Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics and art and their relation to his cyclical theory of history. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West, published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. Spengler's model of history postulates that any culture is a superorganism with a limited and predictable lifespan. Spengler predicted that about the year 2000, Western civilization would enter the period of pre‑death emergency whose countering would lead to 200 years of Caesarism before Western Civilization's final collapse. Spengler is rendered as a nationalist, anti-democratic, a prominent member of the Conservative Revolution, but he criticised Nazism due to its excessive racism. Instead, he saw Benito Mussolini, entrepreneur types like Cecil Rhodes, as embryonic examples of the impending Caesars of Western culture, notwithstanding his stark criticism of Mussolini's imperial adventures, he influenced other historians, including Franz Borkenau and Arnold J. Toynbee.
Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was born in 1880 in Blankenburg as the second child of Bernhard and Pauline Spengler. Oswald's elder brother was born prematurely in 1879, when his mother tried to move a heavy laundry basket, died at the age of three weeks. Oswald was born ten months after his brother's death, his younger sisters were Adele and Hildegard. Oswald's paternal grandfather, Theodor Spengler, was a metallurgical inspector in Altenbrak. Oswald's father, Bernhard Spengler, held the position of a postal secretary and was a hard-working man with a marked dislike of intellectualism, who tried to instil the same values and attitudes in his son. On 26 May 1799, Friedrich Wilhelm Grantzow, a tailor's apprentice in Berlin, married a Jewish woman named Bräunchen Moses. Shortly before the wedding, Moses was baptized as Johanna Elisabeth Anspachin; the couple had eight children, one of whom was Gustav Adolf Grantzow —a solo dancer and ballet master in Berlin, who in 1837 married Katharina Kirchner, a nervously beautiful solo dancer from a Munich Catholic family.
Like the Grantzows in general, Pauline was of a Bohemian disposition, before marrying Bernhard Spengler, accompanied her dancer sister on tours. She was the least talented member of the Grantzow family. In appearance, she was a bit unseemly, her temperament, which Oswald inherited, complemented her appearance and frail physique: she was moody and morose. When Oswald was ten years of age, his family moved to the university city of Halle. Here he received a classical education at the local Gymnasium, studying Greek, Latin and sciences. Here, too, he developed his propensity for the arts—especially poetry and music—and came under the influence of the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Nietzsche: I feel urged to name once more those to whom I owe everything: Goethe and Nietzsche. Goethe gave me method, Nietzsche the questioning faculty... After his father's death in 1901 Spengler attended several universities as a private scholar, taking courses in a wide range of subjects, his private studies were undirected.
In 1903, he failed his doctoral thesis on Heraclitus because of insufficient references, which ended his chances of an academic career. He received his PhD from Halle on 6 April 1904. In December 1904, he set to write the secondary dissertation necessary to qualify as a high school teacher; this became The Development of the Organ of Sight in the Higher Realms of the Animal Kingdom, a text now lost. It was approved and he received his teaching certificate. In 1905 Spengler suffered a nervous breakdown. Biographers report his life, he served as a teacher in Saarbrücken and in Düsseldorf. From 1908 to 1911 he worked at a grammar school in Hamburg, where he taught science, German history, mathematics. In 1911, following his mother's death, he moved to Munich, where he would live until his death in 1936, he lived as a cloistered scholar, supported by his modest inheritance. Spengler survived on limited means and was marked by loneliness, he owned no books, took jobs as a tutor or wrote for magazines to earn additional income.
He began work on the first volume of Decline of the West intending at first to focus on Germany within Europe, but the Agadir Crisis of 1911 affected him and he widened the scope of his study: At that time the World-War appeared to me both as imminent and as the inevitable outward manifestation of the historical crisis, my endeavor was to comprehend it from an examination of the spirit of the preceding centuries—not years.... Thereafter I saw the present—the approaching World-War—in a quite other light, it was no longer a momentary constellation of casual facts due to n
Cleistocactus is a genus of flowering plants in the cactus family Cactaceae, native to mountainous areas - to 3,000 m - of South America. The name comes from the Greek kleistos meaning closed because the flowers hardly open; the stems of these cacti are tall slender and many-branched with numerous ribs with set areoles and spines. The flowers are tubular and the tips hardly open with only the style and stamens protruding. Cleistocactus acanthurus D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus acanthurus subsp. Acanthurus Cleistocactus acanthurus subsp. Faustianus Ostolaza Cleistocactus acanthurus subsp. Pullatus Ostolaza Cleistocactus baumannii Lem. Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Anguinus P. J. Braun & Esteves Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Baumannii Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Chacoanus P. J. Braun & Esteves Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Croceiflorus P. J. Braun & Esteves Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Horstii N. P. Taylor Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. Santacruzensis Mottram Cleistocactus brookeae Cárdenas Cleistocactus buchtienii Backeb.
Cleistocactus candelilla Cárdenas Cleistocactus chotaensis F. A. C. Weber ex Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus clavispinus Ostolaza Cleistocactus colademononis Mottram Cleistocactus × crassiserpens Rauh & Backeb.eine natürliche Hybride von Cleistocactus icosagonus und Cleistocactus serpens. Cleistocactus dependens Cárdenas Cleistocactus erectispinus Ostolaza Cleistocactus ferrarii R. Kiesling Cleistocactus fieldianus D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus fieldianus subsp. Fieldianus Cleistocactus fieldianus subsp. Samnensis Ostolaza Cleistocactus fieldianus subsp. Tessellatus Ostolaza Cleistocactus granditessellatus Leuenb. Cleistocactus grossei Backeb. Cleistocactus hildegardiae F. Ritter Cleistocactus hyalacanthus Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus hystrix Ostolaza Cleistocactus icosagonus F. A. C. Weber ex Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus laniceps Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus leonensis. Cleistocactus luribayensis Cárdenas Cleistocactus micropetalus F. Ritter Cleistocactus morawetzianus Backeb. Cleistocactus muyurinensis F. Ritter Cleistocactus orthogonus Cárdenas Cleistocactus pachycladus Ostolaza Cleistocactus palhuayensis F.
Ritter & Shahori Cleistocactus paraguarensis F. Ritter Cleistocactus parapetiensis. Cleistocactus peculiaris Ostolaza Cleistocactus piraymirensis Cárdenas Cleistocactus plagiostoma D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus pungens F. Ritter Cleistocactus reae Cárdenas Cleistocactus ritteri Backeb. Cleistocactus roezlii Backeb. Cleistocactus roseiflorus G. D. Rowley Cleistocactus samaipatanus D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus sepium F. A. C. Weber ex Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus serpens F. A. C. Weber ex Rol.-Goss. Cleistocactus sextonianus D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus Rose Cleistocactus strausii Backeb. Cleistocactus sulcifer Leuenb. Cleistocactus tarijensis Cárdenas Cleistocactus tenuiserpens Backeb. Cleistocactus tominensis Backeb. Cleistocactus tupizensis Backeb. Cleistocactus variispinus F. Ritter Cleistocactus vulpis-cauda F. Ritter & Cullmann Cleistocactus winteri D. R. Hunt Cleistocactus xylorhizus Ostolaza The following genera have been brought into synonymy with this genus: Akersia Buining Bolivicereus Cárdenas Borzicactella H.
Johnson ex F. Ritter Borzicactus Riccob Borzicereus Fric & Kreuz. Cephalocleistocactus F. Ritter Cleistocereus Fric & Kreuz. Clistanthocereus Backeb. Demnosa Fric Gymnanthocereus Backeb. Hildewintera F. Ritter Loxanthocereus Backeb. Maritimocereus Akers Pseudoechinocereus Buining Seticereus Backeb. Seticleistocactus Backeb. Winteria F. Ritter Winterocereus Backeb. Innes C, Wall B. Cacti and Bromaliads. Cassell & The Royal Horticultural Society; the species list is referenced from http://www.cactiguide.com/, in turn referenced from several books which are listed on that site. The principal book listed here is The Cactus Family by Edward F. Anderson. Photos on www. AIAPS.org photos on www.cactiguide.com
Rainer Bonhof is a former German footballer, who played as a defensive midfielder or wing-back, but, known for his occasional bursts upfield and his fierce shot. He was a key player for the 1974 West Germany side. Bonhof was one of the stars for his club side, Borussia Mönchengladbach and won numerous domestic league and cup titles. Bonhof, a midfielder, was part of the successful Borussia Mönchengladbach side of the 1970s, winning numerous Bundesliga, German Cup, UEFA Cup titles, he was recognized for having one of the game's hardest free-kicks as well as long and precise throw-ins. He amassed 57 goals in the West German top-flight. Bonhof was awarded the ARD Goal of the Month on three occasions, twice for free-kicks and once for a 30-metre strike, he won his first of 53 caps in 1972. Bonhof became Germany's youngest World Champion on 7 July 1974 following his team's 2–1 win over the Netherlands in Munich's Olympiastadion at the 1974 FIFA World Cup, his penetrating run into the opposition penalty area and pass to Gerd Muller led to the winning goal in that game.
Two matches earlier Bonhof scored the goal that put West Germany up 2–1 against Sweden, a match the Germans won 4–2, which clinched their place in the semi-finals. Bonhof was a fixture in the West German national team from the World Cup onward, he was one of the best players in the 1976 European Championship, assisting on four of the six West German goals in the semi-final and final. Bonhof played in every match of the 1978 FIFA World Cup when West Germany was eliminated in the second round following a 2–3 defeat at the hands of their historic rivals, Austria, he continued to play an important role in the national team following his transfer to Valencia. His move and that of Uli Stielike prompted the DFB to remove their ban on selecting foreign based players for the national team, he played a role in qualifying for the 1980 European Championships and was selected for the squad, but injuries kept him from making an appearance during the West German victory. His last appearance for the national team came in a 1–4 defeat at the hands of Brazil, in spite of a strong Bundesliga campaign for 1.
FC Köln in 1981–82 he was not selected to return to the national team. From 1980 to 2012 Bonhof was the only player to win the European Championships twice, although he did not play a single game in either the 1972 or 1980 finals, he now shares the record with 12 players from the Spain national team which won back-to-back titles in 2008 and 2012. Bonhof remains the most decorated player in the history of the European Championships, with two gold medals and one silver. Former Liverpool goalkeeper, Ray Clemence, in 1977 following a European Cup final between the Reds and Borussia Mönchengladbach, admitted he feared Bonhof's shots; the fear was proved justified, as during the spring of 1978 Clemence was beaten twice by Bonhof from nearly identical locations, at the club and international level. A Bonhof shot had beat Clemence in the 1977 final too. Bonhof's playing career was abruptly ended by an ankle injury in 1983. Bonhof went on to coach, he received his formal license in 1988, has coached several teams.
Bonhof was coach of Borussia Moenchengladbach in the late 1990s, but the team was relegated from the Bundesliga. He was appointed manager of the Scotland under-21 team in 2002, joining the Scotland national team setup some months after countryman Berti Vogts had been appointed Scotland manager. Bonhof was the first full-time manager of the Scotland under-21 team; the team enjoyed initial success under Bonhof, winning an away qualifier against Germany and progressing to the qualifying playoffs for the 2004 European Championship. Scotland lost in the playoffs on aggregate to Croatia. Bonhof continued as Scotland under-21 manager after Vogts resigned as national team manager in November 2004, but resigned in November 2005 after the team went on a run of 14 games without a victory. Bonhof had helped James McFadden progress to the full national team. On 1 September 2006, Bonhof signed a contract with recent FA Premier League winners Chelsea to become their scout for the scopes of Germany and Austria.
The contract was a rolling deal, allowing either Bonhof to break it up any time. The deal between Chelsea F. C. and Bonhof ended because of the club's high debts. Bonhof left London on 31 October 2008. On 11 February 2009, he was named as the new vice president of Borussia Mönchengladbach. Borussia MönchengladbachBundesliga: 1970–71, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1976–77 DFB-Pokal: 1972–73 UEFA Cup: 1974–75ValenciaCopa del Rey: 1978–79 UEFA Cup Winners Cup: 1979–80KölnDFB-Pokal: 1982–83 GermanyFIFA World Cup: 1974 UEFA European Championship: 1972, 1980.