Ostrava is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region. It is 15 km from the border with Poland, at the meeting point of four rivers: the Odra, Ostravice and Lučina. In terms of both population and area Ostrava is the third largest city in the Czech Republic, the second largest city in Moravia, the largest city in Czech Silesia, it straddles the border of the two historic provinces of Silesia. The population was around 300,000 in 2013; the wider conurbation – which includes the towns of Bohumín, Havířov, Karviná, Orlová, Petřvald and Rychvald – is home to about 500,000 people, making it the largest urban area in the Czech Republic apart from the capital, Prague. Ostrava grew in importance due to its position at the heart of a major coalfield, becoming an important industrial centre, it was known as the country's "steel heart" thanks to its status as a coal-mining and metallurgical centre, but since the Velvet Revolution it has undergone radical and far-reaching changes to its economic base.
Industries have been restructured, the last coal was mined in the city in 1994. However, remnants of the city's industrial past are visible in the Lower Vítkovice area, a former coal-mining, coke production and ironworks complex in the city centre which retains its historic industrial architecture. Lower Vítkovice has applied for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the 1990s Ostrava has been transformed into a modern cultural city, with numerous theatres and other cultural facilities. Various cultural and sporting events take place in Ostrava throughout the year, including the Colours of Ostrava music festival, the Janáček May classical music festival, the Summer Shakespeare Festival and NATO Days. Ostrava is home to two public universities: the VŠB-Technical University and the University of Ostrava. In 2014 Ostrava was a European City of Sport; the city co-hosted the IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship in 2004 and 2015. The city's coat of arms features a blue shield with a rearing silver horse standing on a green lawn.
The horse wears a red coverlet. At the top right of the shield there is a golden rose with a red core; the horse in the coat-of-arms wears no bridle. The oldest known depiction of this coat-of-arms is on a seal dating from 1426; the first coloured version dates from 1728. The horse is interpreted as a symbol of Ostrava's position on a major trade route, or as a figure taken from the coat-of-arms of Ostrava's first vogt, while the golden rose comes from the family coat-of-arms of the bishop of Olomouc Stanislav Thurzo; this explanation is supported by most modern literature. Another theory suggests that the Bishop granted Ostrava the right to use the horse in its coat-of-arms out of gratitude for the assistance that the town provided to the people of the Bishop's estate in Hukvaldy when the estate was being looted and pillaged; the help came so that the pillagers did not have time to attach bridles to their horses before making their escape. There is a legend which tells of a siege of Ostrava during which the besieged townspeople released unbridled horses to run in circles around the town.
This is said to have confused the attacking armies so much. In 2008, Ostrava's new marketing logo was unveiled. Designed by Studio Najbrt, the logo "OSTRAVA!!!" is used in public presentations of the city both in the Czech Republic and abroad. The three exclamation marks are meant to symbolise the dynamism and self-confidence of Ostrava and its people; the light blue colour of the city's name is based on the heraldic tradition, while the exclamation marks are a contrasting darker blue. The first written mention of Slezská Ostrava dates from 1229; the first mention of Moravian Ostrava describes it as a township. Ostrava grew up from which it took its name; this river still divides the city into two main parts: Silesian Ostrava. The settlement occupied a strategic position on the border between the two historical provinces of Moravia and Silesia, on the ancient trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic known as the Amber Road; this location helped the town to flourish. However, Ostrava began to decline in importance after the Thirty Years’ War, when it was occupied by Swedish forces from 1621–1645.
A turning point in Ostrava's history came in 1763 with the discovery of extensive deposits of high-quality bituminous coal on the Silesian bank of the Ostravice River. In 1828 the owner of the local estates, Archbishop Rudolf Jan of Olomouc, established an ironworks, named after him as the Rudolfshütte; the ironworks passed into the ownership of the Rothschild family, became known as the Vítkovice Ironworks. This company became the driving force behind Ostrava's industrial boom. By the second half of the 20th century the city was nicknamed the country's "steel heart". After the Second World War and the liberation of Ostrava by the Red Army, the city entered its greatest period of expansion; the new housing projects were on a small scale, focused on the Poruba district and featuring architecture in the Socialist realist style. The authorities built larger-scale developments of prefabricated apartment blocks in Poruba and created a series of satellite estates to the south of the city; the city centre was depopulated and people were moved out to the suburbs.
This was part of a long-term plan to
Władysław of Opole was a Duke of Kalisz during 1234–1244, Duke of Wieluń from 1234 to 1249 and Duke of Opole–Racibórz from 1246 until his death. He was the second son of Casimir I of Opole by his wife, Viola a Bulgarian lady. At the time of his father's death in 1230, both Władysław and his older brother Mieszko II the Fat were still minors. In 1234 Henry I the Bearded, wishing to take full control over Opole, moved the young dukes to Kalisz, but without denying their hereditary rights. Four years Mieszko II the Fat attained his majority, Henry II the Pious, was forced to give him government over Opole-Racibórz. Despite this, Władysław and his mother Viola remained in Kalisz, where she acted as regent on his behalf until 1241, when Władysław was declared an adult and able to rule by himself; the death of Henry II the Pious in the Battle of Legnica put in jeopardy Władysław's rule over Kalisz and Wieluń. Władysław lost Kalisz in 1244 and Wieluń five years in 1249. In 1246 Mieszko II the Fat died without issue, leaving in his will all his lands to his brother Władysław.
Soon after, the new duke failed to maintain in his hands the fortress of Lelów, acquired by Mieszko II three years before. Despite this bad beginning of his rule, Władysław made skillful maneuverings with the other Piast Duchies, who allowed to him to maintain his frontiers. By the first half of the 13th century, Władysław's relations with the Dukes of Greater Poland were normalized. Władysław gave up his claims over Kalisz and Wieluń, as a part of his new alliance with Greater Poland, he married Euphemia, sister of Przemysł I. Shortly after his marriage Władysław, like other Piast Dukes, entered the war between Hungary and Bohemia after the extinction of the House of Babenberg. At first, the Duke of Opole-Racibórz supported the Hungarians, supporting Bolesław V the Chaste in his attacks over Opawa and Głubczyce. However, in 1255, for unknown reasons, Władysław changed sides and supported King Ottokar II of Bohemia, in 1260 the duke took part in the Battle of Kressenbrunn against the Hungarians.
This change of alliance soon brought real benefits to Władysław, in the form of regulations in the frontiers between his duchy and the Bohemian Kingdom. In 1262, at the Congress of Danków, Władysław attempted to make a triple alliance with the Bohemian King, Bolesław V the Chaste and Bolesław the Pious, one of the rulers of Greater Poland, but without significant results; the opportunity to obtain the throne of Kraków appeared only in 1273. Władysław, despite his alliance with Bolesław V the Chaste entered Lesser Poland with some of his forces; the decisive battle took place on 4 June 1273 in Bogucin Mały, where the Opole-Racibórz army was defeated. In October of that year, Bolesław V the Chaste made a retaliatory expedition against Opole-Racibórz. In 1274 Władysław and Bolesław V the Chaste decided to conclude a peace, under which the Duke of Opole-Racibórz gave up his claims over the throne of Kraków, in return for which the borders of both duchies were eliminated. On 25 August 1278 the Battle on the Marchfeld took place, which proved to be decisive in terms of King Ottokar II's fate.
Despite the successful cooperation with the Bohemian King, this time Władysław didn't send supporting troops to the King. What is more, shortly after receiving news of the Ottokar II's defeat and death, the Duke of Opole-Racibórz attacked Opawa wishing to obtain it. However, the rapid normalization of the situation in Prague and the efficient rule of the regency on behalf of the minor King Wenceslaus II clashed with his intentions. To normalize his now tense relations with the Bohemian Kingdom, Władysław was present in the Congress of Vienna in 1280, where he, alongside to Henry IV Probus, paid homage to King Rudolph I of Germany; this meeting would be an opportunity to Władysław to conclude a new alliance, this time with Henry IV Probus, Duke of Wrocław. The agreement was sealed with the marriage of Henry IV to Władysław's daughter named Constance. Władysław promised to support his new son-in-law in his efforts to obtain the royal crown, but under the condition that his daughter would be crowned as queen.
In internal politics, Władysław sought to continue the work of his predecessors, while increasing the importance of the Church in his lands. He was a founder of many monasteries, like the Dominicans in Racibórz, the Cistercians in Rudy, the Franciscans in Wodzisław and Głogówek and the Benedictine in Orlová). Another important sign of his reign was the institution of Magdeburg Law in all the cities of his duchy. Władysław died between 27 August and 13 September 1282 and was buried in the Dominican monastery of Racibórz. In 1251 Władysław married Euphemia, daughter of Władysław Odonic, Duke of Greater Poland, they had five children: Mieszko I. Casimir. Bolko I. A daughter. Przemysław. Cawley, Charles, SILESIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, WŁADYSŁAW I OPOLSKI Marek, Mirosla
Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia, is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River. Since 1920 it has been divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic, it covers an area of about 2,280 square kilometres and has about 810,000 inhabitants, of which 1,002 square kilometres is in Poland, while 1,280 square kilometres is in the Czech Republic. The historical boundaries of the region are the same as those of the former independent Duchy of Teschen/Cieszyn. Over half of Cieszyn Silesia forms one of the euroregions, the Cieszyn Silesia Euroregion, with the rest of it belonging to Euroregion Beskydy. From an administrative point of view, the Polish part of Cieszyn Silesia lies within the Silesian Voivodeship and comprises Cieszyn County, the western part of Bielsko County, the western part of the town of Bielsko-Biała; the Czech part lies within the Moravian-Silesian Region and comprises the Karviná District, the eastern part of the Frýdek-Místek District, the eastern parts of the Ostrava-City District and of the city of Ostrava itself.
Cieszyn Silesia covers the area of the former Duchy of Teschen, which existed from 1290 to 1918. Before 1290 the area constituted a castellany, which together with Castellany of Racibórz formed the Duchy of Racibórz in 1172. From 1202 it was a part of the united Duchy of Racibórz. From 1290 to 1653 the Duchy of Teschen was ruled by the local branch of the Piast dynasty. In 1327 Casimir I, Duke of Cieszyn, swore homage to the Bohemian king John of Bohemia, the duchy became an autonomous fiefdom of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Bohemian Crown. Piast rule continued until 1653 and the death of the last Piast descendant, Elizabeth Lucretia, Duchess of Cieszyn, after which it lapsed directly to the Kings of Bohemia, at that time from the Habsburg dynasty. From 1722, the dukes of Teschen hailed from the Dukes of Lorraine dynasty, from 1767 to 1822 from the Wettin dynasty, from 1822 to 1918 from the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Cieszyn Silesia was cemented as a uniform historic, socio-cultural and economic entity during the period of Habsburg rule.
It is distinct from the rest of Silesia because after the First Silesian War between the Austrian Empire and Prussia it remained part of Austria, whereas most of Silesia became a part of Prussia. After the end of World War I, both of the two newly created independent states of Poland and Czechoslovakia claimed the area. Czechoslovakia claimed the area on historic and ethnic grounds, but on economic and strategic grounds; the area was important for the Czechs, as the crucial railway line connecting Czech Silesia with Slovakia crossed the area. The western area of Cieszyn Silesia is very rich in coal. Many important coal mines and metallurgy factories are located there; the Polish side based its claim to the area on ethnic criteria: a majority of the area's population was Polish according to the last Austrian census. Two local self-government councils and Czech, were created. Both national councils claimed the whole of Cieszyn Silesia for themselves, the Polish Rada Narodowa Księstwa Cieszyńskiego in its declaration "Ludu śląski!" of 30 October 1918 and the Czech Národní výbor pro Slezsko in its declaration of 1 November 1918.
On 31 October 1918, in the wake of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, most of the area was taken over by local Polish authorities. The short-lived interim agreement of 2 November 1918 reflected the inability of the two national councils to come to final delimitation, on 5 November 1918 the area was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia by another interim agreement. In 1919 the councils were absorbed by the newly created and independent central governments in Prague and Warsaw; the former was not satisfied with the situation and on 23 January 1919 invaded the area while both parties were engaged in much larger conflicts elsewhere, Poland in its war against the West Ukrainian National Republic and Czechoslovakia in the war with the Hungarian Soviet Republic over Slovakia. The impetus for the Czech invasion in 1919 was Poland's organising of elections to the Sejm of Poland in the disputed area; the elections were to be held in the whole of Cieszyn Silesia. The Czechs claimed that the polls must not be held in the disputed area, as the delimitation was only interim and no sovereign rule should be executed there by any party.
The Czech demand was rejected by the Poles and, following the rejection, Czechs decided to resolve the issue by force. Czech units led by Colonel Josef Šnejdárek and Polish units commanded by General Franciszek Latinik clashed after the swift Czech advance near Skoczów where a battle took place on 28–30 January, it was inconclusive, before the reinforced Czech forces could resume the attack on the town, they were pressed by Entente to stop operations and a cease-fire was signed on 3 February. In this tense climate it was decided that a plebiscite would be held in the area asking its people which country the territory should join. Plebiscite commissioners arrived there at the end of January 1920 and after analyzing the situation declared a state of emergency in the territory on 19 May 1920; the situation in the territory remained tense. Mutual intimidation, acts of terror and killings affected the area. A plebiscite could not be held in this atmosphere. On 10 July both sides renounced the idea of plebiscite and
Šance Dam is a water reservoir and dam in the Moravian-Silesian Beskids mountain range, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. The dam is built on upper course of the Ostravice River and has a surface of 3.37 km². It was constructed in 1964-1969 and began operating in 1974. Part of the village of Staré Hamry was subsequently flooded during the construction; the name of the dam comes from the hill. The dam is used to supply drinking water to nearby towns and villages and to subdue floods on the Ostravice River. Šimek, Milan. "Přehradní nádrže na území okresů Frýdek-Místek a Karviná". Těšínsko. 30: 5–8
Idzi Jan Panic is Polish historian, professor at the University of Silesia. He is specializing in history of medieval Poland, he graduated from the University of Silesia in 1976 and gained a Ph. D. from this university in 1980. In 1999 Panic gained the title of professor, his articles were published in "Studia Historyczne", "Sobótka. Śląski Kwartalnik Historyczny", "Pamiętnik Cieszyński" and "Těšínsko". Księstwo Cieszyńskie w średniowieczu. Studia z dziejów politycznych i społecznych Książę cieszyński Przemysław Noszak - political biography Ostatnie lata Wielkich Moraw Poczet Piastów i Piastówien cieszyńskich Żory w czasach Przemyślidów i Habsburgów. Z badań nad historią miasta w latach 1327-1742 Dzieje Górek Wielkich i Małych Studia z dziejów Skoczowa w czasach piastowskich Zachodniosłowiańska nazwa "Niemcy" w świetle źródeł średniowiecznych Tajemnica Całunu Jak my ongiś godali: język mieszkańców Górnego Śląska od średniowiecza do połowy XIX wieku Profile at Nauka Polska portal "Idzi Panic". Studenckie Koło Naukowe Historyków Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
Bóbr is a river which carries water through the north of the Czech Republic and the southwest of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder. The Bóbr has a basin area of 5,874 square kilometres, it originates on a slope of the Rýchory mountains in the southeast of the Krkonoše range. The source is located near the small Bobr village of the Žacléř municipality in the Czech Hradec Králové Region. Parallel to the Lusatian Neisse tributary of the Oder in the west, it flows northwards from the Bohemian region into adjacent Silesia. Shortly after the river crosses the border to Polish Niedamirów and runs northwestwards through the Jelenia Góra valley of the Western Sudetes to the dam of Pilchowice and downhill into the plains of Lower Silesia, passing the towns of Jelenia Góra, Bolesławiec, Żagań, where the parallel Kwisa river joins it; the river flows into the Oder near the town of Krosno. Non-navigable for its entire length, it is a popular destination for canoeing. Since the Middle Ages the lower Bóbr river north of Żagań and the Kwisa confluence marked the border between the historic regions of Silesia in the east and Lower Lusatia to the west.
After in 937 King Otto I of Germany had established the Saxon Eastern March on the lands settled by Polabian Slavs, Margrave Gero until 963 subdued the Lusatian lands up to the border with Poland. Upon Gero's death in 965, the river was the designated eastern border of the newly created March of Lusatia in the Holy Roman Empire; the Polish territorial sovereignty was acknowledged to Duke Bolesław I Chrobry by Emperor Otto III at the Congress of Gniezno in 1000. Bolesław laid claims to the lands west of the Bóbr, which he temporarily acquired by the 1018 Treaty of Bautzen. After Emperor Conrad II had reconquered the territory until 1031, the status quo was restored; the river became an internal border, when the Luxembourg king John of Bohemia step-by-step vassalized the Piast dukes of Silesia and incorporated their lands with the consent of King Casimir III of Poland by the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin, whereafter both Lusatia in the west and Silesia in the east became Lands of the Bohemian Crown.
During the Potsdam Conference in 1945, the Western Allies advocated a Polish-German border along the Oder, Bóbr and Kwisa rivers, but were rejected by Joseph Stalin, who had committed himself to the Oder-Neisse line. Lubawka Kamienna Góra Jelenia Góra Wleń Lwówek Śląski Bolesławiec Szprotawa Małomice Żagań Nowogród Bobrzański Krosno Odrzańskie The Pilchowice Dam was built from 1904 to 1912 in the northern Krkonoše range near Jelenia Góra; the largest in Europe, surpassing the Urft Dam built in 1905, it created a reservoir of about 4 km length. The masonry structure was erected on a Gneiss basis according to the Intze Principle. Equipped with Francis turbines manufactured by Voith and Siemens-Schuckert and AEG generators, the hydroelectric plant supplies about 20,000,000 kWh a year, with a power rating of 7,585 kW. Rivers of Poland
Śląska Ochla is a river of Poland. It flows into the Oder near Bobrowniki