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Oswego County, New York

Oswego County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 122,109; the county seat is Oswego. The county name is from a Mohawk language word meaning "the outpouring", referring to the mouth of the Oswego River. Oswego County is part of NY Metropolitan Statistical Area; when counties were established in the British colony of New York in 1683, the present Oswego County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of what is now New York state as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County in the British colony, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion.

The eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, the name of Tryon County was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. In 1789, the size of Montgomery County was reduced by the splitting off of Ontario County from Montgomery; the actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties.

Oswego County was in Macomb's Purchase of 1791. In 1791, Herkimer County was one of three counties split off from Montgomery; this was much larger than the present county and was reduced by a number of subsequent splits. In 1794, Onondaga County was created from a part of Herkimer County; this county was larger than the current Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga and part of Oswego counties. In 1798, Oneida County was created from a part of Herkimer County; this county was larger than the current Oneida County, including the present Jefferson and part of Oswego counties. In 1805, Oneida County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Lewis counties. In 1816, Oswego County was created as New York State's 48th county from parts of Oneida and Onondaga counties. In 1841, businessmen in Oswego attempted to divide Oswego County into two counties, they failed to persuade the State to do however. The topic still comes up today by dividing the county into an east part and a west part, with the east portion being renamed "Salmon County".

At various times, beginning in 1847 and as late as 1975, attempts were made to move the county seat to the Village of Mexico. However, none of these attempts succeeded. On April 20, 2002, around 6:50 am, many residents of Oswego County were shaken awake by a magnitude 5.2 earthquake centered near Plattsburgh, New York. Minor damage to a Fire Hall in Altmar was the only report of damage. No injuries were sustained. During 1–12 February 2007, a major lake effect snowfall dumped over ten feet of snow in many places in Oswego County, resulting in several roof collapses, some communities being cut off, some people being snowed-in in their homes. A state of emergency was declared for the county, the National Guard was sent in to help clear the snow; the Oswego County Legislature has 25 members, elected from equal population districts, reduced from 36 in 1993. The legislators are split between seven committees that meet monthly and attend a general meeting once per month; the seven standing committees as of December 2019 were Government and Consumer Affairs.

In the 2019 general election, the county GOP won three more seats occupied by Democrats, expanding its control of the legislature to 23-2. The two Democratic candidates who were elected ran unopposed, there was only one other Democrat running for any of the 25 seats. Meanwhile, a proposition that sought to expand legislator terms from two years to four years was rejected, with 65.06 percent of 17,701 total votes countywide going against the proposition. Oswego County has two representatives in the state assembly, with Republicans Will Barclay and Brian Manktelow both serving as assemblymen for portions of the county. Barclay, of Pulaski was unanimously elected by a vote of his GOP Assembly peers to lead the State Assembly Republicans on Jan. 7, 2020. Sen. Patty Ritchie, R-Oswegatchie, represents the 48th district that includes Oswego County in the state senate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,312 square miles, of which 952 square miles is land and 360 square miles is water.

Oswego County is in northwestern New York State, just north of Syracuse and northwest of Utica, on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. Part of the Tug Hill Plateau is in the eastern part


Clerks is a 1994 American independent black-and-white buddy comedy film written, co-produced by Kevin Smith. Starring Brian O'Halloran and Jeff Anderson, it presents a day in the lives of titular store clerks Dante Hicks and Randal Graves, along with their acquaintances. Clerks is the first of Smith's View Askewniverse films, introduces several recurring characters, notably Jay and Silent Bob. Clerks was shot for $27,575 in the convenience and video stores where director Smith worked in real life. Upon its theatrical release, the film received positive reviews and grossed over $3 million in theaters, launching Smith's career; the film is considered a landmark in independent filmmaking and, in 2019, was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, who deemed it "culturally or aesthetically significant". Dante Hicks, a young man who works as a retail clerk at Quick Stop Groceries in Leonardo, New Jersey, is called into work on his day off to cover another employee's morning shift.

Arriving at the store, he finds that the locks to the security shutters are jammed closed with chewing gum, so he hangs a sheet over them with a message written in shoe polish: "I ASSURE YOU. Soon after opening, Dante's best friend, wisecracking slacker Randal Graves, arrives for his own workday at the video rental store next door; the two prepare for another ordinary day immersed in their tedious customer service jobs. Dante laments that he is "not supposed to be here today," while Randal neglects his job at the video store to keep Dante company at the Quick Stop, they pass the time engaging in philosophical discussions on a wide variety of topics, including movies, sex and difficult customers. Some of the customers they encounter during the day are angry and demanding. After several hours, Dante discovers that his boss has left on a trip to Vermont, leaving him to run the store alone for the rest of the day. Dante and Randal find a number of reasons to leave the store and slack off, from a rooftop hockey game with Dante's friends to an ill-fated wake for one of Dante's ex-lovers.

Dante is torn between two women: his current girlfriend Veronica Loughran and his ex-girlfriend Caitlin Bree, with whom he still secretly communicates. Dante is distressed when he learns Veronica has given oral sex to 36 other men before him, engaged in snowballing with at least one. Despite Veronica's doting on him, Dante chooses to rekindle his relationship with Caitlin. However, Caitlin is traumatized by an incident in the Quick Stop bathroom. Caitlin leaves catatonic in an ambulance. Jay and Silent Bob, a pair of drug dealers who have spent the day loitering outside the store, invite Dante to party with them after hours, but Dante declines, considering the various seedy characters the two have been attracting all day. Aware of Dante's problems, Silent Bob tersely convinces him that he loves Veronica, but Randal has confessed the previous events to her, prompting Veronica to dump Dante. Dante fights with Randal. Dante and Randal have a crucial moment of clarity after their fight. Randal hears Dante repeat his refrain that he's "not supposed to be here today" and points out that Dante could have left at any time and prevented the day's events.

After the two make amends, Dante plans to visit Caitlin in the hospital and try to reconcile with Veronica. Randal leaves, but not before tossing Dante's shoe-polish sign in his face and declaring, "You're closed!" Brian O'Halloran as Dante Hicks Jeff Anderson as Randal Graves Marilyn Ghigliotti as Veronica Loughran Lisa Spoonauer as Caitlin Bree Jason Mewes as Jay Kevin Smith as Silent Bob Scott Mosier as Willam the Idiot Manchild / Angry Hockey-Playing Customer / Angry Mourner Scott Schiaffo as Chewlies gum representative Al Berkowitz as Old Man Walt Flanagan as Woolen Cap Smoker / Egg Man / Offended Customer / Cat-Admiring Bitter Customer Ed Hapstak as Sanford / Angry funeral woman Pattijean Csik as Coroner Ken Clark as Administer of Fine / Orderly Ernest O'Donnell as Trainer Kimberly Loughran as Heather Jones Gary Stern as Tabloid-reading Customer John Henry Westhead as Olaf the Russian Metalhead Frances Cresci as Little Smoking Girl Joey Lauren Adams as Alyssa Jones The MPAA gave Clerks an NC-17 rating, based purely on the film's explicit dialogue, as it contains no real violence, no depicted nudity.

This would have serious financial implications for the film, as few cinemas in the United States screen NC-17 films. Miramax hired civil liberties lawyer Alan Dershowitz to appeal the decision and the MPAA relented and re-rated the film with the more commercially viable "R" rating, without alteration; the film was shot in black-and-white and edited due to a modest budget of $27,575. To acquire the funds for the film, Kevin Smith sold a large portion of his extensive comic book collection in 1993, maxed out eight to 10 credit cards with $2,000 limits, dipped into a portion of funds set aside for his college education, spent insurance money awarded for a car Jason Mewes and he lost in a flood; the film was shot in 21 straight days. Smith based the character of Dante Hicks on himself, Randal Graves on his friend Bryan Johnson who appeared in Smith's subsequent films; the Qui

Padonkaffsky jargon

Padonkaffsky jargon or Olbanian is a cant language developed by a subculture of Runet called padonki. It started as an Internet slang language used in the Russian Internet community, it is comparable to the English-based Leet. Padonkaffsky jargon became so popular that the former President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev jokingly suggested that Olbanian be taught in schools; the term Olbanian is an alteration of Albanian, although Albanian is not used to create Olbanian slang. Learn Olbanian! is a popular phrase, coined in a 2004 incident in LiveJournal when an English language user found a post written in Russian, which he didn't understand and was unable to translate. He asked, he was jokingly told. He questioned why people were posting messages in Albanian by saying: Because? It's LIVEJOURNAL. An American website. Not an albanian. Plus, being an American means that the rest of the world should have to cater to me, but that's just mypointofview. In reaction to this comment, an Internet meme started, urging the English language user to Learn Albanian! and flooding him with email messages, text messages, calls to his personal cell phone.

The English language user wrote an apology in Russian, explaining that he had mastered the Albanian language. Since the request to "Learn Olbanian!" became a friendly response to anyone using incorrect grammar or when saying something that doesn't make sense. An invitation to "Learn Olbanian!" was directed at Madonna in 2006, when in her blog she used an electronic translator to address her Russian fans and called them "Russian ventilators" by mistake. The language was first developed in 1997 by intellectuals with Internet access who were developing and using open-source software LiveJournal and Russian FidoNet, they were system administrators and professionals with academic degrees. The language is based on sensational spelling of the Russian and Ukrainian languages using profanity, it combines complex orthography with creative use of literary expression. It is used to express disagreement, amusement, or to create political satire, it was popularized by the padonki subculture on websites like and created by entrepreneur Egor Lavrov and Konstantin Rykov, now a deputy of the Duma.

Padonkaffsky jargon is difficult to translate with a traditional dictionary because many of the misspellings involve puns and cultural slang. Padonkaffsky language is common in Russian vernacular and popular culture; as a result, the websites on which Padonkaffsky language appeared are now dominated by another kind of high-shock-value material, adult content. The unstressed letter ⟨о⟩ is replaced by ⟨а⟩, sometimes the other way around; the unstressed letters ⟨е⟩, ⟨и⟩, ⟨я⟩ are interchangeable. The consonant ⟨в⟩ may become ⟨ф⟩ or ⟨фф⟩, the suffix ⟨-ик⟩ becomes ⟨-ег⟩, ⟨жи⟩ becomes ⟨жы⟩, ⟨я⟩ becomes ⟨йа⟩, etc. Examples: превед, аффтар afftar, йад, etc. On July 6, 2006 in an online conference, Vladimir Putin was asked this question: "PREVED, Vladimir Vladimirovich! How do you regard MEDVED?" This became the most popular question, with 28,424 votes. No answer was given, but the Associated Press, reporting on the questions collection process, interpreted Medved as a reference to then-vice-prime-minister Dmitry Medvedev.

Another popular question in the same conference was: How does one patch KDE2 under FreeBSD

Edward Downe Jr.

Edward Reynolds Downe Jr. is an American businessman and socialite. Downe graduated from the University of Missouri's Missouri School of Journalism in 1952, he worked in a variety of capacities at two Virginia newspapers before joining True magazine. In 1954, he left True to become an editor at the rival magazine Argosy. In 1966, Downe purchased Family Weekly, he founded Downe Communications in 1967. Through this company he went on to acquire magazines including The Ladies' Home Journal, The American Home. Downe sold Downe Communications to the Charter Company, a Jacksonville, Florida based oil and insurance conglomerate for $9 million. Downe divorced his first wife, Naomi Susan Campbell, in 1977. Downe married heiress Charlotte Ford on his 57th birthday, August 31, 1986. In 1992, the Securities and Exchange Commission charged that in the mid- to late-1980s Downe and associated exchanged inside information in order to make illegal stock trades. In February 2009 the Hartford Courant ran a story concerning US senator Christopher Dodd's acquisition of his vacation home in Roundstone, Ireland.

The article pointed out Dodd's close links to Downe, his disgraced former partner in buying the home. After paying an $11 million fine for his role in the scam, Downe obtained a pardon in the waning days of the Bill Clinton administration; the controversial pardon was granted after Dodd lobbied Clinton on Downe's behalf. Dodd acquired the interests of his partners after the pardon was granted. Dodd was criticized for claiming the Roundstone home was worth less than $250,000 in Senate ethics filings. List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the president of the United States

Heart of Gold (Firefly)

"Heart of Gold" is the 13th episode of the science fiction television series Firefly created by Joss Whedon. It is the last of three episodes. A Companion-trained friend of Inara's who runs a brothel calls for help from Serenity when a local bigwig reveals his intentions to take his baby from the woman he impregnated. At a brothel in the middle of a barren land, a powerful man named Rance Burgess, accompanied by thugs, approaches the madam, demanding to see a woman named Petaline; when Nandi denies the presence of Petaline, Burgess' thugs drag out Petaline, visibly several months pregnant, before Burgess, who extracts a DNA sample. He tells her he will return for his child if his test on the DNA proves the child to be his, threatening to cut it out of her if need be. Aboard the space vessel Serenity, Companion Inara Serra receives a distress call from Nandi, who it is revealed is a good friend of hers. After Nandi requests Inara's help, Inara goes to Captain Malcolm Reynolds, she explains that Nandi and the prostitutes who work in Nandi's brothel are not Companions, are not protected by the Guild.

After she relates their plight, Reynolds agrees to assist Nandi, but declines Inara's offer of payment for the deed. After Serenity lands near Nandi's ranch, Jayne Cobb takes advantage of the hospitality of the women there, while Shepherd Derrial Book joins some of the women in prayer, Dr. Simon Tam goes to examine Petaline, who will give birth soon. Reynolds gets to know Nandi. Seeking to size up his opponent, along with Inara, attends a public event attended by Burgess, not informing him of his alliance with Nandi. Reynolds speaks with Burgess, examines the high-tech laser gun that Burgess carries with him. Reynolds confirms Nandi's assessment of Burgess. After Reynolds and Inara depart, Burgess receives confirmation that he is the father of Petaline's baby. Returning to Nandi's ranch, Reynolds offers to evacuate the area with Nandi and her people, rather than face "a monster who thinks he's right with God" and who won't back down after only a single thrashing from some temporary help, but Nandi refuses to leave her hard-earned property and way of life.

Reynolds, who admires her stubborn streak, reluctantly decides to stay and accept the challenge of defending the ranch. As the Serenity prepare for an attack by Burgess and his forces, Serenity second-in-command Zoe Washburne has a tense conversation with her husband, pilot Hoban "Wash" Washburne, in which she insists that they will have a child in the near future. Petaline goes into labour, with Inara, Dr. Tam and his younger sister, River Tam, at Petaline's bedside. Nandi and Reynolds spend time together, during which Nandi inquires about Reynolds' relationship with Inara, relates her own past, which includes the Companion training she shared with Inara on the latter's home world, Sihnon, she says that Inara was in the running to become house priestess of House Madrassa when she left, without explanation, to travel among the Alliance worlds. Nandi had left before however, straining at the restrictions of Companion life, she moved to this border world and assumed control of the whorehouse from its previous owner, who kept the employees there addicted to drugs, in so doing, she improved life for the girls.

Mal and Nandi move toward sex, pausing only when Nandi says "I ain't her", which Mal deflects without directly acknowledging her implication of his feelings for Inara. Back in town, one of Nandi's girls, reports to Burgess on Mal's preparations, after which Burgess rallies his men, proclaiming women's ordained place as submissive servants to men, which he demonstrates by ordering Chari to kneel in front of him to do "a few more chores" in front of the crowd; the next morning, Reynolds tries to explain his night with Nandi to Inara, but Inara calmly tells him that there is no reason to be embarrassed about his sex life, thanks him for comforting her friend. Nonetheless, Inara subsequently sobs in private, Nandi realizes that there was more to Inara's feelings than she let on. Burgess's men attack the ranch, a battle ensues, with the Serenity crew joining forces with the ranch's residents to fend off Burgess's forces. On board the Serenity and mechanic Kaylee Frye trap some of Burgess' men, who invaded the ship, though Wash realizes that in so doing, he himself has been cut off from the bridge, preventing him from responding to Reynolds' call to join the battle.

As Petaline gives birth, Chari lets Burgess inside. He storms into Petaline's room, taking her newborn son; when Nandi tries to foil the kidnapping, Burgess fatally shoots her in the abdomen. He is pursued, however, by Reynolds, who captures him and drags him back to the ranch, where Petaline, holding her son, whom she has named Jonah, executes him. Petaline tells the remaining thugs to leave, orders the traitorous Chari to go with them, as she no longer has a place there. Following a funeral for Nandi, Serenity departs. Back on the ship, Inara reiterates her gratitude that Reynolds was able to comfort Nandi on what turned out to be her last night, but Reynolds can only regret his failure to save her; as Reynolds tries to broach the subject of his and Inara's unacknowledged feelings toward each other, Inara muses about how Nandi created a family, how that kind of shared strength and love makes people never want to break away. She informs him that she will be leaving Serenity. "Heart of Gold" was nominated for a 2004 Hugo Award for Short Form.

Melinda Clarke as Nandi Kimberly McCullough as Chari Fredric Lehne as Rance B

Smithshire, Illinois

Smithshire is an unincorporated community in Warren County, United States. Smithshire is located along the BNSF Railway line, 40 miles northeast of Iowa. Smithshire is 30 miles southwest of Galesburg. Smithshire has a post office with ZIP code 61478. Smithshire came into being with the building of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in 1888, it is the only population center in Ellison Township. The abandoned town of Ellison was two miles from Smithshire. Ellison suffered from a catastrophic tornado in 1858, dampening its growth; the remaining community moved to Smithshire with the coming of the railroad. Smithshire is the location of the corporate offices of Twomey Company Twomey Company. Twomey Company was a family owned agribusiness corporation, beginning in 1945. Consolidated Grain and Barge purchased the Twomey Company in 2012. Twomey Co had storage capacity for 51 million bushels. Twomey Company operated in several western Illinois locations, including a barge loading facility on the Mississippi River.

Smithshire has a population of 100. Smithshire has the Smithshire United Methodist Church United Methodist Church. Smithshire is a part of the West Central High School, district 235