A rack railway is a steep grade railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail and this allows the trains to operate on steep grades above around 7 to 10%, which is the maximum for friction-based rail. Most rack railways are mountain railways, although a few are transit railways or tramways built to overcome a steep gradient in an urban environment. The first cog railway was the Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds in West Yorkshire, England, UK, where the first commercially successful steam locomotive and this used a rack and pinion system designed and patented in 1811 by John Blenkinsop. The first mountain cog railway was the Mount Washington Cog Railway in the US state of New Hampshire, the track was completed to reach the summit of Mount Washington in 1869. The first mountain railway in continental Europe was the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn on Mount Rigi in Switzerland. A number of different rack systems have been developed, the majority of rack railways use the Abt system.
Blenkinsops system remained in use for 25 years on the Middleton Railway, Rack systems place the rack rail halfway between the running rails, with the exception of some early Morgan rack installations. The first successful rack railway in the US was the Mount Washington Cog Railway, the first public trial of the Marsh rack on Mount Washington was made on August 29,1866, when only one quarter of a mile of track had been completed. The Mount Washington railway opened to the public on August 14,1868, the Riggenbach rack system was invented by Niklaus Riggenbach working at about the same time as, but independently from Marsh. Riggenbach was granted a French patent in 1863 based on a model which he used to interest potential Swiss backers. During this time, the Swiss Consul to the United States visited Marshs Mount Washington Cog Railway, eager to boost tourism in Switzerland, the government commissioned Riggenbach to build a rack railway up Rigi Mountain. Following the construction of a locomotive and test track in a quarry near Bern.
The Riggenbach system is similar in design to the Marsh system and it uses a ladder rack, formed of steel plates or channels connected by round or square rods at regular intervals. The Riggenbach system suffers from the problem that its fixed ladder rack is more complex, following the success of the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn, Riggenbach established the Maschinenfabrik der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Bergbahnen - a company that produced rack locomotives to his design. The Strub rack system was invented by Emil Strub in 1896 and it uses a rolled flat-bottom rail with rack teeth machined into the head approximately 100 mm apart. Safety jaws fitted to the locomotive engage with the underside of the head to prevent derailments, strubs US Patent, granted in 1898, includes details of how the rack rail is integrated with the mechanism of a turnout. The best-known use of the Strub system is on the Jungfraubahn in Switzerland and it is the simplest rack system to maintain and has become increasingly popular
Bolligen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland. In the historical center is a church, with a benefice barn. Bolligen is first mentioned in 1180 as Bollingin, traces of a neolithic settlement were discovered in Burech. There are traces of a fort of an indeterminate age above Flugbrunnen, along with medieval earthen forts at Grauholz. Bolligen, Muri bei Bern and Vechigen were the first villages to come under Berns control as Bern began its expansion into a city-state, during the 13th and 14th centuries, representatives of Bern and the Kyburg Counts often met in Bolligen for negotiations. After the extinction of the Knights of Gerenstein, their castle, Gerenstein Castle, the castle and farm passed through the hands of a number of wealthy Bernese citizens and several monasteries, including Interlaken Abbey and Thorberg Charterhouse. The city of Bern continued to acquire rights around Bolligen, in 1345 it bought Habstetten from Berchtold of Thornberg.
Following the Protestant Reformation in 1528, Bern secularized a number of monasteries around the Canton, from the Thorberg Chapterhouse they acquired the low court in Bolligen and from Interlaken Abbey the rights over Bolligens church. The Grauholz-Sädelbach woods near Bolligen became a summer retreat for Berns patrician families. An early example of these was the Wegmühle house which was built in 1600 and it was followed by the Hubelgut house in Habstetten in 1670 and in 1720 by the Lindeburg house. The village church of St. Niklaus was first mentioned in 1180 and it was probably the family church of the Gerenstein family. The current church was built in the 12th or 13th century, in 1792-95 it was renovated and repaired. In 1274 Ulrich of Stein gave the patronage over the church to Interlaken Abbey, after the secularization of the Abbey in 1528, the churchs patronage fell to Bern, who made it the parish church for Habstetten. The parish grew to include 30 villages and farms with a population of 1,771 in 1764, in 1834, the political municipality was created from this large parish.
Beginning in the 18th century, farmers in Bolligen began to grow hay in addition to the traditional grain, the hay was sold to provide food during winter for the many dairy and cattle farms that were developing in the surrounding area. Also in the 18th century large industrial operations opened and these included, the quarries in Stockeren and the paper mill in the Wegmühle which opened in 1787 and converted into a grain mill in 1855. The municipality remained a rural town until the agglomeration of Bern spread into Bolligen in 1950s transforming it. Agricultural land was replaced by shopping centers and housing developments, many of the residents of the municipality commute to Bern for work and by 1990, over three-fourths of the workers were commuters
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally a modern parliament has three functions, representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative and judicial assemblies. The term is derived from Anglo-Norman parlement, from the verb parler talk, the meaning evolved over time, originally any discussion, conversation, or negotiation, through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups, often summoned by the monarch. By 1400, it had come to mean in Britain specifically the British supreme legislature, various parliaments are claimed to be the oldest in the world, under varying definitions. The Sicilian Parliament, whose first assembly was convened in 1097, the Icelandic Althing, year 930, but only including the main chiefs. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders, some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council.
The same has been said about ancient India, where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, these claims are not accepted by most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies. Ancient Athens was the cradle of democracy, the Athenian assembly was the most important institution, and every citizen could take part in the discussions. However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, the Roman Senate controlled money and the details of foreign policy. Some Muslim scholars argue that the Islamic shura is analogous to the parliament, others highlight what they consider fundamental differences between the shura system and the parliamentary system. England has long had a tradition of a body of men who would assist, under the Anglo-Saxon kings, there was an advisory council, the Witenagemot. The name derives from the Old English ƿitena ȝemōt, or witena gemōt, the first recorded act of a witenagemot was the law code issued by King Æthelberht of Kent ca. 600, the earliest document which survives in sustained Old English prose, the Witan, along with the folkmoots, is an important ancestor of the modern English parliament.
As part of the Norman Conquest of England, the new king, William I, did away with the Witenagemot, membership of the Curia was largely restricted to the tenants in chief, the few nobles who rented great estates directly from the king, along with ecclesiastics. William brought to England the feudal system of his native Normandy and this is the original body from which the Parliament, the higher courts of law, and the Privy Council and Cabinet descend. Of these, the legislature is formally the High Court of Parliament, only the executive government is no longer conducted in a royal court. Most historians date the emergence of a parliament with some degree of power to which the throne had to defer no than the rule of Edward I, like previous kings, Edward called leading nobles and church leaders to discuss government matters, especially finance. A meeting in 1295 became known as the Model Parliament because it set the pattern for Parliaments, in 1307, Edward I agreed not to collect certain taxes without the consent of the realm
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Old City (Bern)
The Old City is the medieval city center of Bern, Switzerland. Built on a hill surrounded on three sides by the river Aare, its compact layout has remained essentially unchanged since its construction during the twelfth to the fifteenth century. The Old City is home to Switzerlands tallest cathedral as well as churches, bridges. In addition to historical buildings, the seats of the federal and municipal government are situated in the Old City. It is a UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Site since 1983 due to the compact, numerous buildings in the Old City have been designated as Swiss Cultural Properties of National Significance, as well as the entire Old City. The earliest settlements in the valley of the Aare date back to the Neolithic period, during the second century BC the valley was settled by the Helvetii. Following the Roman conquest of Helvetia a small Roman settlement was established near the Old City and this settlement was abandoned during the second century AD. From that time until the founding of Bern the area remained sparsely settled, the history of the city of Bern proper begins with its founding by Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen in 1191.
Local legend has it that the duke vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, both the name of the city and its heraldic beast, come from this legend. At that time, much of todays Switzerland was under the authority of the house of Zähringen, the Zähringer leaders, although with no actual duchy of their own, were styled dukes by decree of the German king and exercised imperial power south of the Rhine. To establish their position there, they founded or expanded numerous settlements, including Fribourg, Burgdorf, the area chosen by Berchtold V was a hilly peninsula surrounded by the Aare on three sides. This location made the city easy to defend and influenced the development of the city. The long, narrow shape of the made the city develop as several long. The only major cross streets developed along the city walls, which were moved to allow the city to expand, the cross streets mark the stages of development in the Old City of Bern. On the eastern end of the peninsula a small fort, called Castle Nydegg, was founded by Berchtold IV in the half of the twelfth century.
Either when the fort was built or in 1191, the city of Bern was founded around the end of the peninsula. The first expansion of Bern occurred as the city was founded, most likely the first city started at Nydegg Castle and reached to the Zytglogge. The city was divided by three streets, which stretched from the Castle to the city wall
The period is usually considered to have begun with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Luther in 1517 to the Thirty Years War and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Protestant position, would come to incorporate doctrinal changes such as sola scriptura, the initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenbergs printing press provided the means for the dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and Calvinists, Lutheran churches were founded mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia, while the Reformed ones were founded in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The new movement influenced the Church of England decisively after 1547 under Edward VI and Elizabeth I, there were reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation, which gave rise to the Anabaptist and other Pietistic movements. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent, much work in battling Protestantism was done by the well-organised new order of the Jesuits.
In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while Central Europe was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years War, which left it devastated. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, the Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Churchs hierarchy, which included the pope. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church, New perspectives came from John Wycliffe at Oxford University and from Jan Hus at the Charles University in Prague.
Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone, the Roman Catholic Church officially concluded this debate at the Council of Constance by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning despite a promise of safe-conduct. Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428, the Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the century and could not prevent schism. Pope Sixtus IV established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, Pope Alexander VI was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia, in response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses. The Reformation was born of Luthers dual declaration – first, the discovering of Jesus and salvation by faith alone, the Protestant reformers were unanimous in agreement and this understanding of prophecy furnished importance to their deeds.
It was the point and the battle cry that made the Reformation nearly unassailable
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
Ursula Andress is a Swiss film and television actress, former model and sex symbol, who has appeared in American and Italian films. She is best known for her role as Bond girl Honey Ryder in the first James Bond film. She starred as Vesper Lynd in the Bond-parody Casino Royale and her other films include Fun in Acapulco, The Blue Max, Perfect Friday, The Sensuous Nurse, Slave of the Cannibal God, The Fifth Musketeer and Clash of the Titans. He disappeared during World War II and she has a brother and four sisters. At 18, Andress left Switzerland and went to Rome, Italy where she had parts in three Italian films. Within a year she came to California and was signed to a contract with Paramount Pictures, Andress became famous as Honey Ryder, a shell diver and James Bonds woman of desire in Dr. No, the first Bond movie. In what became a moment in cinematic and fashion history. Due to her heavy Swiss-German accent, the voice was provided by Nikki van der Zyl. The scene made Andress a quintessential Bond girl, Andress said that she owed her career to that white bikini, This bikini made me into a success.
As a result of starring in Dr, No as the first Bond girl, I was given the freedom to take my pick of future roles and to become financially independent. The bikini she wore in the film sold at auction in 2001 for £41,125, in 2003, in a UK Survey by Channel 4, her entrance in Dr. No was voted #1 in the 100 Greatest Sexy Moments, Andress won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year in 1964 for her appearance in the film. She appeared in the Bond satire Casino Royale as Vesper Lynd, she worked with fellow former Bond girls Claudine Auger in Anyone Can Play, Barbara Bach in Stateline Motel, and Luciana Paluzzi in The Sensuous Nurse. In 1965, she posed nude for Playboy, it would be the first of seven times she was pictured in the magazine over the fifteen years. When asked why she had agreed to do the Playboy shoot, Andress replied coolly and she went on to appear nude or semi-nude in nearly all of her film roles between 1969 and 1979, earning her the nickname Ursula Undress. She played Aphrodite in 1981s Clash of the Titans, where she worked with Laurence Olivier, during the making of the film, Andress linked up with leading man Harry Hamlin, who became the father of her child.
In 1982, she portrayed Mabel Dodge in the adventure-drama film Red Bells, since the beginning of the 1990s, her acting appearances have been rare. In 1995, Andress was chosen by Empire magazine as one of the 100 Sexiest Stars in film history and her last role to date was playing Madonna in the low-budget 2005 Swiss feature Die Vogelpredigt oder Das Schreien der Mönche
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Swiss Party of Labour
The Swiss Party of Labour is a communist party in Switzerland. The party was founded in 1944 by the illegal Communist Party of Switzerland, on May 21 the constituent conference of the Basel Federation of the party was held. On October 14–15 the same year the first Party Congress of the party was held in Zürich, Léon Nicole was elected President and Karl Hofmaier General Secretary. On October 6–7,1945 the Second Congress was held in Geneva, by this time the party has 20000 members. On November 30-December 1 the 3rd Congress in Zürich, on July 27 a Swiss Party Conference was held in Bern. Karl Hofmaier was removed from his position due to a financial scandal, in the national elections of 1947 the party received 5. 1% of the vote. On July 4–6,1949, the 4th Congress was held, steps to strengthen the organization as a Cadre Party are taken. In 1950, the party works intensively for the Stockholm Appeal,260000 signatures are collected in Switzerland. On May 31-June 2,1952, the 5th Congress is held in Geneva, on December 7 the Central Committee expels Léon Nicole from the party.
On May 28–30, 6th Congress in Geneva, on May 16–18,1959, 7th Congress in Geneva. A new party programme approved with the concept of antimonopolistic unity, on May 16–18,1964, 8th Congress in Geneva. It is associated with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group in the European Parliament, in 2015, the party has no seats in the Swiss cantonal councils, and was not represented in any of the 26 cantonal governments. This resulted in conflict with the party headed by Norberto Crivelli. While the share of the vote in 2007 was similar to the partys 2003 results, the party lost its last seat in the 2011 federal elections but gained a new one in 2015 thanks to the election of Denis de la Reussille in Canton of Neuchâtel
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials
Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
In the rise of European towns in the 10th and 11th centuries, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirennes view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie, except for the republics of Italy. As in Ancient Rome, patrician status could only be inherited. However, membership in the patriciate could be passed on through the female line, accession to a patriciate through this mechanism was referred to as erweibern. In any case, only patricians could hold, or participate in elections for. Often, as in Venice, non-patricians had almost no political rights, lists were maintained of who had the status, of which the most famous is the Libro dOro of the Venetian Republic. For instance in Scandinavia, the term synonymous with the rich mercantile class. The allegiance of the Principality of Salerno was bought in 887 by investing Prince Guaimar I, in 909 the Prince of Benevento, Landulf I, personally sought and received the title in Constantinople for both himself and his brother, Atenulf II.
Amalfi was ruled by a series of Patricians, the last of whom was elected Duke, in the late Middle Ages and early modern period patricians acquired noble titles, sometimes simply by acquiring domains in the surrounding contado that carried a heritable fief. The Republic of Genoa had a class, much smaller, of nobility. Some cities, such as Naples and Rome, which had never been republics in post-Classical times, had patrician classes, though most holders had noble titles. The Republic of Ragusa was ruled by a strict patriciate that was established in 1332. Subsequently, patrician became a term used for aristocrats and elite bourgeoisie in many countries. Florence, in 1244, came late in the peak period of these transformations. However Florence was to have other upheavals, reducing the power of the class, in the movement leading to the Ordinances of Justice in 1293. Of the major republics, only Venice managed to retain an exclusively patrician government, venetians with a disputed claim to the patriciate were required to present to the avogadori di commun established to adjudicate such claims a genealogy called a prova di nobiltà, a test of nobility.
Beginning in the 11th century, a class which much came to be called Patrizier formed in the German-speaking free imperial cities. Besides wealthy merchant Grand Burghers, they were recruited from the ranks of knights and ministeriales