Voyage of the Damned
Voyage of the Damned is a 1976 drama film, which was based on a 1974 book written by Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan-Witts with the same title. The story was inspired by events concerning the fate of the MS St. Louis ocean liner carrying Jewish refugees from Germany to Cuba in 1939. Based on actual events, this tells the story of the 1939 voyage of the MS St. Louis. The passengers, having seen and suffered rising anti-Semitism in Germany, they were to be set up as Pariahs, to set an example before the world. As a Nazi official states in the film, when the world has refused to accept them as refugees. The captain tells a confidante that he has received a signed by 200 passengers saying they will join hands. He states his intention to run the liner aground on a reef off the southern coast of England. Shortly before the end, it is revealed that the governments of Belgium, the Netherlands. The 1976 film was directed by Stuart Rosenberg, with a screenplay by David Butler and it was produced by ITC Entertainment and released by Avco Embassy Pictures.
The movie was filmed on board the chartered Italian ocean liner Irpinia and it was shot on location in Barcelona, Spain, St. Pancras Chambers in London, and at the EMI Elstree Studios in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire. The true death toll is unclear, the book of these events estimates a much lower number of deaths. Adding to these the passengers who disembarked in England, they estimated that of the original 936 refugees, in 1998, Scott Miller and Sarah Ogilvie of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum traced the survivors from the voyage. They concluded that a total of 254 refugees died at the hands of the Nazis, according to Lew Grade who helped finance the film, the movie should have done better at the box office. The complete, uncut version of the film was 182 minutes long and it was released only once, on the Magnetic Video label in 1980. The film was nominated for three Academy Awards, Best Supporting Actress - Lee Grant Best Original Score - Lalo Schifrin Best Writing Adapted Screenplay - David Butler, all tracks written by Lalo Schifrin.
Lalo Schifrin - arranger, conductor London Studio Orchestra Anti-semitism Jewish refugees MS St. S, St. Louis 20th Century History article Article discussing the role of the U. S. Coast Guard
Theater in der Josefstadt
The Theater in der Josefstadt is a theater in Vienna in the eighth district of Josefstadt. It was founded in 1788 and is the oldest still performing theater in Vienna and it is often referred to colloquially as simply Die Josefstadt. Following remodeling and rebuilding in 1822 — celebrated by the performance of the overture Die Weihe des Hauses by Beethoven — opera was staged there including Meyerbeer and Wagner, from 1858 onwards the theatre gave up opera and instead concentrated on straight theatre and comedy. Ludwig van Beethoven and Richard Wagner conducted there, Johann Nestroy and Ferdinand Raimund were connected to the theater as actors and poets. Johann Strauss I performed in the Sträußelsälen, in 1814, Ferdinand Raimund had his Vienna debut as Franz Moor in Die Räuber by Friedrich Schiller. In 1822, Die Weihe des Hauses composed and directed by Ludwig van Beethoven, in 1829 Johann Nestroy debuted as an actor with the Die Verbannung aus dem Zauberreich oder Dreißig Jahre aus dem Leben eines Lumpen.
From 1833 to 1836 Conradin Kreutzer was the conductor and on 13 January 1834. On 20 February 1834, Ferdinand Raimunds Der Verschwender was first performed with the poet in the roll of Valentin, between around 1840 and 1860, famous dancers Fanny Elssler and the Spanish Pepita de Oliva performed in the theater. The first German-language performance of Ferenc Molnárs Liliom with Josef Jarno in the role on 28 February 1913 played a key role in the pieces long-lasting appeal. Theater in der Josefstadt - official website
The Jews, known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as Hebrews. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank. According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and these numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household.
The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure, Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, according to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced, with the stress on the syllable, in Israeli Hebrew. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio, ג׳ודיוס, Yiddish, ייִד Yid, ייִדן, Yidn. The etymological equivalent is in use in languages, e. g. but derivations of the word Hebrew are in use to describe a Jew, e. g. in Italian. The German word Jude is pronounced, the corresponding adjective jüdisch is the origin of the word Yiddish, in such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities, as archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacobs son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs descendants were enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, traditionally dated to the 13th century BCE, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the Patriarchs and of the Exodus story, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites inspiring national myth narrative. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group
Dantons Death was the first play written by Georg Büchner, set during the French Revolution. Georg Büchner wrote his works in the period between Romanticism and Realism in the so-called Vormärz era in German history and literature. The goal of the politically liberal poets of this period was that literature of an existence would again become an effective organ for renewing political and social life. They were opposed to the Romantics and against the restoration of the old order from prior to the Napoleonic Wars. They fought against convention and absolutism, campaigned for freedom of speech, the emancipation of the individual, including women and Jews, and for a democratic constitution. They created a trend-poetry and time-poetry – in other words, poetry that dealt with problems of the time, other writers of this trend and period were Heinrich Heine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Franz Grillparzer. Whilst working on it Buchner always feared arrest and it only reached print in 1835 after being heavily cut and having the politics softened by sexual innuendo.
Research for the play started in late 1834 and he completed a first version of the script in five weeks from mid January to mid February 1835. The same year saw a version published by Karl Gutzkow in the Literatur-Blatt of Eduard Dullers Phönix and this makes it the only one of Büchners plays to be published in his lifetime, albeit in a heavily censored version. For a long time no theatre would dare put on the play and this occurred on 5 January, in the Belle-Alliance-Theater in Berlin, in a production put on by the Vereins Neue Freie Volksbühne. Its use of historical sources and extensive quotations from original political speeches meant that the play was seen in the 20th century as the precursor to documentary theatre. The play follows the story of Georges Danton, a leader of the French Revolution, Georges Danton created the office of the Revolutionary Tribunal as a strong arm for the Revolutionary Government. With this, to be accused of anything real or imagined was to be condemned to death without trial, within months he knew this power was a terrible mistake and fought to have it ended.
Robespierre stopped him and used the Tribunal to have Danton and all killed, consolidate his power and slaughter uncounted thousands of French men, women. Ultimately he followed Danton to the guillotine, witnesses describe Danton as dying bravely comforting other innocents executed with him. Dantons friends press him to fight or flee Robespierres supporters, but Danton does not see any need to do so, Danton confides the guilt he feels for the September Massacres in his wife Julie. Danton is imprisoned and led before the National Assembly, which is divided – it feels it has no choice, however and Saint-Just reverse its opinion. The prisoners discuss the existence of God and life, and an attempt to prove that God does not exist fails, Dantons supporters are transferred to the Conciergerie
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud, a related term is ahimsa, which is a core philosophy in Buddhism and Hinduism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, in Christianity, Jesus Christs injunction to love your enemies and asking for forgiveness for his crucifiers for they know not what they do have been interpreted as calling for pacifism. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called satyagraha, instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the Civil Rights Movement. Pacifism was widely associated with the much publicized image of Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 with the Tank Man, historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism in the sense generally accepted in English-speaking areas as an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare.
Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the form of pacifism as anti-warism. Teichmans beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as, a pacifist rejects war and believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong, in a sense the philosophy is based on the idea that the ends do not justify the means. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism, principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found, some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective. Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others, by no means is all nonviolent resistance based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances.
Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists, sometimes, as with the civil rights movements march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection. The interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are numerous and complex, the principle is described as difficult to abide by consistently, due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person who is being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic, Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were comparable to an individual enemy and the Republics war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in history and literature, during the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Tyrone Edmund Power III was an American film and radio actor. From the 1930s to the 1950s Power appeared in dozens of films and his better-known films include The Mark of Zorro and Sand, The Black Swan, Prince of Foxes, Witness For The Prosecution, The Black Rose, and Captain from Castile. Powers own favorite film among those that he starred in was Nightmare Alley, though largely a matinee idol in the 1930s and early 1940s and known for his striking looks, Power starred in films in a number of genres, from drama to light comedy. In the 1950s he began placing limits on the number of films he would make in order to more time for theater productions. He received his biggest accolades as an actor in John Browns Body. Power died from an attack at the age of 44. Power was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1914, son of Helen Emma Patia, Power was descended from a long theatrical line going back to his great-grandfather, the actor and comedian Tyrone Power. Tyrone Powers sister, Ann Power was born in 1915, after the family moved to California and his fathers ancestry included Irish, Scottish, Italian and French Huguenots.
His mother was Roman Catholic, and her ancestry included the French-Canadian Reaume family, Power went to Cincinnati-area Catholic schools and graduated from Purcell High School in 1931. Upon his graduation, he opted to join his father to learn what he could about acting from one of the stages most respected actors, Power joined his father for the summer of 1931, after being separated from him for some years due to his parents divorce. His father suffered an attack in December 1931, dying in his sons arms. Tyrone Power, Jr. as he was known, decided to continue his pursuit of an acting career. He went door to door, trying to work as an actor. He appeared in a bit part in 1932 in Tom Brown of Culver, discouraged, he took the advice of a friend, Arthur Caesar, to go to New York to gain experience as a stage actor. Power went to Hollywood in 1936, the director Henry King was impressed with his looks and poise, and he insisted that Power be tested for the lead role in Lloyds of London, a role thought already to belong to Don Ameche.
Despite his own reservations, Darryl F. Zanuck decided to give Power the role, once King, Power was billed fourth in the movie but he had by far the most screen time of any actor. He walked into the premiere of the movie an unknown and he walked out a star, which he remained the rest of his career. Power racked up hit after hit from 1936 until 1943, when his career was interrupted by military service. A. F. and This Above All, and the swashbucklers The Mark of Zorro and The Black Swan
Triesen is the third largest of Liechtensteins municipalities. It contains several churches dating from the fifteenth century. It has a mill from 1863 that is considered a historical monument. The municipality includes the highest point of Liechtenstein, the Grauspitz and it is located between Vaduz and Balzers. The settlements of Triesen, as the archaeologists have found during excavations, were destroyed in natural disasters. The detailed picture of the place Triesen shows that all settlement phases were terminated by the forces of nature and it has been demonstrated that the settlements of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were repeatedly destroyed by floods and landslides. The coat of arms of the municipality Triesen consists of a shield with three superimposed silver scythes on a blue background, attractions in the Triesen area include, Die Pfarrkirche St. Gallus, built in 1455 and rebuilt in 1994, a square hall church Die St
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (film)
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold is a 1965 British Cold War spy film directed by Martin Ritt and starring Richard Burton, Claire Bloom, and Oskar Werner. The screenplay was written by Paul Dehn and Guy Trosper, for his performance, Richard Burton received the David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Actor, the Golden Laurel Award, and an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role. The film was named one of the top ten films of 1966 by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, the West Berlin office of “The Circus”, under administrator Alec Leamas, has not been doing well. He is recalled to London shortly after the death of one of his operatives, Leamas is seemingly drummed out of the agency. In reality, a carefully staged transformation of Leamas has been arranged by Control, appearing depressed and disgruntled and low on funds, he is quickly spotted by the East German Intelligence Service as a potential defector. Leamas accepts overtures from German communists to reveal British secrets for payment, when the process is moved to a country villa in East Germany, the interviews become less cordial.
Mundt arrives at the compound and has both Leamas and Fiedler summarily arrested, the tables are turned and Mundt in turn is shortly arrested. A secret tribunal is convened to try Mundt, with Leamas compelled to testify, Fiedler presents a strong case for Mundt being a double-agent. However, Mundts attorney uncovers several discrepancies in Leamas transformation into an informant, Leamas credibility collapses when his English girlfriend, Nan Perry, an unassuming and idealistic communist, unwittingly reveals that she has received payments from British intelligence. As Leamas charade unravels and he is forced to admit he is working as a British agent, Fiedler is escorted from the room as a complicit dupe. Leamas initially believes he has failed in his mission and fears severe retribution from Mundt and this comes as a surprise to Leamas, who has steadfastly insisted that Control could not possibly have run an agent in East Germany without him knowing about it. With this, the web he has drawn into -.
Leamas, agitated by her naiveté, erupts in an angry, self-loathing confession and they are a bunch of seedy squalid bastards like me, little drunkards, henpecked husbands. Leamas and Nan are soon ushered to the Berlin Wall and given instructions how to safely escape, with Leamas nearly atop pulling Nan behind him, she is shot by Mundts operative. Leamas freezes, urged by agents on both sides to return to the West, instead, he begins to descend and is shot dead as well. The film closely follows the plot of the novel, studio production took place in Ardmore Studios in Ireland and Englands Shepperton Studios. The Spy Who Came in from the Cold took in $7,600,000 at the box office, the film currently holds 85% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 13 reviews. The Spy Who Came in from the Cold was released by the Criterion Collection on DVD on 25 November 2008 and on Blu-ray on 10 September 2013
The Vienna Woods are forested highlands that form the northeastern foothills of the Northern Limestone Alps in the states of Lower Austria and Vienna. The 45 kilometres long and 20–30 kilometres wide range of hills is heavily wooded, the Vienna Woods are bounded by the rivers Triesting, Gölsen and Danube, and are on the border of the Mostviertel and the Industrieviertel, two of the four quarters of Lower Austria. Reaching into the city of Vienna itself, they are an outdoor destination for the densely populated area around the city. The highest elevation in the Vienna Woods is Schöpfl at 893 metres above sea level, important rivers in the Vienna Woods are the Wien, the Schwechat and the Triesting. The northeasternmost Leopoldsberg overlooking the Danube and the Vienna Basin forms the end of the Alpine chain. Even though the Vienna Woods are a landscape and important recreational area. The natural park Sandstein-Wienerwald is near Purkersdorf, some 20 km west of Vienna, there are some caves, such as the Dreidärrischenhöhle.
The mountain ranges of the Vienna Woods are the transition between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians, separated by the Danube and some lines near Vienna. The northern area is part of the Alps sandstone zone, while its south is part of the Northern Limestone Alps, in the east, the border is the thermal line, which forms a geological break line to the Viennese Basin. Beeches and hornbeams grow throughout the north of the Wienerwald forest, in the south are conifers, mostly pines, the Föhrenberge natural park is in the latter region. The Vienna Woods have probably been populated since the 8th century, under the influence of the Avars, a Slavic population settled here after the Völkerwanderung, which may account for village names such as Döbling, Liesing or Gablitz. The Vienna Woods was a hunting ground, but from the 16th century onwards forestry was practised. From 1840 industrial development encouraged increased settlement of the area, in 1870, plans were brought forward to clear most of the forest, but this caused widespread public resistance, in which Josef Schöffel was one of the most important figures.
In 1987, the governors of the states of Vienna, Lower Austria, the film actress Hedy Lamarr, in keeping with her request for when she died, had her ashes spread in the Vienna Woods
Karl Hartl was an Austrian film director. Born in Vienna, Hartl began his career at the Austrian Sascha-Film company of Alexander Kolowrat. As a production manager, he in the 1920s accompanied Korda to Berlin, from 1930 he worked for Universum Film AG and gave his debut as director of Ein Burschenlied aus Heidelberg starring Hans Brausewetter and Willi Forst, with young Billy Wilder as a screenwriter. His lavish science fiction film Gold, released in 1934, is listed as among the most successful German films of the genre. Karl Hartl had some experience in Spanish documentaries, and in 1937 directed the popular criminal comedy Der Mann, der Sherlock Holmes war starring Hans Albers and he was a member of the Advisory Council of the president of the Reichsfilmkammer. On 3 July 1947 he set up in Salzburg, with the support of the Creditanstalt and his films included Weg in die Vergangenheit from 1954 and Mozart, which entered the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. Karl Hartl was married to the actress Marte Harell and he died in Vienna aged 79 and is buried in an Ehrengrab of the Hietzing cemetery. P.
de Karl Hartl