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An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue. This function is critical in the maintenance and remodelling of bones of the vertebral skeleton; the osteoclast disassembles and digests the composite of hydrated protein and mineral at a molecular level by secreting acid and a collagenase, a process known as bone resorption. This process helps regulate the level of blood calcium. Osteoclasts are found on those surfaces of bone. On such surfaces, the osteoclasts are seen to be located in shallow depressions called resorption bays; the resorption bays are created by erosive action of osteoclasts on the underlying bone. The border of the lower part of an osteoclast exhibits finger-like processes due to presence of deep infoldings of the plasmalemma; the ruffled border lies in contact with the bone surface within a resorption bay. The periphery of the ruffled border is surrounded by a ring-like zone of cytoplasm, devoid of cell organelle but is rich in actin filaments; this zone is called sealing zone.

The actin filaments enable the cell membrane surrounding the sealing zone to be anchored to the bony wall of Howship's lacunae. In this way a closed subosteoclastic compartment is created between the ruffled border and the bone, undergoing resorption; the osteoclasts secrete hydrogen ions, cathepsin K and hydrolytic enzymes into this compartment. Resorption of bone matrix by the osteoclasts involves two steps: dissolution of inorganic components, digestion of organic component of the bone matrix; the osteoclasts pump hydrogen ions into subosteoclastic compartment and thus create an acidic microenvironment, which increases solubility of bone mineral, resulting in the release and re-entry of bone minerals into the cytoplasm of osteoclasts to be delivered to nearby capillaries. After the removal of minerals and gelatinase are secreted into the subosteoclastic compartment; these enzymes degrade collagen and other organic components of decalcified bone matrix. The degradation products are phagocytosed by osteoclasts at the ruffled border.

Because of their phagocytic properties, osteoclasts are considered to be a component of the mononuclear phagocyte system. The activity of osteoclasts is controlled by cytokines. Calcitonin, a hormone of thyroid gland, suppresses the osteoclastic activity; the osteoclasts do not have receptors for parathyroid hormone. However, PTH stimulates the osteoblasts to secrete the cytokine called osteoclast-stimulating factor, a potent stimulator of the osteoclastic activity. An odontoclast is an osteoclast associated with absorption of the roots of deciduous teeth. An osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell and human osteoclasts on bone have five nuclei and are 150–200 µm in diameter; when osteoclast-inducing cytokines are used to convert macrophages to osteoclasts large cells that may reach 100 µm in diameter occur. These may have dozens of nuclei, express major osteoclast proteins but have significant differences from cells in living bone because of the not-natural substrate; the size of the multinucleated assembled osteoclast allows it to focus the ion transport, protein secretory and vesicular transport capabilities of many macrophages on a localized area of bone.

In bone, osteoclasts are found in pits in the bone surface which are called resorption bays, or Howship's lacunae. Osteoclasts are characterized by a cytoplasm with "foamy" appearance; this appearance is due to a high concentration of vacuoles. These vacuoles include lysosomes filled with acid phosphatase; this permits characterization of osteoclasts by their staining for high expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. Osteoclast rough endoplasmic reticulum is sparse, the Golgi complex is extensive. At a site of active bone resorption, the osteoclast forms a specialized cell membrane, the "ruffled border", that opposes the surface of the bone tissue; this extensively folded or ruffled border facilitates bone removal by increasing the cell surface for secretion and uptake of the resorption compartment contents and is a morphologic characteristic of an osteoclast, resorbing bone. Since their discovery in 1873 there has been considerable debate about their origin. Three theories were dominant: from 1949 to 1970 the connective tissue origin was popular, which stated that osteoclasts and osteoblasts are of the same lineage, osteoblasts fuse together to form osteoclasts.

After years of controversy it is now clear that these cells develop from the self fusion of macrophages. It was in the beginning of 1980 that the monocyte phagocytic system was recognized as precursor of osteoclasts. Osteoclast formation requires the presence of RANKL and M-CSF; these membrane-bound proteins are produced by neighbouring stromal cells and osteoblasts, thus requiring direct contact between these cells and osteoclast precursors. M-CSF acts through its receptor on the osteoclast, c-fms, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase-receptor, leading to secondary messenger activation of tyrosine kinase Src. Both of these molecules are necessary for osteoclastogenesis and are involved in the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage derived cells. RANKL is a member of the tumour necrosis family, is essential in osteoclastogenesis. RANKL knockout mice exhibit a phenotype of osteopetrosis and defects of tooth erup

Indian Prince

The Indian Prince is a motorcycle manufactured by the Hendee Manufacturing Company from 1925 to 1928. An entry-level single-cylinder motorcycle, the Prince was restyled after its first year and discontinued after four years; the frame and forks of the Prince were revived in 1933 and used with V-twin engines to form the Motoplane and the Pony Scout. The Prince was designed by Charles B. Franklin and began production in 1925, it was a single-cylinder motorcycle for export. The 1925 Prince gear box was separate from the engine, the frame under the tank has a tube which the tank is bolted too, the gas tank is mounted from underside of tank and back it was a wedge-shaped fuel tank; the Prince was redesigned for 1926 with a separate gearbox and a fuel tank similar in shape to that of the contemporary Scout. Both versions used coil-sprung girder forks instead of the leaf-sprung trailing link forks used on the contemporary Chief and Scout. A front brake was added in the last year of production. Harley-Davidson began production of their single-cylinder motorcycle for 1926 and continued them until 1934.

In 1933, the Prince frame and forks were revived for use in the Motoplane and Pony Scout V-twin motorcycles. The Pony Scout was renamed the Junior Scout and continued until the beginning of World War II. Girder forks were used on the 1945-1948 Chief. Girdler, Allan; the Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-1353-9. Hatfield, Jerry. "The Flathead Era". In Darwin Holmstrom; the Harley-Davidson Century. St. Paul, MN USA: MotorBooks International. Pp. 47–65. ISBN 0-7603-1155-2. Wilson, Hugo. "The A-Z of Motorcycles". The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0206-6; the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. "1926 Indian Prince". How Stuff Works. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2014

InTown Suites

InTown Suites is a chain of extended stay properties in the United States, headquartered in Atlanta, GA. InTown Suites has 188 locations in 22 states. Weekly rates range from $159 to $399, depending on market and seasonality. Rooms are sold by the week or longer, but 54 locations sell nightly rooms; the product offering falls between a traditional hotel and an apartment, with an average length of stay approaching 16 weeks. The company operates all of its locations, rather than franchising them. Intown Suites was founded in 1988 by David Vickers. During two decades of existence, Intown Suites has proved to be a successful business, is one of the fastest growing extended-stay chains. In June 2013, the company was purchased by Starwood Capital Group. In 1998, Intown Suites expanded from 26 to 76 properties in a $150 million investment, an alternative to going public. In 2001, Intown Suites had a room occupancy rate of 87%, compared with a 73% average for the entire industry. In 2002, Intown Suites expanded by purchasing Suburban Lodges of America for $99 million, four years they acquired SuiteOne hotels.

In 2007, InTown Suites purchased another 12 Suburban Lodge locations in Georgia and Alabama, plus two additional Suburban Lodge locations in Houston, Texas a year later. In 2014, the company purchased four Savannah Suites location in Virginia. In May 2015, the company added another 50 locations. Official website


Pizzica is a popular Italian folk dance from the Salento peninsula in Apulia and spreading throughout the rest of Apulia and the regions of Calabria and eastern Basilicata. It is part of the larger family of tarantella; the traditional pizzica is a couple dance. The couple need not involve two individuals of opposite sexes, two women can be seen dancing together. Nowadays it has become rare to see two men dancing an entire pizzica. An exception with a pizzica between two men can still be found in the town of Ostuni, where one of the two men who dance jokingly pretends to be a woman. Another exception is; the most important book about pizzica and tarantism is The Land of Remorse, written by the Italian philosopher and historian of religions Ernesto De Martino. There are several traditional pizzica groups, the oldest being Officina Zoé, Uccio Aloisi gruppu, Canzoniere Grecanico Salentino, I Tamburellisti di Torrepaduli. Since 1998 there has been a summer Notte della Taranta, consisting of a whole night where many famous musicians alternate their performances with pizzica orchestras.

Some of them include Stewart Copeland, Franco Battiato, Gianna Nannini, Lucio Dalla, Carmen Consoli. The 11th Festival was held in Lecce in August 2008. Alessandra Belloni Alla Bua Anna Cinzia Villani Antonio Castrignanò Arakne Mediterranea Canzoniere Grecanico Salentino Mascarimirì Ghetonìa Officina Zoè Enza Pagliara Pizzica's videos Pizzica's texts La pizzica in the 1779

Brunswick Square, Gloucester

Brunswick Square is a 1.5-acre owned public garden with residential streets along three of its sides, in the English city of Gloucester. It is overlooked by the Christ Church to the east on Brunswick Road; the square is surrounded by terraced houses and flats with the Gloucester National Spiritualist Church on the north side and Gloucester House on the south side. There are nine grade listed buildings around the square; the square has been part of the Eastgate and St Michaels conservation area since 1968. The square dates back to the Roman era when it was known as the Gaudy Green, which originated from the Latin term "Gaudium" which means to enjoy. Archaeological excavations of the site have found a Roman graveyard to the north, next to the Chillingworth Mews housing estate, to have extended into the square. Albion Street to the west is believed to be of Roman origin. During the Elizabethan era, the city's stocks were present on the green, it was used for leisure, as archery was practised here.

In 1643, an army camp was established on the green by the King's troops during the English Civil War. Prince Rupert led the royalist troops in a siege of Gloucester, parliamentarian at this time. From the green the royalists dug tunnels under the city walls to. Three large cannons were placed on the green and fired at the south gate of the city walls. In the mid-1700s, the green was a red light district. At this time it was classed as the parish of Littleworth, the poorest region of the city; the houses were slums with no sanitation. The opening of the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal in 1827 and the development of Gloucester Docks bought more money into the city, so the green was sold by its owner the Duke of Norfolk to private buyers. Between 1822 and 1825 the area was developed by an ironmonger. By 1825, 19 terrace houses had been built with the central area preserved as a garden. All the residents signed a deed of covenant on 15 April 1825 to ensure nothing could be built on the garden; the area became known as Brunswick Square, named after Caroline of Brunswick, the wife of George IV.

A managing group to maintain the garden was formed and is known as the Brunswick Square Central Lawn Association. During World War II, the area became run-down and, in 1942, the metal railings were removed to support the war effort. In the 1960s, the city council wanted to turn the square into a car park, however the deed of covenant signed in 1825 prevented this from happening. In 2000, a £25,000 grant from the Gloucestershire Environmental Trust and Cory Environmental was used to restore the gardens. On the 3 June 1909, Edward VII visited the square. In the 1930s Princess Mary visited the YMCA at 18 Brunswick Square. 2 Brunswick Square 4–5 Brunswick Square 8–9 Brunswick Square 10 Brunswick Square 11 Brunswick Square 12–18 Brunswick Square 20–25 Brunswick Square 26–27 Brunswick Square 28 Brunswick Square

HPK Kiekkonaiset

HPK Kiekkonaiset is the representative women’s ice hockey team of the sports club HPK based in Hämeenlinna, Finland. They have competed in Naisten Liiga, the premier women's hockey league in Finland, since the 2008-09 season. HPK was the first team to be awarded the Aurora Borealis Cup as the winner of the Women’s Finnish Championship in 2011. A women's hockey team has competed under the parent club HPK since at least 1999. From 1999 to 2008, HPK Kiekkonaiset competed in the I-divisioona; the team qualified for the Naisten SM-sarja Karsintasarja in the 2000-01 season but lost 11 of 14 qualification games and remained in I-divisoona. The opportunity for promotion through the Karsintasarja returned in the 2007-08 season and, this time with a roster that included Meeri Räisänen, Essi Salminen, Hanne Sikiö, Eveliina Similä, HPK was victorious. HPK debuted in the Naisten SM-sarja at the opening of the 2008-09 season, strengthened by the addition of a number of experienced players, notably Petra Herzigová, Katja Riipi, Nora Tallus, Vilma Vaattovaara.

The team won the bronze medal match against Oulun Kärpät on a game winning goal from Katja Riipi. As Naisten SM-sarja Champions in 2011, HPK was the first team to be awarded the Aurora Borealis Cup. Updated 11 September 2019 Naisten Liiga Aurora Borealis Cup: 2011 Naisten Liiga: 2016 Naisten Liiga: 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014 Bronze: 2012 Years active with HPK listed alongside players' names Finland women's national ice hockey team Women's ice hockey in Finland Official website Team information and statistics from and and