Candidus (floruit 793–802)

Candidus was the name given to the Anglo-Saxon Wizo or Witto by Alcuin, whose scholar he was and with whom he went in 782 to Gaul. He is author of several philosophical texts wrongly attributed by earlier scholars to the benedictinian monk Brun Candidus of Fulda, the author of the vita of Abott Eigil of Fulda, but recent research into the manuscript tradition furnishing clear evidence attested the authorship of Candidus Wizo, the learned disciple of Alcuin. Based on his deep knowledge of the works of Saint Augustine of Hippo he tried to give proof of god’s existence, to demonstrate that the incorporeal nature of god is conceivable only by means of the spiritual eye and excludes any possibility of viewing him by means of the corporeal eyes, to elucidate the problem of the incarnation explaining its need by the weakness of the human cognition. At the palace school he was tutor to Gisla, the sister, Rodtruda, the daughter of Charlemagne; when Alcuin went to Tours, Candidus was his successor as master of the palace school.

Alcuin's esteem for Candidus is shown by his dedicating his commentary on Ecclesiastes to his friends Onias and Candidus. Dicta Candidi Dicta de imagine dei. Opusculum de passione Domini Epistola num. Revue des études juives, Société des études juives, 1955. Bernhard Blumenkranz, Juifs et chrétiens dans le monde occidental, 2006, p. 272. François Dolbeau, Le Liber XXI sententiarum. Édition d’un texte de travail, in: Recherches augustiniennes 30, 1997, pp. 113–65. Christine E. Ineichen-Eder, Theologisches und philosophisches Lehrmaterial aus dem Alkuinkreise, in: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 34, 1978, pp. 192-201. Christine E. Ineichen-Eder, Künstlerische und literarische Tätigkeit des Brun Candidus von Fulda, in: Fuldaer Geschichtsblätter 56, 1980, pp. 201-217, esp. pp. 205-209. Christine E. Ineichen-Eder, The Authenticity of the "Dicta Candidi", "Dicta Albini" and Some Related Texts, in: Michael Herren, Insular Latin Studies. Papers on Latin Texts and Manuscripts of the British Isles: 500-1066.

Toronto 1981, pp. 179-193. Christine E. Ineichen-Eder, Candidus Nr. 5, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, vol. 2, 1983, cols. 1432-1433. Christopher A. Jones, “The Sermons Attributed to Candidus Wizo.” In: Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, Andy Orchard: Latin Learning and English Lore: Studies in Anglo-Sa xon Literature for Michael Lapidge, vols. 1-2, Toronto 2005, vol. 1, pp. 260–83. Christopher A. Jones, CANDIDUS, in: John Marenbon, From the Circle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre: Logic and Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages, Cambridge 1981. Heinz Löwe, Zur Geschichte Wizos, in: Deutsches Archiv für Geschichte des Mittelalters 6, 1943, pp. 363-373 John Marenbon, “Alcuin, the Council of Frankfort and the Beginnings of Medieval Philosophy.” In: Rainer Berndt, Das Frankfurter Konzil von 794. Kristallisationspunkt Karolingischer Kultur, vols. 1-2, Mainz 1997, vol. 2, pp. 603–615. John Marenbon, ‘Candidus ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 20 June 2007 This article incorporates text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article "Candidus" by John M. Lenhart, a publication now in the public domain

Amphibolis griffithii

Amphibolis griffithii is a seagrass found in waters along the southwestern coasts of Western Australia. A common marine herb, the rhizomatous plant forms meadows; the species is perennial, bears its male and female flowers on separate plants, produces fruit on the leaves. The plant reproduces by viviparous means, the seed germinating before leaving the plant and floating freely; the seedling forms a comb of bristles that can anchor it at the new site before the development of roots and a rhizome allow the plant to establish itself. The leaves are arranged at the end of its many branches, attached in an overlapping sheath, are bright green with red patches; these assist in maintaining the meadows cohesion by protecting against erosion from the ocean's currents. Each leaf blade may be up to 75mm long, with a uniform width of 2.5 to 6mm, four or five of the ribbon-like leaves rise upward from the many branches. The form of the sheath, the longer leaves, differentiate this species from its cogener Amphibolis antarctica, it is found in rougher oceans than that species.

Found along the western coast of Australia, south of Geraldton, along the southern coastlines to Victor Harbor, South Australia. The occurrence of Amphibolis griffithii is recorded near island groups of Houtman Abrolhos and the Archipelago of the Recherche; the species is found in areas of fast and constant ocean currents, the rhizomes forming dense mats on soft sand substrates. It is restricted to depths less than 16 metres in its distribution range, it is associated with limestone or reef ecologies; the detritus is found in rotting piles along the shoreline, forming a rich habitat for other plant and animal species. The distribution range is smaller than that of Amphibolis antarctica, occupying a narrower range of habitat due to less tolerance of water temperatures and salinity. John McConnell Black provisionally gave this species its name in 1948, the accepted species description was published by Cornelis den Hartog in 1970. Rippey, Elizabeth. Coastal plants: Perth and the south-west region.

Perth: University of Western Australia Press. Pp. 244, 246, 249. ISBN 1-920694-05-6. Mike van Keulen. "Amphibolis". Western Australian Seagrass. Murdoch University. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2007-12-16. "Amphibolis griffithii". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. "Amphibolis griffithii". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government