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Otago Harbour

Otago Harbour is the natural harbour of Dunedin, New Zealand, consisting of a long, much-indented stretch of navigable water separating the Otago Peninsula from the mainland. They join at 21 km from the harbour mouth, it is home at Dunedin's wharf. The harbour has been of significant economic importance for 700 years, as a sheltered harbor and fishery deep water port; the harbour was formed from the drowned remnants of the giant Dunedin Volcano, centred close to what is now Port Chalmers. The remains of this violent origin can be seen in the basalt of the surrounding hills; the last eruptive phase ended some ten million years ago, leaving the prominent peak of Mount Cargill. The ancient and modern channel runs along the western side of the harbour, the eastern side being shallow, with large sandbanks exposed at low tide. Two islands form a line between Port Chalmers and Portobello half way along the harbour—Goat Island and Quarantine Island/Kamau Taurua; the nearby smaller island known as Pudding Island lies close to the Peninsula shore and can be reached by foot at low tide.

The Water of Leith flows into the harbour at its southern end, which along with numerous streams lower the salinity of the harbour water. Similar to the Otago Peninsula, the harbor water is known for various rare wildlife; the area is the home of many species of wading birds. Other bird species which visit the harbour include two species of penguins, little penguin and famous yellow-eyed penguins. Taiaroa Head, at the tip of the Otago Peninsula, is home to the northern royal albatrosses only "mainland" colony in the world; the bay and peninsula provides a critical habitat for Hooker's sea lions and New Zealand fur seal. Southern elephant and leopard seals are occasional visitors into the harbor. In total, four species of pinnipeds, at least nine or more species of cetaceans are known to inhabit or migrate through the area; the outer peninsula or adjacent to Taiaroa Head is one of three main congregating areas for dusky dolphin in New Zealand waters and the harbor and peninsula hosts important areas for breeding and nursing.

Bottlenose dolphins and critically endangered, endemic Hector's dolphins frequent the water. Other species such as common dolphins and orcas can visit the harbor entrance where orcas and dusky dolphins have been seen interacting without violence. Southern right whales frequented inside the entrance of the harbor up to Quarantine and Goat Islands, They used the shallow, calm water for nursing calves before commercial whaling wiped them out; the number of humpback whales visiting the peninsula have increased as this species recovers much faster than the southern rights. There have been observations of blue whales, minke whales, long-finned pilot whales. Maori first arrived at Otago Harbour in the 1300s. Being too far south for the cultivation of sweet potato they adopted; this involved sealing and fishing the harbour, drifting more towards the as seal stocks diminished. This time in the history of the harbour is recorded in place names such as Kamau Taurua, which means "a place where nets are set".

Captain Cook never entered Otago Harbour, but speculated that it existed when he was off the Pacific coast in 1770. It is not known when the first Europeans entered the harbour, however Maori oral tradition puts it some time'long before' 1810. Written records of this time are restricted to a handful of journals and newspaper accounts of sailors who only stayed briefly. George Bass made the Dunedin end of the harbour the north east limit of his proposed fishing monopoly in 1803; the American ship Favorite with its supercargo Daniel Whitney may have called in the summer of 1805 to 1806. Daniel Cooper, master of the London sealer Unity did call in the summer of 1808 to 1809 when his Chief Officer, Charles Hooper gave his name to Hooper's Inlet on the Otago Peninsula. William Tucker was with a gang employed by Robert Campbell, a Sydney merchant, dropped on islands off the Dunedin coast in November 1809 and with another man, Daniel Wilson, was at Otago Harbour on 3 May 1810 when Robert Mason, master of the Brothers, anchored in the harbour and picked him up.

This is the first and identifiable reference to a European ship in the Otago Harbour. The court record containing it, made in 1810, refers to the harbour as'Port Daniel', a name which stayed in use for some years. Another English sealer, the Sydney Cove, Captain Charles McLaren, was anchored in the harbour late in 1810 when Te Wahia's theft of a knife, a red shirt and some other articles sparked what has been called "The Sealers' War"-he'War of the Shirt'. A much-discussed affray in that conflict occurred after James Kelly of Hobart anchored the Sophia in the harbour in December 1817 with William Tucker on board. After a visit to nearby Whareakeake where Tucker had been living since 1815 and where he and two other men were now killed Kelly took revenge on Māori on his ship in the harbour, including a chief Korako, he burnt a harbourside village,'the beautiful City of Otago' on Te Rauone Beach and not at Whareakeake as has been suggested. A peace was concluded in 1823 and on 17 July of that year John Rodolphus Kent of the Naval cutter Mermaid from New South Wales, while in the harbour, took'the liberty of naming it "Port Oxley", in honour of the Surveyor General of the Colony' in fact John Oxley.

As noted, it had been named. In 1826 Thomas Shepherd, one of a party

Roger de Flor

Roger de Flor known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily and the Byzantine Empire. He held the title Count of Malta, he was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum in the service of Emperor Frederick II. Richard von Blum was killed fighting at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268. At eight years old Roger de Flor was sent to sea in a galley belonging to the Knights Templars, he entered the order and became captain of a galley called "El falcó". After rescuing wealthy survivors during the siege of Acre by the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil in 1291, he went to Cyprus. Following some intrigues and personal disputes he was accused of robbery and denounced to the pope as a thief and an apostate; this resulted in his relegation from the order. Roger fled to Genoa, where he borrowed a considerable sum from Ticino Doria, purchased a new vessel and began a career in piracy.

The struggle between the Aragonese kings of Aragon and the French kings of Naples for the possession of Sicily was at this time going on and Roger, by one of the most experienced military commanders of his time, was called to the service of Frederick, king of Sicily, who gave him the rank of vice-admiral. When the Peace of Caltabellotta brought the war to an end in 1302, Frederick was unwilling and unable to keep a mercenary army and was anxious to free the island from troops, whom he had no longer the means of paying. Given the political and military situation, Roger found an opportunity to make his services useful in the east in fighting against the Ottoman Turks, who were ravaging the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus of the Byzantine Empire was facing siege by the Ottoman Turks, an Islamic tribe approaching the capital of his empire after defeating his armies and ransacking most of his domains. Looking for assistance from the European kingdoms he made Roger an offer of service along with the Almogavar army under his command.

In September 1302 Roger with his fleet and army, now known as the Catalan Company, 6,500 strong, arrived at Constantinople. He was adopted into the imperial family, was married to the emperor's niece Maria Asenina, was made grand duke and commander-in-chief of the army and the fleet. Facing strong opposition from the powerful Genoese, some weeks passed lost in dissipation and bloody quarrels against the Genoese who were intent on keeping him out of the circles of power and his men were sent into Asia, beat the Turks back as far as Armenia and Iran. After these successful encounters with the Turks they went into winter quarters at Cyzicus. In May 1304 they again took the field, defeated the Turks at Germe along with Byzantine forces under Hranislav and rendered the important service of relieving Philadelphia invested and reduced to extremities by the Turks. Given his position of unchallenged military power, he was accused of serving his own interest instead of those of the emperor because he was determined to found in the East a principality for himself.

He sent his treasures to Magnesia. Seized the treasures, he laid siege to the town, but his attacks were repulsed, he was compelled to retire. Being recalled to Europe, he settled his troops in Gallipoli and other towns, visited Constantinople to demand pay for the Almogavars. Roger was created Caesar in December 1304. In April 1305, he was assassinated in Adrianople by Andronikos' son Michael; the Company avenged itself, plundering from Macedonia to Thrace in what has been called the "Catalan Vengeance". The early history of the Catalan Company was chronicled by Ramon Muntaner, a member of the company, in his Crònica; the life of Roger de Flor inspired the fictional character of Tirant lo Blanc, an epic romance written by Joanot Martorell, published in Valencia in 1490. It is one of the best known medieval works of literature in the Catalan language, played an important role in the evolution of the Western novel thanks to its influence on Miguel de Cervantes. Roger de Flor is one of the main characters of The Horsemen of Death, a historical novel by Estonian writer Karl Ristikivi.

Roger de Flor is the title and the main character of a historical novel by the late Greek writer and publisher Kostas Kyriazis. Spanish poet Mariano Capdepón composed a play dealing with the last days of his life; the composer Ruperto Chapí used this text for his opera Roger de Flor. One of the units of the Paratrooper Brigade of Spain is named after him; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flor, Roger di". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Francisco de Moncada, Catalan Chronicle. Ernest Marcos Hierro, Almogàvers: la història, L'esfera dels llibres, Barcelona 2005. Burns, R. Ignatius. "The Catalan Company and the European Powers, 1305-1311". Speculum. Vol. 29

Paden, Oklahoma

Paden is a town in Okfuskee County, United States. The population was 461 at the 2010 census, it is named for Paden Tolbert, a U. S. Deputy Marshal who served the area in the early 1900s, it is the only town in the United States to be named for a Deputy U. S. Marshal. Paden can be found in the book "The Grapes Of Wrath" as a pit stop for the Joad family; the town was once a big oil boom town. Every June, the volunteer fire department hosts the Paden Fireman's Picnic, or known by the residents as Paden Day; the events include a small parade and fish fry, entertainment and door prizes. Most of the communities events revolve around the school. Paden public schools enroll 200 students, K-12, each year; the mascot is the Pirate and their colors are orange/black. Sports include fall and spring baseball and slow pitch softball, basketball and academic team; the teams are a part of the Little River Conference and are in the Class B classification. The Paden Restoration Society and Paden Main Street Organization are two new groups in Paden.

Paden has eleven churches in the community. Creek Indians, as well as Choctaw, Cherokee and Fox, Seminole Indians, make up much of the population; the town's original land was given by a Creek Indian as part of their allotment. The Paden Indian Community has won the Creek Nations "Nene Hvkoce" walking program the last two years and has received a walking trail. Paden, in east central Oklahoma, is located at 35°30′26″N 96°34′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 461 people, 199 households, 134 families residing in the town; the population density was 973.8 people per square mile. There were 234 housing units at an average density of 510.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 54.68% White, 37.70% Native American, 7.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.90% of the population. There were 199 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families.

30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,321, the median income for a family was $31,250. Males had a median income of $24,444 versus $20,972 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,444. About 7.1% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. Ed Baecht, former major league baseball player, was born in Paden. Dan Boren, U. S. Congressman and former resident

364th Rifle Division

The 364th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army during World War II. It began forming on August 10, 1941, at Omsk, it did not reach the front until March 1942, assigned to the 1st Shock Army in Northwestern Front. It served under these commands until September was pulled out of the line for rebuilding before being moved north to 8th Army of Volkhov Front; the division remained in Volkhov Front until the Front was disbanded in February 1944, fighting in Operation Iskra, which broke the siege of Leningrad, in the Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive, which completed the task, won a battle honor. During the spring-summer 1944 it advanced through the Baltic States, being so worn down in the process that in September it was again moved to the reserves to be returned to a viable strength. In October it was reassigned to the 3rd Shock Army, would advance with that Army through Poland and into Germany in 1945; the 364th ended the war in the Battle of Berlin with 1st Belorussian Front, went on to serve postwar in the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany.

It was converted into the 15th Mechanized Division in late 1945. The division began forming on August 1941, at Omsk in the Siberian Military District, it shared much of its early history with the 362nd Rifle Division. Its partial order of battle was as follows: 1212th Rifle Regiment 1214th Rifle Regiment 1216th Rifle Regiment 937th Artillery RegimentThe division's first commander, Maj. Gen. Filipp Yakovlevich Solovyov, was assigned on September 27; the division was not rushed to the front. In February 1942, it was assigned to the 1st Shock Army in Northwestern Front, where it fought in the battles around Demyansk. In September the division went back to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command for rebuilding. In December it returned to the front, now in the 8th Army of Volkhov Front; the 364th was part of the reinforcements allocated to Volkhov Front in the buildup to Operation Iskra. This offensive began early on January 12, 1943, by the morning of the 18th elements of the Volkhov and Leningrad Fronts had linked up, establishing a land corridor to the besieged city.

8th Army played a supporting role in Iskra and the division saw little action. This victory prompted the newly-promoted Marshal Georgy Zhukov to begin planning a larger operation, dubbed "Pole Star", to cut off and defeat most of the German forces still in the Leningrad region; as part of the regrouping for this offensive the 364th was transferred to 2nd Shock Army in late January. Volkhov Front's forces were ordered to attack on February 8 and capture Siniavino and the Gorodok No. 1 and No. 2 regions, directly south of the Iskra corridor. In the event the attack did not begin until the 12th. 2nd Shock's assault on Siniavino and its adjacent heights faltered with heavy losses. In early March the division returned to 8th Army, where it would remain until January 1944. On March 12, General Solovyov became the deputy commanding officer of that Army, he was replaced in command of the 364th by Col. Viktor Antonovich Vershbitsky. On the 19th, 8th Army launched a new offensive to liberate the town of Mga jointly with 55th Army attacking from the northwest.

Through three days of intense fighting the first-echelon divisions penetrated 3 to 4km on a 7km-wide front. A mobile group based on one regiment of the 64th Guards Rifle Division drove deep into the German positions but was soon contained; the fighting continued until April 3. A fifth attempt to liberate Siniavino began in July. 8th Army was to attack from a 13.6km sector in the Voronovo region, penetrate the enemy defenses and exploit to link up near Mga with the 55th and 67th Armies. The attacking forces were divided into two shock groups, with the 364th, reinforced with a tank regiment, in the first echelon of the southern group; this group faced the remnants of 5th Mountain Division and the left flank regiment of the 69th Infantry Division. The attack began at 0635 hours on July 22, but had been preceded by six days of artillery preparation attempting to destroy as much of the German fixed defenses as possible; the assault troops gained the first enemy trenches, but encountered stiff resistance and heavy airstrikes.

In late July the second echelon divisions made little difference. On August 9 units of the southern group found what they thought was a weak point in the positions held by 5th Mountain; the group was reinforced with two more rifle divisions and two tank regiments and attacked again on August 11. This effort was successful in taking the strongpoint at Poreche, but was again halted when the German 132nd Infantry Division arrived as reinforcements; the offensive ended on the 14th. The 364th was involved in the sixth Siniavino offensive which seized the objective on September 15; when the Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive began on January 14, 1944, the division was still in 8th Army. As Volkhov Front began its advance in the direction of Luga it began to encounter stiffer German resistance along the Rollbahn Line; as a result, on January 25 the 364th was assigned to the recently-formed 119th Rifle Corps, that Corps was reassigned to the 54th Army. On the following day the division distinguished itself in the liberation of the town of Tosno, was given its name as an honorific:"TOSNO... 364th Rifle Division (Colonel Vershbitsky, Vikto

Jasa Veremalua

Jasa Veremalua is a Fijian rugby union player. He is playing for the Fiji sevens team. Veremalua made his debut for Fiji at the 2013 Wellington Sevens. Jasa Veremalua was born and raised in Korotogo, Nadroga and he started his career playing rugby in the local 7's competition, he has been playing for the famous Red Rock 7's Team since 2012. His father died in 2005 when he was just 19, he regards his Red Rock coach, Lote Rasiga as a father-figure He attended Sigatoka Methodist Primary School Sigatoka Methodist College and went on to St Thomas High School in Lautoka. He attended Fiji National University in Ba to do his Diploma in Automobile and Road Transport studies, he joined Senibiau Rugby Club in Nadroga in 2006 and joined Natabua Rugby club from 2010–2011. In 2012, he was named, he was selected by the Fiji 7's coach, Alifereti Dere into the 7's team. In March 2013, he was offered a contract by Stade Toulousain to play in the Top 14 competition but due to an injury, the offer was taken back. In 2016, his performance in the 2016 USA Sevens saw.

He was instrumental in helping Fiji win their 2nd title in a row after Fiji took out the 2015–16 World Rugby Sevens Series during the 2016 London Sevens by reaching the cup quarterfinals. He was crowned the DHL Impact Player of the 2015‑16 7s series as well as making the Dream Team of the series. Jasa Veremalua at the World Rugby Men's Sevens Series Jasa Veremalua at Olympics at Zimbio Bio Ultimate Rugby profile


Obviative third person is a grammatical-person clusivity marking that distinguishes a non-salient third-person referent from a more salient third-person referent in a given discourse context. The obviative is sometimes referred to as the "fourth person". In English and other European languages, the principal means of distinguishing between multiple third-person referents is using gender or reflexive. Thus, in "she saw him," it is clear that there are two third persons because they are of different genders. In "she saw her," it is clear that there are two third persons because otherwise, one would say "she saw herself." However, "she saw her mother" is ambiguous: it could mean that she saw her own mother or that she saw someone else's mother. This is. An obviative/proximate system has a different way of distinguishing between multiple third-person referents; when there is more than one third person named in a sentence or discourse context, the most important, salient, or topical is marked as "proximate" and any other, less salient entities are marked as "obviative."

Subsequent sentences that refer to previously-named entities with pronouns or verbal inflections can use the proximate and obviative references that have been established to distinguish between the two. For example, in the sentence "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog," there are two third-person referents, the fox and the dog. Thus, one of them has to be proximate and the other one has to be obviative, depending on which one the speaker considers more central to the story. If the fox is the more important one, the sentence might look something like "the quick brown fox-PROX jumped-PROX>OBV the lazy dog-OBV," where PROX>OBV is verbal inflection indicating a proximate subject acting on an obviative object. In that case, a subsequent sentence "and PROX went-PROX away" would mean that the fox went away. On the other hand, if the dog is the more important one, the sentence might look something like "the quick brown fox-OBV jumped-OBV>PROX the lazy dog-PROX," where OBV>PROX is verbal inflection indicating an obviative subject acting on a proximate object.

In that case, the same subsequent sentence "and PROX went-PROX away" would mean instead that the dog went away. By contrast, an equivalent subsequent sentence in English, such as "and he went away," would not indicate whether "he" is the fox or the dog. An analogy, used to explain obviation is that the proximate is the entity in the "spotlight," and any other, obviative entities are out of the spotlight or "hangers-on." Obviate/proximate distinctions are common in some indigenous language families in northern North America. Algonquian languages are best known for obviation, but the feature occurs in some Salishan languages and in the language isolate Kutenai as well as in the more southern Keresan languages. Obviative markers are used in Africa in some Niger -- Congo languages. Obviation has been attested in the Northeast Caucasian Ingush language in Asia. If animacy is involved, animate noun phrases tend to be proximate, inanimate noun phrases tend to be obviative. Possessors are required to be proximate, with possessees thus required to be obviative.

Obviation is most common in head-marking languages since the obviative is useful in disambiguating otherwise unmarked nominals. The obviative referent seems to be always the marked form, the proximate is unmarked. Obviative marking tends to apply only to the third person, but it has been attested in the second person in a handful of Nilo-Saharan languages. Proximate/obviative assignments are preserved throughout the clauses and are often constant over longer discourse segments; the following is a typical example of obviate/proximate morphology in the Eastern dialect of the Algonquian Ojibwe in which the obviative is marked on nouns and demonstratives and reflected in pronominal verb affixes:'Then this young man dreamed that foreigners would come to kill them.' That example shows that the proximate referent need not be the subject of a clause. Potawatomi is notable for having two degrees of obviation, "obviation" and "further obviation." "Further obviation" is rare, but when it occurs, a "further obviative" referent, deemed to be less salient than the obviative referent, can be marked by an additional obviative suffix.

The following is the sole example to appear in the literature on Potawatomi: Charles Hockett posited the following example, but he never checked it to see if it was grammatical: Obviation in Ingush, a dependent-marking language, is an exception to the generalization that the obviative occurs in head-marking languages. Obviation is not overtly marked in Ingush but is implied, as certain constructions are impossible unless one referent has salience over another. For example, if a non-subject-referent has salience over the subject and precedes the other co-referent, reflexivisation is possible; that is shown in the example below whose non-subject-referent appears to have salience over the subject:'Musa's dog barked at him.' If the subject is salient, on the other hand, the subject's possessor does not antecede the third-person object, the possession must be indirectly implicated as follows:'Musa's wife is looking for him.' Direct–inverse language 7. Aissen, Judith. 1997. On the syntax of obviation.

Language 73:4.705-50. Obviation explained with a "spotlighting" analogy Obviation in Mi'gmaq How does an obviativ