act on the ministers' advice. Although the provision in the Instrument of Government stating that "the King alone shall govern the realm" remained unchanged, for