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Oswald Mathias Ungers

Oswald Mathias Ungers was a German architect and architectural theorist, known for his rationalist designs and the use of cubic forms. Among his notable projects are museums in Frankfurt and Cologne. Oswald Mathias Ungers was born in Kaisersesch in the Eifel region. From 1947 to 1950 he studied architecture at the University of Karlsruhe under Egon Eiermann, he set up an architectural practice in Cologne in 1950, opened offices in Berlin in 1964, Frankfurt in 1974 and Karlsruhe in 1983. He was a professor at the Technical University of Berlin from 1963 to 1967 and served as the dean of the faculty of architecture from 1965 to 1967. In 1968 he moved to the United States, where he became the chair of the department of architecture at Cornell University from 1969 to 1975. In 1971 he became a member of the American Institute of Architects, he was a visiting professor at Harvard University and the University of California, Los Angeles. He returned to Germany in 1976, becoming a visiting professor at the University of Applied Arts Vienna and a full professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf.

Oswald Mathias Ungers died on 30 September 2007 from pneumonia. He had one son and two daughters. Ungers' buildings are characterized by strict geometrical design grid. Basic design elements of his architecture are elementary forms such as square, circle or cube and sphere, which Ungers varied and transformed in his designs; as an architectural theorist and university lecturer, Ungers developed what his critics called "quadratism", his admirers "German rationalism". In doing so, he resorted to the teaching of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand who had published in 1820 his pattern books with geometric prototypes for "any building". In his formal language, Ungers explicitly referred to elementary architectural design elements that are independent of contemporary tastes, his historical role models in the history of architecture come from roman-Greek antiquity. His work was therefore criticized as formalistic. In connection with his construction on the Frankfurt Messe grounds, there was talk of a "new clarity".

Like hardly any other architect, Ungers has remained true to his once chosen formal language for decades. He was one of the leading theoreticians of Second Modernism. Well-known students of Ungers include Jo. Franzke, Hans Kollhoff, Rem Koolhaas, Christoph Mäckler, Jürgen Sawade and Eun Young Yi. Ungers Archive for Architectural Research contains his architecture library, which he began building in the 1950s, as well as the architect's entire artistic legacy; the library focuses on architecture tractate, works on the emergence and further development of perspective and publications on theory of colour. The library includes the first edition of Vitruv's De Architectura Libri Decem of 1495 as well as rare editions such as the Staatliche Bauhaus in Weimar 1919-1923 and publications of the Russian avantgarde, for example Von zwei Quadraten by the architect El Lissitzky. Together with his estate it is housed in the library cube of Ungers' listed building in Belvederestraße 60, Müngersdorf and is available to the scientific public for research purposes.

Part of the Ungers Archive for architectural Research are the models of historical architectural icons which the diploma designer and architectural model builder Bernd Grimm built in collaboration with the architect. Ungers goal was to create a "three-dimensional collection" of significant buildings; the models have a wooden substructure. 1993: Parthenon, Athens, 447-438 BC, model in scale 1:50 1995: Pantheon Rom, 118–128 BC, model in scale 1:50 2001: Castel del Monte by Friedrich II, Apulia, 1240-1250, model in scale 1:70 2002: Kenotaph for Isaac Newton, 1784, Architect: Étienne-Louis Boullée, model in 1:400 scale 2001: Tiempietto del Bramante, Rome, 1502, Architect: Donato Bramante, model in scale 1:15 2004: Mausoleum of Theoderic,Ravenna, circa 520 AD, model in scale 1:20 1958-1959 Haus Ungers 1 in Cologne-Müngersdorf 1979–1984 German Architecture Museum in Frankfurt 1980–1983 Messe Torhaus in Frankfurt 1981-1984 Konstantinplatz in Trier 1983–1991 Badische Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe 1986 Former main building of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven 1993–1996 Friedrichstadt-Passagen in Berlin 1994 Residence of the German ambassador in Washington D.

C. 1994–1995 Haus ohne Eigenschaften in Cologne 1995 Museum of Contemporary Art in Hamburg 1998–2001 Dorotheenhöfe, Berlin 2001 Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne 2006 Entrance to the ruins of a Roman bath in TrierProposed or under constructionIn 2000, he won an architectural competition to redesign the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. His controversial plan proposes large alterations to the building complex which has remained unchanged since 1930; the rebuilding is scheduled to end in 2022. Entwerfen mit Vorstellungsbildern, Metaphern und Analogien. Anmerkungen zu einem morphologischen Konzept, in: Architektur 1951-1990, Stuttgart, 1991 Morphologie. City Metaphors, König, 1982 Die Thematisierung der Architektur, 1983, published by Technische Universität Dortmund and Walter A. Noebel, Niggli Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-7212-0698-2 The Dialectic City, Skira Editore, 1997 Official homepage of the Ungers Archives for Architecture Obituary in The Times, 8 October 2007 Obituary in The Guardian, 18 October 2007

Josef VĂ¡chal

Josef Váchal was a Czech writer, painter and book-printer. Váchal was the son of Josef Aleš-Lyžec and Anna Váchalová - his parents never married, he was brought up by his grandparents, Jan Aleš and Jana Alešová, in the southern Bohemian town of Písek, where he entered grammar school but left it prematurely. In 1898 Váchal moved to Prague, where he studied bookbinding and befriended his father's cousin, the painter Mikoláš Aleš, he was influenced by Art Nouveau during that time. In 1900 he wrote his first poems, by 1903 he joined the Prague Theosophy Society, in 1904 he entered the Painter School and became a respected painter and graphic designer. In 1910 Váchal published his first two books. Between January 1912 and January 1913 he enjoyed a short but intense friendship with the mystical Catholic writer Jakub Deml. In March 1913, Váchal married Máša Pešulová, began a friendship with the collector J. Portman. From 1916 to 1918 Váchal served as a soldier on the Italian front. During 1940, expressing resistance against Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia, he moved from Prague to the village of Studeňany.

After the communist revolution of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, he became more and culturally isolated and his works were seen in public. He lived in obscurity on the family estate of Anna Macková, in Studeňany. With the coming of Prague Spring in the late 1960s his situation didn't change, he was, awarded the state title of Meritorious Artist shortly before his death in 1969. He is buried in the village of Radim near Jičín, eastern Bohemia; the publishing house Paseka was inspired by the character publisher Paseka in Vachal's Bloody Novel. Portmoneum, Váchal's museum in Litomyšl, was founded by Paseka publishing house in the early 1990s. Krvavý román published 1924 Mor v Korcule Malíř na frontě. Soca a Italie 1917-18 Šumava umírající a romantická Receptář barevného dřevorytu - theoretical work on woodcut techniques Nejnovejší legatio mortuorum Kázání ad calendas graecas Ďáblova odstředivka Čertova babička Moudrost Svobodného zednářství Robinson mohelnský Živant a umrlanti Čarodejnice z Holešovic neboli Vězeň v bolševickém hradě Paměti published 1994 Deníky 1922-1964 published 1998 J. Kroutvor: Josef Váchal.

Prague: Argestea 1994. J. Olič: Nejlépe tlačiti... Prague: Paseka 1993. Josef Váchal 1884-1969. Mezi Bohem a Ďáblem. Smetanova výtvarná Litomyšl 2008. ISBN 978-80-7185-913-0 Czech site about Vachal Paseka, Vachal's main publisher after 1989 Portmoneum, Váchal's museum in Litomyšl Jiří Rulf's text about Portmoneum

2000 San Diego Chargers season

The 2000 San Diego Chargers season was the franchise’s 31st season in the National Football League and the 41st overall and the second under head coach Mike Riley. The Chargers failed to improve on their 8–8 record from 1999, finished the season 1–15, the worst record of any Chargers team in history; the team lost its first eleven games before their only victory of the season against the Kansas City Chiefs. The Carolina Panthers would match this embarrassment the next year; the 2000 Chargers were the first team to finish 1–15 and have their only win of the season be at home. Oddly enough, out of the ten teams in NFL history to finish 1–15, only two others had their only win at home San Diego had a inept running attack in 2000. For perspective, the strike-shortened 1982 NFL season—which was a nine-game schedule—included thirteen teams who rushed for more yards than San Diego did in 2000, the 1992 Seahawks, who scored only 140 points in 16 games, rushed for 1,596 yards. Despite this, there were a few bright spots.

After their miserable season, the Chargers earned the first overall pick in the next season’s draft. The Chargers would trade that pick to the Falcons and draft LaDainian Tomlinson and Drew Brees, both of whom would contribute to the Chargers’ success in the middle and late 2000s