Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Haseki Sultan was the imperial title used for the chief consort of an Ottoman Sultan. Haseki sultan meant "single favorite" of the sultan. In years, the meaning of the title changed to "imperial consort". Hürrem Sultan, principal consort and legal wife of Suleiman the Magnificent, was the first holder of this title; the title haseki sultan was only used until the 17th century. After that, Kadınefendi became the highest ranking title for imperial consorts; the word haseki comes from the Arabic word Khassa خاصه, suffixed with the Persian gi گی and means "to attribute something to". Haseki is, one who belongs to the sultan. Sultan is an Arabic word, that indicates "authority" or "dominion". Starting from the 16th century, this title, was carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty. Thus, replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known; this usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative. Westerns know the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but the Ottomans used Persian terms such as "padişah" or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler.
The emperor's formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "han". In formal address, the sultan's children were entitled "sultan", with imperial princes carrying the title before their given name, imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Son of Sultan Süleiman Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and daughter of Sultan Süleiman Mihrimah Sultan. Like imperial princesses, the living mothers and main consorts of the reigning sultan carried the title "sultan" after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan, Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan; the evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women during the Sultanate of Women. As the position of the chief consort eroded over the course of the 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "hatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non-imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".
Title haseki carried after given name. According to a genealogical website, the formal way of addressing a haseki is Devletlû İsmetlu Haseki Sultân Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; the title “sultan” was translated to sultana, which does not exist in ottoman royalty to distinguished female members of the dynasty from the male sultan. During early period of the usage of haseki, this title was held by the chief consort of the sultan with special status, surpassed other titles and ranks by which the prominent consorts of the sultans had been known. A haseki sultan had an important place in the palace, being the second most powerful woman and enjoyed the greatest status in the imperial harem after valide sultan and had chambers close to the sultan's chamber. Haseki Sultan's position, used for a century, reflected the great power of imperial consorts, who were former slaves, in the Ottoman court, elevating their status higher than the Ottoman princesses, making them the equals of the empress consorts in Europe.
When the position of valide sultan was vacant, a haseki could take valide's role, have access to considerable economic resources, become chief of imperial harem, sultan's advisor in politic matters, have an influence upon foreign policy and on international politics. These cases happened during Hürrem Kösem Sultan's eras. Hürrem, the first imperial consort who became haseki sultan, was given several special rights during her tenure after the death of Suleiman's mother, Hafsa Sultan, the first valide sultan, in 1534. Hürrem was allowed to give birth to more than one son, a stark violation of the old imperial harem principle of “one concubine mother — one son”, designed to prevent both the mother's influence over the sultan and the feuds of the blood brothers for the throne. In 1533 or 1534, Suleiman married Hürrem in a magnificent formal ceremony, making him the first Ottoman Sultan to wed since Orhan Ghazi, violating a 200-year-old custom of the Ottoman imperial house according to which sultans were not to marry their concubines.
Hürrem became the first prince's mother to remain in the Sultan's court for the duration of her life. In the Ottoman imperial family tradition, a sultan's consort was to remain in the harem only until her son came of age, after which he would be sent away from the capital, accompanied by his mother, to govern a faraway province. Hürrem became Suleiman's partner not only in household, but in state affairs. Thanks to her intelligence, she acted as Suleiman's chief adviser, she seems to have had an influence upon foreign policy and international politics. Hürrem's great power signaled the rise of the chief imperial consort under the title of haseki. A mother's political role traditionally began with the creation of a separate household for her son; the establishment of her public politic identity entailed her separation from the sultan and his household. As noted above, this kind of functional division appears to have occurred with Nurbanu and Safiye, in spite of the fact that they never left the sultan's household like their predecessor Hürrem, the shift in their roles, that is, their assumption of candidly political role as haseki may well have coincided with their sons’ assumption of their political posts.
Though it became a great position, haseki w
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey. A popular tourist site, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque continues to function as a mosque today; the Blue Mosque, as it is popularly known, was constructed between 1609 and 1616 during the rule of Ahmed I. Its Külliye contains a madrasah and a hospice. Hand-painted blue tiles adorn the mosque’s interior walls, at night the mosque is bathed in blue as lights frame the mosque’s five main domes, six minarets and eight secondary domes, it sits next to another popular tourist site. After the Peace of Zsitvatorok and the crushing loss in the 1603–18 war with Persia, Sultan Ahmet I, decided to build a large mosque in Istanbul to reassert Ottoman power, it would be the first imperial mosque for more than forty years. While his predecessors had paid for their mosques with the spoils of war, Ahmet I procured funds from the Treasury, because he had not gained remarkable victories; the construction was started in 1609 and not completed until 1617.
It caused the anger of the Muslim jurists. The mosque was built on the site of the palace of the Byzantine emperors, in front of the basilica Hagia Sophia and the hippodrome, a site of significant symbolic meaning as it dominated the city skyline from the south. Big parts of the south shore of the mosque rest on the foundations, the vaults of the old Grand Palace; the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has five main domes, six minarets, eight secondary domes. The design is the culmination of two centuries of Ottoman mosque development, it incorporates some Byzantine Christian elements of the neighboring Hagia Sophia with traditional Islamic architecture and is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The architect, Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa, synthesized the ideas of his master Sinan, aiming for overwhelming size and splendour, it has a special area for ablution. In the middle it has a big fountain. On the upper side it has a big chain; the upper area is made up of 20000 ceramic tiles each having 60 tulip designs.
In the lower area it has 200 stained glass windows. At its lower levels and at every pier, the interior of the mosque is lined with more than 20,000 handmade İznik style ceramic tiles, made at İznik in more than fifty different tulip designs; the tiles at lower levels are traditional in design, while at gallery level their design becomes flamboyant with representations of flowers and cypresses. The tiles were made under the supervision of the Iznik master; the price to be paid for each tile was fixed by the sultan's decree, while tile prices in general increased over time. As a result, the quality of the tiles used in the building decreased gradually; the upper levels of the interior are dominated by blue paint. More than 200 stained glass windows with intricate designs admit natural light, today assisted by chandeliers. On the chandeliers, ostrich eggs are found that were meant to avoid cobwebs inside the mosque by repelling spiders; the decorations include verses from the Qur'an, many of them made by Seyyid Kasim Gubari, regarded as the greatest calligrapher of his time.
The floors are covered with carpets, which are donated by the faithful and are replaced as they wear out. The many spacious windows confer a spacious impression; the casements at floor level are decorated with opus sectile. Each exedra has five windows; each semi-dome has 14 windows and the central dome 28. The coloured glass for the windows was a gift of the Signoria of Venice to the sultan; the most important element in the interior of the mosque is the mihrab, made of finely carved and sculptured marble, with a stalactite niche and a double inscriptive panel above it. It is surrounded by many windows; the adjacent walls are sheathed in ceramic tiles. To the right of the mihrab is the richly decorated minber, or pulpit, where the imam stands when he is delivering his sermon at the time of noon prayer on Fridays or on holy days; the mosque has been designed so that when it is at its most crowded, everyone in the mosque can see and hear the imam. The royal kiosk is situated at the south-east corner.
It comprises a loggia and two small retiring rooms. It gives access to the royal loge in the south-east upper gallery of the mosque; these retiring rooms became the headquarters of the Grand Vizier during the suppression of the rebellious Janissary Corps in 1826. The royal loge is supported by ten marble columns, it has its own mihrab, which used to be decorated with a jade rose and gilt and with one hundred Qurans on an inlaid and gilded lecterns. The many lamps inside the mosque were once covered with gold and gems. Among the glass bowls one could find ostrich eggs and crystal balls. All these decorations have been pillaged for museums; the great tablets on the walls are inscribed with the names of the caliphs and verses from the Quran. They were by the great 17th-century calligrapher Seyyid Kasim Gubari of Diyarbakır but have been restored, it was first announced that the mosque would undertake a series of renovations back in 2016. Numerous renovation works had been completed throughout Istanbul and the restoration of the Blue Mosque was to be the final project.
Renovations were expected to take place over three and a half years and be completed by 2020. The façade of the spacious forecourt was built in the same manner as the façade of the Süleymaniye Mosque, except for the addition of the turrets on the corner domes; the court is about as large as the mosque itself and is surrounded by a continuous vaulted arcade (
Battle of Khotyn (1621)
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army and an invading Ottoman Imperial army. The Commonwealth commanding officer, Grand Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, held the forces of Sultan Osman II at bay until the first autumn snows, in the end died during the battle. On 9 October, due to the lateness of the season and having sustained heavy losses in several assaults on fortified Commonwealth lines, the Ottomans abandoned their siege and the battle ended in stalemate, reflected in a treaty that in some sections favoured the Ottomans and in others favoured the Commonwealth. Khotyn was controlled by many states, resulting in many name changes. Other name variations include Choczim. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, the magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, which was—and had been since its conquest by Mehmed II in the 15th century—a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
Additionally, the Ottomans were aggravated by the constant raids by Cossacks nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, across the border into Ottoman territories. In the meantime, the Thirty Years' War raged across Europe; the Commonwealth was uninvolved in this war but the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa sent an elite and ruthless mercenary unit, the Lisowczycy, to aid his Habsburg allies in Vienna, since his brother-in-law was the Emperor. They defeated George Rákóczi of Transylvania at the Battle of Humenné in 1619. Gabriel Bethlen, the reigning Prince of Transylvania, asked Sultan Osman II for aid; the sultan agreed. A large Ottoman army was gathered for a punitive invasion of the Commonwealth. On 20 September 1620, an Ottoman army under the command of the governor of Oczakov Iskender Pasha routed the Polish-Commonwealth army at the Battle of Cecora, captured Stanisław Koniecpolski, beheaded Stanisław Żółkiewski, sent Tatar raiders into southern Poland; the campaign was suspended for the winter.
Both sides resumed hostilities in 1621. In April 1621 an army of 120,000–160,000 soldiers, led by Osman II, advanced from Constantinople and Edirne towards the Polish frontier. Khan Temir of the Budjak Horde and the Khan of Crimea, Canibek Giray joined the battle on the Ottoman side. 25% of the Ottoman forces were composed of contingents from their vassal states: Tatars and Wallachians, a total of about 13,000 troops. The Ottoman army had about 66 heavy guns; when the Ottomans reached an area near Iași a distribution of bahşiş took place on 26/27 July. There were 34,825 paid Kapikulu soldiers; each one was given 1,000 Akçe, for a total of 34,825,000 Akçe spent. In Poland, the Sejm, shaken by the previous year's defeat, agreed to raise taxes and fund a larger army, as well as to recruit a large number of Cossack allies. Polish commander Grand Lithuanian Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz crossed the Dniester River in September 1621 with 20,000 to 35,000 soldiers, joined by 10,000 more led by the future king of Poland, Prince Władysław Vasa.
The Polish-Lithuanian army numbered 30,000 and their allied Cossack army was composed of 25,000–40,000 troops—mostly infantry—led by ataman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny. The Cossacks had about 22 guns; the Polish-Lithuanian army arrived near Khotyn around August 24 and started entrenching itself near the Khotyn Fortress, blocking the path of the Ottoman march. The army followed a common Commonwealth defense strategy, it employed deep defences by building separate field works in front of the camp's defences. These field works were designed to allow the use of cavalry counterattacks. Cavalry counterattacks were crucial because the Commonwealth relied on its elite Polish Hussars and Cossacks. A semicircle of field fortifications was created; the fortress was behind Dniester River bordered the fortifications. The circle was divided into three sections: right, commanded by Hetman Chodkiewicz. In addition, two fortified camps were set in front of the main defence line: the Cossacks' and the mercenaries'.
On August 27, a Cossack cavalry detachment carried out a suicidal raid, delaying the approaching Ottoman forces. It inflicted casualties amounting to several times the number of attacking Cossacks, but the attackers were nearly annihilated. On August 31, Ottoman cavalry, in turn, struck at the Cossack forces outside camp; the Ottomans tried to scatter the Cossacks and cut them off from the main Polish-Lithuanian forces, but did not succeed. By September 2, the main Ottoman army had arrived, the siege began the day after the Cossacks joined the Polish camp. On September 2 the Ottomans tried to breach the unfinished Cossack camp; the Cossacks had held their positions. On September 3, another Ottoman assault was directed at Lubomirski's flank of the main fortifications; this attack was stopped. In the afternoon the big Ottoman forces attacked the Cossack camp; this attack started a fierce fight. The Ottomans were repulsed; the Cossacks rushed up behind the Ottomans into the Ottoman camp and returned at dusk with rich loot.
The next day, September 4, the Ottomans again failed again. A Commonwealth counterattack managed to destroy several Ottoman gu
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king". It was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors; the rulers on the following thrones – the first two commanding major West Asian empires – were styled Padishah: The Shāhanshāh of Iran, from Achaemenid and Sassanid origin. The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire The emperors of the Mughal Empire. Miangul Golshahzada Abdul Wadud of the Pakistani North West Frontier state of Swat called himself badshah from November 1918 to March 1926. Ahmed Shah Durrani founded the Durrani Empire in 1747 with the title Pādshah-i Afghanistan in Persian and Badcha Da Afghanistan in the Pashto language; the Sadduzai were overthrown in 1823 but there was a brief restoration by Shah Shujah in 1839 with the help of Ranjit Singh and the Sikh Empire.
The title went dormant after his assassination in 1842 until 1926 when Amanullah Khan resurrected it and was laid to rest with the abdication of Mohammed Zahir Shah in 1973 following a coup. The last Basha bey of Tunisia, Muhammad VIII al-Amin, adopted the sovereign style padshah 20 March 1956 – 25 July 1957; the paramount prestige of this title, in Islam and beyond, is apparent from the Ottoman Empire's dealings with the European powers. For example, one of the terms of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774 was that the defeated Ottoman Empire refer to Catherine the Great, all other Russian monarchs after her, as a "Padishah" in all official correspondences; this was a symbolic acknowledgement that their Christian emperors were in all diplomatic and corollary capacities the equal of the Turkish ruler, who by his religious paramount office in Islam had a theoretical claim of universal sovereignty. The compound Pādshah-i-Ghazi is only recorded for two individual rulers: H. H. Rustam-i-Dauran, Aristu-i-Zaman, Asaf Jah IV, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Farkhunda'Ali Khan Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Ayn waffadar Fidvi-i-Senliena, Iqtidar-i-Kishwarsitan Muhammad Akbar Shah Padshah-i-Ghazi, Nizam of Hyderabad 1829–1857Note that as many titles, the word was often used as a name, either by nobles with other styles, or by commoners.
There is a large family of Turkish origin using the surname Badi in modern-day Libya. They were called "Padishah" due to their Military rank in the Ottoman Army, but the part "shah" was dropped after the Ottoman landing in the North East Libyan town of Misrata, the pronunciation of "Padi" became "Badi" from the Arabic pronunciation, as there is no p in Arabic. In 2008, a professional cricket team, the Lahore Badshahs, was founded. In India, Padishah is a Muslim surname, from the above-mentioned trend of adopting titles as names by both royalty and commoners. In Frank Herbert's 1965 novel Dune, the titular head of human space is styled "Padishah Emperor of the Known Universe". In the Pathfinder role-playing game, the ruler of the Empire of Kelesh is styled "Padishah Emperor". Baig Emir Rana Shah Sultan Nawab RoyalArk — Select present country choose dynasty from its menu WorldStatesmen idem.
Mustafa I, called Mustafa the Saint during his second reign and called Mustafa the Mad by modern historians, was the son of Mehmed III and was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. Mustafa was born in the Manisa Palace, as the younger brother of Ahmed I, his mother was an Abkhazian lady. Before 1603 it was customary for an Ottoman Sultan to have his brothers executed shortly after he gained the throne, but when the thirteen-year-old Ahmed I was enthroned in 1603, he spared the life of the twelve-year-old Mustafa. A factor in Mustafa's survival is the influence of Kösem Sultan, who may have wished to preempt the succession of Osman, Ahmed’s first-born son from another concubine. If Osman became Sultan, he would try to execute his half-brothers, the sons of Ahmed and Kösem. However, the reports of foreign ambassadors suggest that Ahmed liked his brother; until Ahmed's death in 1617, Mustafa lived in the Old Palace, along with his mother, grandmother Safiye Sultan.
Ahmed's death created a dilemma never before experienced by the Ottoman Empire. Multiple princes were now eligible for the Sultanate, all of them lived in Topkapı Palace. A court faction headed by the Şeyhülislam Esad Efendi and Sofu Mehmed Pasha decided to enthrone Mustafa instead of Ahmed's son Osman. Sofu Mehmed argued that Osman was too young to be enthroned without causing adverse comment among the populace; the Chief Black Eunuch Mustafa Agha objected, citing Mustafa's mental problems, but he was overruled. Mustafa's rise created a new succession principle of seniority that would last until the end of the Empire, it was the first time. His mother Halime Sultan became the Valide Sultan as well as a wielded great power. Due to Mustafa's mental conditions, she exercised power more directly, it was hoped that regular social contact would improve Mustafa's mental health, but his behavior remained eccentric. He yanked their beards. Others observed him throwing coins to birds and fish; the Ottoman historian İbrahim Peçevi wrote "this situation was seen by all men of state and the people, they understood that he was psychologically disturbed."
Mustafa was never more than a tool of court cliques at the Topkapı Palace. In 1618, after a short rule, another palace faction deposed him in favour of his young nephew Osman II, Mustafa was sent back to the Old Palace; the conflict between the Janissaries and Osman II presented him with a second chance. After a Janissary rebellion led to the deposition and assassination of Osman II in 1622, Mustafa was restored to the throne and held it for another year. According to Baki Tezcan, there is not enough evidence to properly establish that Mustafa was mentally imbalanced when he came to the throne. Mustafa "made a number of excursions to the arsenal and the navy docks, examining various sorts of arms and taking an active interest in the munitions supply of the army and the navy." One of the dispatches of Baron de Sancy, the French ambassador, "suggested that Mustafa was interested in leading the Safavid campaign himself and was entertaining the idea of wintering in Konya for that purpose."Moreover, one contemporary observer provides an explanation of the coup which does not mention the incapacity of Mustafa.
Baron de Sancy ascribes the deposition to a political conspiracy between the grand admiral Ali Pasha and Chief Black Eunuch Mustafa Agha, who were angered by the former's removal from office upon Sultan Mustafa's accession. They may have circulated rumors of the sultan's mental instability subsequent to the coup in order to legitimize it, he commenced his reign by executing all those. Hoca Ömer Efendi, the chief of the rebels, the kızlar Agha Suleiman Agha, the vizier Dilaver Pasha, the Kaim-makam Ahmed Pasha, the defterdar Baki Pasha, the segban-bashi Nasuh Agha, the general of the janissaries Ali Agha, were cut into pieces; the epithet "Veli" was used in reference to him during his reign. His mental condition unimproved, Mustafa was a puppet controlled by his mother and brother-in-law, the grand vizier Kara Davud Pasha, he believed that Osman II was still alive and was seen searching for him throughout the palace, knocking on doors and crying out to his nephew to relieve him from the burden of sovereignty.
"The present emperor being a fool", he was compared unfavorably with his predecessor. In fact, it was his mother Halime Sultan the de facto-co-ruler as Valide Sultan of the Ottoman empire. Political instability was generated by conflict between the Janissaries and the sipahis, followed by the Abaza rebellion, which occurred when the governor-general of Erzurum, Abaza Mehmed Pasha, decided to march to Istanbul to avenge the murder of Osman II; the regime tried to end the conflict by executing Kara Davud Pasha, but Abaza Mehmed continued his advance. Clerics and the new Grand Vizier prevailed upon Mustafa's mother to allow the deposition of her son, she agreed, on condition. The 11-year-old Murad IV, son of Ahmed I and Kösem, was enthroned on 10 September 1623. In return for her consent to his deposition, the request of Mustafa's mother that he be spared execution was granted. Mustafa was