Cosplay, a portmanteau of the words costume play, is a performance art in which participants called cosplayers wear costumes and fashion accessories to represent a specific character. Cosplayers interact to create a subculture, a broader use of the term "cosplay" applies to any costumed role-playing in venues apart from the stage. Any entity that lends itself to dramatic interpretation may be taken up as a subject and it is not unusual to see genders switched. Favorite sources include anime, comic books, live-action films, television series, video games; the rapid growth in the number of people cosplaying as a hobby since 1990s has made the phenomenon a significant aspect of popular culture in Japan and some other parts of Asia and in the Western world. Cosplay events are common features of fan conventions and there are dedicated conventions and local and international competitions, as well as social networks and other forms of media centered on cosplay activities; the term "cosplay" was coined in Japan in 1984.
It was inspired by and grew out of the practice of fan costuming at science fiction conventions, beginning with Morojo's "futuristicostumes" created for the 1st World Science Fiction Convention in New York City in 1939. The term "cosplay" is a Japanese portmanteau of the English terms play; the term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of Studio Hard after he attended the 1984 World Science Fiction Convention in Los Angeles and saw costumed fans, which he wrote about in an article for the Japanese magazine My Anime. Takahashi chose to coin a new word rather than use the existing translation of the English term "masquerade" because that translates into Japanese as "an aristocratic costume", which did not match his experience of the WorldCon; the coinage reflects a common Japanese method of abbreviation in which the first two moras of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound:'costume' becomes kosu and'play' becomes pure. Masquerade balls were a feature of the Carnival season in the 15th century, involved elaborate allegorical Royal Entries and triumphal processions celebrating marriages and other dynastic events of late medieval court life.
They were extended into costumed public festivities in Italy during the 16th century Renaissance elaborate dances held for members of the upper classes, which were popular in Venice. Costume parties or fancy dress parties were popular from the 19th century onwards. Costuming guides of the period, such as Samuel Miller's Male Character Costumes or Ardern Holt's Fancy Dresses Described, feature generic costumes, whether that be period costumes, national costumes, objects or abstract concepts such as "Autumn" or "Night". Most specific costumes described therein are for historical figures although some are sourced from fiction, like The Three Musketeers or Shakespeare characters. A. D. Condo's science fiction comic strip character Mr. Skygack, from Mars is arguably the first fictional character that people emulated by wearing costumes, as in 1908 Mr. and Mrs. William Fell of Cincinnati, Ohio are reported to have attended a masquerade at a skating rink wearing Mr. Skygack and Miss Dillpickles costumes.
In 1910, an unnamed woman won first prize at masquerade ball in Tacoma, Washington wearing another Skygack costume. The first people to wear costumes to attend a convention were science fiction fans Forrest J Ackerman and Myrtle R. Douglas, known in fandom as Morojo, they attended the 1939 1st World Science Fiction Convention in the Caravan Hall, New York, USA dressed in "futuristicostumes", including green cape and breeches, based on the pulp magazine artwork of Frank R. Paul and the 1936 film Things to Come and created by Douglas. Ackerman stated that he thought everyone was supposed to wear a costume at a science fiction convention, although only he and Douglas did. Fan costuming caught on, the 2nd Worldcon had both an unofficial masquerade held in Douglas' room and an official masquerade as part of the programme. David Kyle won the masquerade wearing a Ming the Merciless costume created by Leslie Perri, while Robert A. W. Lowndes received second place with a Bar Senestro costume. Other costumed attendees included guest of honor E. E. Smith as Northwest Smith and both Ackerman and Douglas wearing their futuristicostumes again.
Masquerades and costume balls continued to be part of World Science Fiction Convention tradition thereafter. Early Worldcon masquerade balls featured a band, dancing and drinks. Contestants either walked across a cleared area of the dance floor. Ackerman wore a "Hunchbackerman of Notre Dame" costume to the 3rd Worldcon, which included a mask designed and created by Ray Harryhausen, but soon stopped wearing costumes to conventions. Douglas wore an Akka costume, the mask again made by Harryhausen, to the 3rd Worldcon and a Snake Mother costume to the 4th Worldcon. Rules governing costumes became costuming trends; the first nude contestant at a Worldcon masquerade was in 1952. This led to "No Costume is No Costume" rule, which banned full nudity, although partial nudity was still allowed as long as it was a legitimate representation of the character. Mike Resnick describes the best of the nude costu
Toshiyuki Morikawa is a Japanese voice actor and singer, the head of Axlone, a voice acting company he founded in April 2011. His name is sometimes mistranslated as Tomoyuki Morikawa. In 2003, he and Fumihiko Tachiki formed the band "2Hearts", one of their works being the ending theme of the video game Dynasty Warriors 4: Empires, he has voiced many characters in anime and video games, including Sephiroth in the Final Fantasy series and Kingdom Hearts series, Dante in Devil May Cry, Isshin Kurosaki in Bleach, Minato Namikaze in Naruto: Shippuden, both Eneru and Hatchan in One Piece, Tyki Mikk in D. Gray-man, Naraku in InuYasha, Griffith in the 1997 series of Berserk, the main and titular character of Tekkaman Blade, he attended Katsuta Voice Actor's Academy with Kotono Mitsuishi, Chisa Yokoyama, Wataru Takagi, Sachiko Sugawara and Michiko Neya. Because of his deep voice, he is cast as imposing characters. 1992Kouryu Densetsu Villgust – Kui Tekkaman Blade - Takaya Aiba/Tekkaman Blade Yu Yu Hakusho – Shishiwakamaru1993Ghost Sweeper Mikami – Peter Mobile Suit Victory Gundam – Kill Tandon, Kuffu Salomon, Metchet Rubence Slam Dunk – Yohei Mito, Toki Kuwata, Kazuo Araki, Nobunaga Kiyota1994Brave Police J-Decker – Duke/Duke Fire1995Mobile Suit Gundam Wing – Otto Key the Metal Idol – Shuuichi Tataki1996After War Gundam X – Shagia Frost Detective Conan – Shukichi Haneda Martian Successor Nadesico – Genichiro Tsukiomi1997Anime Ganbare Goemon – Seppukumaru Kindaichi Case Files – Kengo Akechi Berserk – Griffith1998Flint the Time Detective – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Yu-Gi-Oh!
– Katsuya Jonouchi2000Descendants of Darkness – Tatsumi Seiichiro Hajime no Ippo - Alexander Volg Zangief2001InuYasha – Naraku. – Conrad Weller2005Glass Mask – Masumi Hayami Speed Grapher – Chouji Suitengu Sukisho – Ryouya Kozuki2006Black Lagoon – Mr. Chang D. Gray-man – Tyki Mikk Gakuen Heaven – Hideaki Nakajima Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star – Gooyan Nana – Takumi Ichinose2007El Cazador de la Bruja – Roberto Maze – Chic Nodame Cantabile – Jean Donnadeiu Zombie Loan – Bekkō2008Casshern Sins – Dio2009Rideback – Kiefer InuYasha Kanketsu-Hen – Naraku The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya – Yutaka Tamaru2010Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt – Tom Croose2011Deadman Wonderland – Azuma Genkaku Itsuka Tenma no Kuro Usagi – Seraphim Marvel Anime: Wolverine – Cyclops Toriko – "Knocking Master" Jiro Sekai-ichi Hatsukoi – Ryūichirō Isaka2012Gintama – Sasaki Isaburo Hyōka – Muneyoshi Kugayama Kingdom – Riboku LINE TOWN – Moon Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic – Ugo Robotics. Fumoffu – Atsunobu Hayashimizu F-Zero GP Legend – Ryu Suzaku Gallery Fake – Reiji Fujita Genesis of Aquarion – Touma Hanasakeru Seishōnen – Lee-leng Huang Harukanaru Toki no Naka De – Nue Initial D: Fourth Stage – Daiki Ninomiya Juuni Senshi Bakuretsu Eto Ranger – Pochirō, Hols Kinnikuman Nisei – Terry the Kid Last Exile – Alex Rowe Last Exile: Fam, the Silver Wing – Alex Rowe Mamotte Shugogetten – Miyauchi Izumo Marvel Anime – Cyclops/Scott Summers Monkey Typhoon – Saitosu Nangoku Shōnen Papuwa-kun – Kintaro "Naruto" - Kimimaro Naruto Shippuden – Minato Namikaze Night Head Genesis – Naoto Kirihara One Piece – Eneru, Hatchan Otogi-Jushi Akazukin – Jedo Peacemaker Kurogane – Ryunosuke Ichimura Please Save My Earth – Jinpachi Pocket Monsters – Haunter, Wallace Saint Tail – Manato Sawatari Saiunkoku Monogatari – Shuuei Ran Saiyuki – Homura Sengoku Basara: Samurai Kings series – Katakura Kojūrō Sengoku Basara: End of Judgement – Katakura Kojūrō Shōnen Onmyōji – Seiryū Shuffle!
– King of Devils Slayers NEXT – Keith Balzac Strange+ –
Char Aznable, born Casval Rem Deikun and gone by the name Édouard Mass, is a fictional character from the Gundam franchise. He is one of the main antagonists in Mobile Suit Gundam working for the Principality of Zeon, named after his late father Zeon Zum Deikun, with the honorary title of "The Red Comet" during Gundam's One Year War. Despite having opposed Earth Federation soldier Amuro Ray several times, in the sequel Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam he becomes Quattro Bajeena, an Anti-Earth Union Group pilot fighting alongside the series' main characters against the elitist Titans. In his final appearance in Char's Counterattack, he assumes leadership of the Neo Zeon movement, becomes the titular antagonist of the film. Char became one of Gundam's most iconic characters overshadowing Amuro's popularity, he appeared as the most popular male anime character in Animage's Anime Grand Prix poll as well as in several other polls highlighting his popularity in the Gundam franchise. His role in the original has been praised alongside his rivalry with Amuro.
Born Casval Rem Deikun, he is the elder brother of Sayla Mass, the son of late Zeon Zum Deikun, the champion of sovereignty for the space colonies of Side 3, founder of the Republic of Zeon. During the One Year War, Char shows great ability not only as a mobile suit pilot, but as a tactician and a commanding officer, it is revealed that despite his high position and esteem, Char is secretly plotting revenge against the Zabi family for their role in the death of his father. Char displays his first act of betrayal against the Zabi family by luring Garma's fleet into a flight path toward the Federation's White Base's line of sight. Prior to Garma's death at the hands of the White Base, Char says to him, "Garma, blame this on the misfortune of your birth." In the war, Char begins a bitter rivalry with Federation pilot Amuro Ray, he develops a relationship with Lalah Sune, a Newtype girl he saved from a brothel. Char develops into a Newtype himself, forms psychic bonds with both Amuro and Lalah. Char's abilities and natural charisma allow him to manipulate.
Lalah is killed in battle. During the war, Char draws on Zeon's philosophy to form his identity; the Zeon Principality is an authoritarian state that values independence from the Earth and the destruction of Earth's inhabitants. With his devotion to free all of those who are "trapped by gravity's pull" he is able to face the most deadly outcomes with dignity and leadership. In the Battle of A Baoa Qu, Char and Amuro's bitter rivalry reaches the level that they engage in a gunfight and a sword fight after both lose their mobile suits. In the duel, Char realizes he has been distracted by his rivalry with Amuro, refocuses on his true enemy - the Zabi family. An ensuing explosion knocks them apart, Char rushes to save his sister. After being told by a dying Zeon soldier that Kycilia Zabi, the last surviving Zabi, is about to leave, he finds Kycilia's departing ship and kills her, he disappears amidst the explosion and is logically presumed dead. Still presumed dead, Char reappears 8 years in Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam.
Having left Axis Zeon, Char returns to the Earth Sphere in September 0084 and infiltrates the Earth Federation Forces ranking with the alias "Quattro Bajeena". He finds himself involved in conflicts against the Earth Federation's newly formed Titan Task Force and shooting down two enemy warships within hours of acquiring his new identity. After meeting the Federation politician Commodore Blex Forer, Char joins a group of former Earth Federation Forces soldiers and becomes a leading member of the Anti-Earth Union Group; this time, rather than serving as the rival of the new protagonist, Kamille Bidan, Char serves as Kamille's mentor in the war against the Earth Federation's oppressive Titans organization. In Zeta Gundam, Char becomes an ally of his former adversaries in Mobile Suit Gundam: Amuro Ray, Hayato Kobayashi and Bright Noa, he serves under Bright Noa as leader of AEUG mobile suit forces. During this period, Char loses faith in himself as a decision maker, it seems to be his greatest fear, as he displays none in regard to war.
When assuming the identity of Quattro he willingly places himself under the command of his former enemies. He has discovered that there can be compromise in the future of the colonies. In the course of Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam Bright Noa, who lost crew to Char's attacks on the White Base, urges him to drop the Quattro facade and become a leader to the Spacenoids, or those raised in space colonies. Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam portrays Char's image as a hero, always willing to stand up and fight for the freedom of spacenoids, his political speech in front of Federation Assembly in Dakar, broadcast throughout Earth and Space, is one of the most important events in the U. C. Gundam timeline, it seals Char's total commitment toward space migration of humanity to space. Despite AEUG's victory in the Gryps Conflict against the Titans, Char is defeated in the final battle by Haman Karn, leader of the Axis Zeon faction and assumed dead. However, as the final credits roll, Char's damaged mobile suit floats by with its cockpit hatch open.
Char returns in the movie Mobile Suit Gundam: Char's Counterattack, set five years as the leader of a new Neo Zeon fact
Cobra is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Buichi Terasawa. Set in the far future, the series tells the story of Cobra, who lives an adventurous life until his enemies begin to hunt him down. Cobra surgically alters his face and erases his own memory to hide from his foes and have a normal life, he regains his memories and reunites with his former partner Lady Armaroid. Terasawa devised it as a mix of spaghetti western and samurai stories, aspects of films, varying from James Bond to Disney; the manga was serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 1978 to November 1984. Shueisha collected the chapters and published them in 18 tankōbon volumes; the Cobra manga spawned various sequel manga series, one-shots, a feature-length anime film, two anime series—a 31-episode series in 1982, a 13-episode series in 2010—, two original video animations, audio albums, video games, other merchandise. In 2010, Alexandre Aja announced the interest in producing a live-action film.
In the United States, portions of the manga were published by Viz Media in 1990 and the complete series was published in Kindle format by Creek & River in 2015. The feature film was licensed by Tara for its release in American theaters and by Manga Entertainment in British theaters in 1995. Urban Vision and Discotek Media released it for home video market, while Madman Entertainment acquired it for the Australasian region's release; the anime series was licensed in the Northern American region by Nozomi Entertainment. In Japan, the Cobra manga has sold 40 million copies, making it one of Weekly Shōnen Jump's best-selling manga series of all time. Publications for manga and other media have compared the series to Star Wars and Barbarella, the main character's attitude to James Bond, its film adaptation received mixed reviews, the original anime series as well as Cobra the Animation has been well received by reviewers. In the far future, an office worker named Johnson leads a mundane life. One Sunday morning, his robotic servant Ben suggests that he go to the Trip Movie Corporation—a company that enables its customers to experience a dream as though it were a reality.
Johnson asks to command a battlestar. In his dream, Johnson instead becomes "Cobra", an adventurer who explores space with his android partner Lady Armaroid. Cobra wields the Psychogun, a cybernetic arm-laser gun, to fight monsters and the Pirate Guild, an organized crime syndicate of pirates. After a battle with the Guild, Cobra allows its leader Captain Vaiken to escape. Vaiken distributes Cobra's picture to other pirates. After the dream ends, Johnson describes the fantasy to an attendant, surprised because Johnson's dream should not have any reference to pirates or to Cobra. On his way back home, Johnson crashes into a speeding car; when Johnson mentions the resemblance, the driver reveals himself as Vaiken. He threatens to kill Johnson if he does not answer. Johnson unconsciously lifts a ray shoots out of his hand, killing Vaiken; the shot explodes Johnson's arm, revealing the Psychogun embedded in it. Johnson rushes home. Johnson realizes that he remembers nothing from before the last three years.
After looking into a mirror, he turns it to reveal a secret room. There, he finds the revolver. At that moment, armed intruders break into the house and address him as "Cobra". A battle ensues, Ben's robot shell breaks to reveal Lady Armaroid, with whom Johnson kills the intruders. Johnson starts to remember his previous existence as Cobra. Hunted by the Pirate Guild for meddling in their criminal enterprises and tired of life on the run, Cobra surgically altered his face and had his memories erased. Lady Armaroid tells Cobra that the Trip Movie has triggered his subconscious to regain access to the memories of his former life. Cobra and Lady Armadroid resume their adventurous life together. Cobra is the main protagonist and eponymous character of the series. Cobra's signature weapon is the Psychogun, which can target putative enemies without having a line-of-sight. Using the Psychogun drains Cobra's mental energy, he carries a Python 77 Magnum revolver as a backup weapon. Cobra was voiced by Shigeru Matsuzaki in the film adaptation, by Nachi Nozawa in the first anime, by Naoya Uchida in Cobra the Animation.
Dan Woren voiced him in the Streamline Pictures release, while William Dufris voiced him in Manga Entertainment version. Lady Armaroid is the serious half of the duo, she and Cobra share a unspoken trust. Lady is a top-class Armaroid—a mechanical cyborg—derived from advanced technology recovered from an ancient, lost civilization on Mars, she possesses superhuman strength but does not carry a weapon and is involved in physical combat. When Cobra is away on an adventure, Lady supports Cobra by piloting the Tortuga. In the Manga Entertainment dub, Lady Armaroid is renamed Andromeda. Yoshiko Sakakibara voiced Lady in the film, in the first anime, in Cobra the Animation. In the Streamline Pictures release, Joan-Carol O'Connell voiced her, she was voiced by Tamsin Hollo in the Manga Entertainment dubbing. Jane Royal is the first of the triplet daughters of Captain Nelson; each sister has a unique tattoo on her back which, once assembled in a chromatic sequence, form a map leading t
Science Ninja Team Gatchaman
Science Ninja Team Gatchaman is a Japanese animated franchise about a five-member superhero team created by Tatsuo Yoshida and produced by Tatsunoko Productions. The original anime series, which debuted in 1972, was eponymously entitled Kagaku Ninja Tai Gatchaman and is best known in the English-speaking world as the adaptation entitled Battle of the Planets; the series had additional English adaptations with G-Force: Guardians of Space and ADV Films' uncut 2005 release. Tatsunoko uses the official translation Science Commando Gatchaman in related products and media; the original Kagaku Ninja Tai Gatchaman series was followed by an animated film and two direct sequel series, Gatchaman II and Gatchaman Fighter. During the 1990s, episodes from both series were dubbed into English by Saban as Eagle Riders. In the years since, the franchise has spawned many different productions, some that were left unproduced or evolved from its development; this includes a 1994 original animated video remake, a cancelled 2011 animated film reboot by Imagi Animation Studios, a 2013 Japanese live-action film reboot by Nikkatsu Studios, various spinoffs, re-imaginings, merchandise.
Recurring themes of Gatchaman involve conservation and the responsible use of technology for progress. The series centers around five young superhero ninja employed by Kōzaburō Nambu of the fictitious International Science Organization to oppose an international terrorist organization of technologically advanced villains who are trying to control Earth's natural resources; the leader of Galactor is an androgynous, masked antagonist named Berg Katse, revealed to be a shape-shifting, mutant hermaphrodite acting on the orders of an alien superior. The most-common plot involves the Gatchaman team opposing giant monsters dispatched by Galactor to steal natural resources such as water, oil and uranium; these mechas are animal-based. The Science Ninja Team is aided by a squadron of combat pilots led by the enigmatic Red Impulse, revealed as Ken's father. Most of the team are except for Jinpei, they include the team leader and tactical expert. The main characters wear teen clothing with T-shirts numbered to show their rank in the team or caped, birdlike battle uniforms.
The Gatchaman team employ a unique style of violent, effective martial arts drawing on their ability to perform feats similar to their avian namesakes, such as high-speed running and flight, high jumping and silent attacks. This fighting system, known as Science Ninja Technique, is mentioned in the Japanese lyrics of the Gatchaman theme; the team members use signature weapons and mecha-style vehicles, each with a mundane, disguised form. To change modes, each member is equipped with a wrist device that, in addition to communications and tracking, enables a change when the proper gesture and voice command is given, their vehicles are docked in the team's main vehicle: the God Phoenix, a supersonic plane capable of underwater travel and space flight. The God Phoenix is armed with Bird Missiles, which are fired from a rack mounted atop the center section. After the original God Phoenix is destroyed by an octopus mecha, an improved version carries a pair of Super Bird Missiles in twin drop-down pods on the bottom center section.
The ship has an energy-beam weapon which opens the nose doors for the weapon apparatus mounted on the frame holding Joe's car. The plane can temporarily transform into a massive bird of flame to escape danger or attack, although the process endangers the team because of extreme pressure in the passenger cabin. Ken the Eagle Ken Washio, a pilot, is a leader of the Science Ninja Team. "Gatchaman" designates the team leader. Ken's father disappeared during a flight. Ken did not know his father, was raised by Dr. Nambu. Joe the Condor Joe Asakura is an Italian of Japanese descent. A race car driver, he is a sub-leader of the team. Joe was born the son of Giuseppe Asakura and his wife Caterina. Dr. Nambu named him Jō to hide him from Galactor and raised him as his son. Jun the Swan Jun is an American of Japanese descent. Raised in an orphanage, her last name is not disclosed in the anime. In her free time, she enjoys riding her motorcycle and runs Snack Bar J. Jinpei the Swallow Jinpei was an orphan, grew up with Jun.
His last name is not disclosed in the anime either, he lives in Snack Bar J with Jun. Ryu the Owl Ryu Nakanishi, a fisherman's son, is the manager of a yacht harbor and the main pilot of God Phoenix, he is the only person in the team. Created in the wake of the Henshin boom begun by Shotaro Ishinomori's Kamen Rider in 1971, Gatchaman was conceived as a blending of ninja adventure with science fiction, it was one of the most successful anime attempts to emulate the American superhero genre, with many of its conventions. In 1978, Tatsunoko released a condensed theatrical compilation of the first two-story arcs in the series with a
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
GAINAX Co. Ltd. is a Japanese anime studio famous for productions such as Neon Genesis Evangelion, Royal Space Force, Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water, Kare Kano, FLCL, Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi, Gurren Lagann, which have garnered critical acclaim and been commercially successful. Evangelion has grossed over 150 billion yen, or 1.2 billion USD. In a discussion at the 2006 Tekkoshocon, Matt Greenfield claimed Evangelion had grossed over 2 billion USD; the company is headquartered in Tokyo. Until Neon Genesis Evangelion, Gainax worked on stories created in-house, but the studio has developed anime adaptations of existing manga like Kareshi Kanojo no Jijou and Mahoromatic. Series produced by Gainax are known for their controversial twist endings; the Animage Anime Grand Prix has been awarded to Gainax for Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water in 1991, Neon Genesis Evangelion in 1995 and 1996, The End of Evangelion in 1997. The studio was formed in the early 1980s as Daicon Film by university students Hideaki Anno, Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Hiroyuki Yamaga, Takami Akai, Toshio Okada, Yasuhiro Takeda and Shinji Higuchi.
Their first project was an animated short for the 20th Annual Japan National SF Convention known as Daicon III, held in 1981 in Osaka, Japan. The short film is about a girl who fights monsters and spaceships from early science fiction TV shows and films until she reaches a desert plain and pours a glass of water on a dried-out daikon radish, which resurrects itself, grows into a huge spaceship, beams her aboard. Though the short had an ambitious scope, the animation was low-quality; the group made a much bigger splash with the short they produced for the 22nd Annual Japan National SF Convention, Daicon IV, in 1983. Starting with a better animated recap of their original 1981 short, the short moves to the girl as a grown woman, wearing a bunny suit and fighting an wider range of science fiction creatures while surfing through the sky on the sword Stormbringer; the action was all set to the Electric Light Orchestra song "Twilight", though the group's failure to properly license the song would prevent the short's official release on DVD.
The Daicon IV short established Daicon Film as a talented new anime studio. The studio changed its name to Gainax in 1985, basing the term "Gainax" on an obscure Tottori Prefecture term for "giant", with the English suffix -x added because it sounded "good and was international". Gainax's first work as a commercial entity was Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise, released in 1987. Honneamise was critically acclaimed and a classic anime movie; the next release, the 1988 OVA Gunbuster, was a commercial success and put Gainax on a stabler footing to produce works like Nadia and Otaku no Video. During this period, Gainax produced a number of items such as garage kit and adult video games. In 1995, Gainax produced their best known series, the commercially successful and critically lauded Neon Genesis Evangelion. In the wake of Evangelion's success, Gainax was audited by the National Tax Agency at the urging of the Tokyo Regional Taxation Bureau on suspicion of committing tax evasion on the massive profits accruing from various Evangelion properties.
It was revealed that Gainax had concealed 1.56 billion yen worth of income which it had earned between the release of Evangelion and July 1997 by paying related companies various large fees, ostensibly to pay for animation expenses, but immediately withdrawing 90% of the sums from the other company's accounts as cash and storing it in safe deposit boxes. Gainax president Takeshi Sawamura and tax accountant Yoshikatsu Iwasaki were arrested on July 13, 1999 and jailed for accounting fraud. Yasuhiro Takeda defended Sawamura's actions as being a reaction to Gainax's perpetually precarious finances and the shaky accounting procedures internally: "Sawamura understood our financial situation better than anyone, so when Evangelion took off and the money started rolling in, he saw it as our one and only opportunity to set something aside for the future. I guess he was vulnerable to temptation at that point, because no one knew how long the Evangelion goose would keep laying golden eggs. I don't think he purposely set out with the goal of evading taxes.
It was more that our level of accounting knowledge wasn't up to the task of dealing with revenues on such a large scale." In 2004, Gainax marked their 20th anniversary with the production of Diebuster, the sequel to Gunbuster. Gainax's most recent successes on television have been the popular anime series Gurren Lagann and Pant