Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Hudspeth County, Texas
Hudspeth County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,476, its county seat is Sierra Blanca, the largest community is Fort Hancock. The county is named for Claude Benton Hudspeth, a state senator and United States Representative from El Paso, it is northeast from the Mexican border. Hudspeth County is included in the El TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is one of the nine counties. Hudspeth is one of two Texas counties to observe Mountain Time, along with neighboring El Paso. Prehistoric Jornada Mogollón peoples were practicing agriculture in the Rio Grande floodplain A. D. 900–1350. These people left behind pictographs as evidence of their presence; the Rodriguez-Sanchez Expedition of 1581 encountered friendly Indians bestowing gifts upon the explorers. Antonio de Espejo 1582-83 expedition encountered Otomoaco Indians in the county; the Mescalero Apache frequented the area to irrigate their crops. In 1849 John Salmon "RIP" Ford explored the area between San Antonio and El Paso noting in his mapped report the productive land upon which the Mescalero Indians farmed.
By the mid-17th century the Mescaleros expanded their territory to the Plains Navajos and Pueblos from the Guadalupes, El Paso del Norte. Their feared presence deterred white settlers. In January 1870, a group of soldiers attacked a Mescalero Apache village near Delaware Creek in the Guadalupe Mountains. In July 1880 soldiers at Tinaja de las Palmas attacked a group of Mescaleros led by Chief Victorio. In August 1880, Buffalo Soldiers ambushed Victorio at Rattlesnake Springs. Victorio was killed in October by Mexican soldiers. Two weeks Apaches killed seven Buffalo Soldiers, members of the famous black Tenth United States Cavalry; the demand for new routes from Texas to California caused an uptick in explorations. The San Antonio to El Paso leg of the San Antonio-California Trail was surveyed in 1848 under the direction of John Coffee Hays. Hudspeth became known. Fort Quitman was established in 1858 to provide protection for travelers. Lt. Francis Theodore Bryan camped at Guadalupe Pass while exploring a route from San Antonio to El Paso via Fredericksburg.
Upon reaching El Paso in July 1849 his report recommended sink wells along the route. In July 1848, Secretary of War William L. Marcy wanted a military post established on the north side of the Rio Grande. Major Jefferson Van Horne was sent out in 1849 to establish Marcy's goal. John Russell Bartlett was commissioned in 1850 to carry out the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Bartlett declared the Guadalupe Mountains dark and gloomy, proposed a transcontinental railroad be built south of the peaks. Three years Capt. John Pope was sent to scout out a railroad route, in the succeeding year to search for artesian water supplies. Texas Commissioner Robert Simpson Neighbors was sent by Governor Peter Hansborough Bell in 1850 to organize El Paso; the Butterfield Overland Mail and the San Antonio-San Diego Mail served the county from 1857 to 1861. These mail coaches provided a means for travelers to reach California in 27 days, if the passenger had the $200 for a one-way fare and was courageous enough to withstand the weather and dangers en route.
Men from San Elizario and the other villages along the Rio Grande near El Paso had become dependent on the salt trade for their livelihoods. After the Civil War they broke a road from Fort Quitman to the Salt Basin in northeastern Hudspeth County, but Anglo politicians tried to capitalize on this trade by asserting ownership of the salt lakes and levying fees on the traders. The result was the 7-year San Elizario Salt War, which heightened tensions between Mexicans and Americans in the 1870s. Rival railway companies began competing for rights of way; the Texas and Pacific Railway and the Galveston and San Antonio Railway reached an agreement to share the tracks, with a number of towns arising along the way Hudspeth was formed in 1917 from El Paso. Sierra Blanca was named the county seat, has the only adobe courthouse in the state of Texas. From 1992 to 2002, the county accepted over 200 tons per day of treated, dried sewage from New York City; the waste was spread over a remote site in the county.
In recent times Hudspeth County has become notorious as a location for frequent drug arrests for individuals traveling east on Interstate 10 from El Paso, due to the presence of a US Border Patrol checkpoint. Several celebrities, including touring musicians Willie Nelson, Snoop Dogg, Fiona Apple, actor Armie Hammer have been arrested on drug charges at this location. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,572 square miles, of which 4,571 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. It is the third largest county in Texas. Part of Guadalupe Mountains National Park lies in the northeast corner of the county. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 62/U. S. Highway 180 State Highway 20 Otero County, New Mexico Culberson County Jeff Davis County Presidio County El Paso County Guadalupe, Mexico Práxedis G. Guerrero, Mexico Guadalupe Mountains National Park McKittrick Canyon As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,476 people residing in the county. 78.8% were White, 1.4% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 16.1% of some other race and 2.2% of two or more races.
79.6% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,344 people, 1,092 households, 841 families residing in the county; the population density was 0.7 people per square mile (0.3/km
Alamogordo, New Mexico
Alamogordo is the seat of Otero County, New Mexico, United States. A city in the Tularosa Basin of the Chihuahuan Desert, it is bordered on the east by the Sacramento Mountains and to the west by Holloman Air Force Base; the population was 30,403 as of the 2010 census. Alamogordo is known for its connection with the first explosion of an atomic bomb. Humans have lived in the Alamogordo area for at least 11,000 years; the present settlement, established in 1898 to support the construction of the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad, is an early example of a planned community. The city was incorporated in 1912. Tourism became an important economic factor with the creation of White Sands National Monument in 1934. During the 1950-60s, Alamogordo was an unofficial center for research on pilot safety and the developing United States' space program. Alamogordo is a charter city with a council-manager form of government. City government provides a large number of recreational and leisure facilities for its citizens, including a large park in the center of the city, many smaller parks scattered through the city, a golf course, Alameda Park Zoo, a network of walking paths, Alamogordo Public Library, a senior citizens' center.
Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center is a nonprofit shared military/civilian facility, the hospital for Holloman. Tularosa Basin has been inhabited for at least 11,000 years. There are signs of previous inhabitants in the area such as the Clovis culture, the Folsom culture, the peoples of the Archaic period, the Formative stage; the Mescalero Apache were living in the Tularosa Basin when the Spanish came in 1534, Mescalero oral history says they have always lived there. The Spanish built a chapel at La Luz in 1719, although La Luz was not settled until about 1860; the city of Alamogordo was founded in June 1898, when the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad, headed by Charles Bishop Eddy, extended the railway to the town. Eddy influenced the design of the community, which included large wide thoroughfares and tree-lined irrigation canals. Charles Eddy's brother, John Arthur Eddy, named the new city Alamogordo after a grove of fat cottonwoods he remembered from the Pecos River area; when Alamogordo was laid out in 1898, the east-west streets were given numerical designations, while north-south streets were named after states.
The present-day White Sands Boulevard was called Pennsylvania Avenue. Several government buildings in Alamogordo were constructed by the Works Progress Administration, a government program created in 1935 in response to the Great Depression; these include the Otero County Administration Building at 1101 New York Avenue, a Pueblo style building constructed as the main U. S. Post Office in 1938; the building is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The main entrance portico features frescoes by Peter Hurd completed in 1942; the Post Office moved out in 1961, the building was used by a succession of Federal agencies and was known as the Federal Building. The last Federal agency to occupy it was the United States Forest Service who used it as the headquarters of the Lincoln National Forest until October 2008, when that agency moved to a newly constructed building. Ownership of the building was transferred to Otero County government and many government offices were moved from the Courthouse to the new Administration Building in February 2009.
Alamogordo made international news in late 2001 when Christ Community Church held a public book burning of books in the Harry Potter series, several other series, on December 30. As of 2010, Alamogordo had a total area of 19.3 square miles, all of it land. The city is located at an elevation of 4,336 feet on the western flank of the Sacramento Mountains and on the eastern edge of the Tularosa Basin, it lies in the northernmost part of the Chihuahuan Desert. Tectonic activity is low in the Tularosa Basin. Plants native to the area are typical of the southern New Mexico foothills and include creosote bush, saltbush, desert willow, many species of cactus and yucca; the Tularosa Basin is an closed, basin. Because of this and because of the geology of the region, water in the basin is hard: it has high total dissolved solids concentrations, in excess of 3,000 mg/l; the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility, a Bureau of Reclamation laboratory doing research and development on desalination of brackish water, is located in Alamogordo.
The gypsum crystals of White Sands National Monument are formed in Lake Lucero. Water collects in Lake Lucero. After the water dries, the winds distribute them over the basin. Alamogordo has a BWh or hot desert climate using the (Köppen with hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is low and confined to the monsoon season from July to September, when half a typical year’s rainfall of 10.96 inches or 278.4 millimetres will occur – although December 1991 did see 5.45 inches or 138.4 millimetres. The wettest calendar year has been 1941 with 21.87 inches or 555.5 millimetresand the driest 1952 with 4.85 inches or 123.2 millimetres, while the wettest month on record has been September 1941 when 6.94 inches or 176.3 millimetres fell. September 1941 saw the largest daily rainfall at Alamogordo with 2.60 inches or 66.0 millimetres falling on the 22nd of that month. Temperatures outside of monsoonal storms are hot during the summer: 94.8 days exceed 90 °F or 32.2 °C and temperatures as high as 110 °F or 43.3 °C occurred on June 22, 1981 and July 8 of 1951.
During the w
Culberson County, Texas
Culberson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,398; the county seat is Van Horn. Culberson County was organized the next year, it is named for David B. Culberson, a lawyer and Confederate soldier in the American Civil War. Culberson County is in the Central Time Zone, northwestern Culberson County, including Guadalupe Mountains National Park, unofficially observes Mountain Time, it is one of the nine counties. Prehistoric Clovis culture peoples in Culberson County lived in the rock shelters and caves nestled near water supplies; these people left behind pictographs as evidence of their presence. With its treacherous topography, the area remained untouched by white explorations for centuries. Jumano Indians led the Antonio de Espejo 1582-1583 expedition near Toyah Lake on a better route to the farming and trade area of La Junta de los Ríos. Espejo's diary places the Jumano along its tributaries. Antonio de Espejo was the first white person to see the Mescalero Apache just east of the Guadalupe Mountains.
The Mescalero frequented the area to irrigate their crops. In 1849 John Salmon "RIP" Ford explored the area between San Antonio and El Paso noting in his mapped report the productive land upon which the Mescalero Indians farmed. By the mid-17th Century the Mescaleros expanded their territory to the Plains Navajos and Pueblos from the Guadalupes, El Paso del Norte, their feared presence in the area deterred white settlers. January 1870, a group of soldiers attacked a Mescalero Apache village near Delaware Creek in the Guadalupe Mountains. July 1880 soldiers at Tinaja de las Palmas attacked a group of Mescaleros led by Chief Victorio. August 1880, Buffalo Soldiers ambushed Victorio at Rattlesnake Springs. Victorio was killed in October by Mexican soldiers; the demand for new routes from Texas to California caused an uptick in explorations. The San Antonio to El Paso leg of the San Antonio-California Trail was surveyed in 1848 under the direction of John Coffee Hays. Texas Commissioner Robert Simpson Neighbors was sent by Governor Peter Hansborough Bell in 1850 to organize El Paso.
Lt. Francis Theodore Bryan camped at Guadalupe Pass while exploring a route from San Antonio to El Paso via Fredericksburg. Upon reaching El Paso in July 1849 his report recommended sink wells along the route. July 1848, Secretary of War William L. Marcy wanted a military post established on the north side of the Rio Grande. Maj. Jefferson Van Horne was sent out in 1849 to establish Marcy's goal. John Russell Bartlett, was commissioned in 1850 to carry out the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Bartlett declared the Guadalupe Mountains dark and gloomy, proposed a transcontinental railroad be built south of the peaks. Three years Capt. John Pope was sent to scout out a railroad route, in the succeeding year to search for artesian water supplies; the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and the Butterfield Overland Mail both serviced the area 1857-1861. These mail coaches provided a means for travelers to reach California in 27 days, if the passenger had the $200 for a one-way fare and was courageous enough to withstand the weather and dangers en route.
Rival railway companies began competing for rights of way. The Texas and Pacific Railway and the Galveston and San Antonio Railway reached an agreement to share the tracks. Culberson County was established in 1911 from El Paso County and named after David B. Culberson; the county was organized in 1912. Van Horn became the county seat. With the opening of the railways, ranchers began to settle in the county. Lobo was settled in part due to misreprentation by promoters. A class action lawsuit by the residents forced the promoters to build the Lobo Hotel; the area was struck by two powerful earthquakes - one in 1929, the 6.0 quake near Valentine, felt as far away as Dallas. The hotel was destroyed. Guadalupe Mountains National Park was established in 1972. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the 1966 legislation to create the park. Stipulation was made that all mineral and gas rights had to be ceded to the Federal government. Blue Origin, the space vehicle development company founded by Jeff Bezos, maintains a sub-orbital launch site 25 miles north of Van Horn, Texas.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,813 square miles, of which 3,813 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. It is the fifth largest county by area in Texas; the largest part of Guadalupe Mountains National Park lies in the northwest corner of the county, including McKittrick Canyon and Guadalupe Peak, the highest natural point in Texas at 8,751 feet. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 62/U. S. Highway 180 U. S. Highway 90 State Highway 54 Eddy County, New Mexico Reeves County Jeff Davis County Hudspeth County Otero County, New Mexico Guadalupe Mountains National Park Guadalupe Peak El Capitan McKittrick Canyon As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,398 people residing in the county. 78.9% were White, 1.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.6% Black or African American, 15.4% of some other race and 2.8% of two or more races. 76.2% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,975 people, 1,052 households, 797 families residing in the county.
The population density was less than 1/km². There were 1,321 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.94% White, 0.71% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 27.13% from other races, 2.18%
El Paso County, Texas
El Paso County is the westernmost county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 800,647, making it the sixth-most populous county in the state of Texas, its seat is the city of El Paso, the sixth-most populous city in Texas and the 19th-most populous city in the United States. The county was created in 1850 and organized in 1871. El Paso is short for "El Paso del Norte", Spanish for "The Pass of the North", it is named for the pass. The county is northeast of the Mexico–United States border. El Paso County is included in the El Paso metropolitan area. Along with Hudspeth County, it is one of two counties in Texas in the Mountain Time Zone. El Paso County is one of nine counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,015 square miles, of which 1,013 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Doña Ana County, New Mexico – northwest Otero County, New Mexico – northeast Hudspeth County, Texas – east Guadalupe, Mexico – south Juárez, Mexico – southwest Práxedis G. Guerrero, Mexico – southeast Chamizal National Memorial El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail As of the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 837,353: Hispanics and Latinos, 698,534, non-Hispanic whites, 97,439.
82.1% were White of Hispanic descent, 10.5% of other races, 3.1% African American or Black, 2.5% of two or more races, 1.0% Asian, 0.8% Native American and 0.1% Pacific Islander. 82.2% were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 679,622 people, 210,022 households, 166,127 families residing in the county; the population density was 671 people per square mile. There were 224,447 housing units at an average density of 222 per square mile; the city was 78.23% Latino of any race. The racial makeup of the county was 73.95% White, 17.91% from other races, 3.06% African American or Black, 0.82% Native American, 0.98% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.19% from two or more races. There were 210,022 households out of which 44.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 18.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.90% were non-families. 17.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.18 and the average family size was 3.63. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.00% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 18.40% from 45 to 64, 9.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,051, the median income for a family was $33,410. Males had a median income of $26,882 versus $20,722 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,421. About 20.50% of families and 23.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.50% of those under age 18 and 18.50% of those age 65 or over. Most of El Paso County is included in the 16th Congressional District in the U. S House, represented by Democrat Veronica Escobar. A small eastern portion of the county is in the 23rd Congressional District, represented since 2015 by Republican Will Hurd.
El Paso County is Democratic and the 2008 presidential election was no exception. Democrat Barack Obama won 66% of the vote with 121,589 votes though he lost the entire state of Texas by about 946,000 votes. Republican John McCain won 33% of the vote in El Paso County with 61,598 votes. Other candidates won 1% of the vote. In 2004, Democrat John F. Kerry won El Paso County but by a smaller margin than Barack Obama. John Kerry won 56 % of 95,142 votes. Republican George W. Bush won 43% of the vote with 73,261 votes. Other candidates won 1% of the vote; the El Paso County Sheriff's Office is headquartered in an unincorporated area in El Paso County. At one point it was headquartered within the City of El Paso; the Leo Samaniego Law Enforcement Complex is adjacent to the sheriff's office headquarters. Like all Texas counties, El Paso County is governed by a Commissioners Court, which consists of a County Judge, elected county-wide, four County Commissioners, who represent individual precincts. While the County Judge possesses some traditional powers of a judge, the County Judge functions as the chief executive of the county.
The County Judge presides over Commissioners Court meetings, casts one vote on Commissioners Court, lacks veto authority. The El Paso County Judge is Ruben Vogt, the county commissioners are Carlos Leon, David Stout, Vince Perez, Andrew Haggerty. Haggerty is a Republican, the other commissioners and the county judge are Democrats. Vogt was appointed County Judge in October 2017 by the County Commissioners, following County Judge Veronica Escobar's resignation to run for Congress, he was Escobar's chief of staff. He will serve the remainder of her term, through the end of 2018. Leon and Perez were first elected to their positions in 2012, were re-elected in 2016, have been in office since 2013. Haggerty and Stout were first elected to their positions in 2014, have been in office since 201
Lincoln National Forest
Lincoln National Forest is a unit of the U. S. Forest Service located in southern New Mexico. Established by Presidential Proclamation in 1902 as the Lincoln Forest Preserve, the 1,103,897 acres forest begins near the Texas border and contains lands in parts of Chaves, Eddy and Otero, counties; the three Ranger Districts within the forest contain all or part of four mountain ranges, include a variety of different environmental areas, from desert to forested mountains and sub-alpine grasslands. Established to balance conservation, resource management, recreation, the lands of the Lincoln National Forest include important local timber resources, protected wilderness areas, popular recreation and winter sports areas; the forest headquarters is located in Alamogordo, N. M. with local offices in Carlsbad and Ruidoso. The modern Lincoln National Forest traces its origins to several different forest reserves and national forests designated in the 1902-1908 period; these included the Lincoln Forest Preserve, a 545,256 acre area established July 26, 1902 around Capitan and Lincoln, the 78,480 acre Gallinas Forest Preserve established on November 5, 1906 in the Gallinas Mountains west of Gallinas, the Guadalupe National Forest, established April 19, 1907 in the mountains along the Texas border, the Sacramento National Forest, created on April 24, 1907 to preserve the forested heights of the Sacramento Mountains near Alamogordo.
Scattered throughout south-central New Mexico, these individual units contained lands in the Guadalupe, Sierra Blanca/White Mountains and Gallinas ranges, encompassed environments from the desert shrubs at the floor of the Chihuahuan Desert through forests of Piñon, Pine and Juniper to sub-alpine grasslands above the tree-line. The process of integrating these individual units into a single, unified National Forest began in July 1908, when President Theodore Roosevelt signed Executive Order 908, which combined a number of national forests in the Southwestern states into larger units. One of the first foresters was Arthur Ringland who founded the internation relief organization, CARE. One element of this order was to add the Gallinas National Forest, a tract of land around the Gallinas Mountains west of Corona to the existing Lincoln National Forest. Another element of Roosevelt's Executive Order that would have a great impact on the development of the Lincoln National Forest was the decision to combine the existing Guadalupe and Sacramento National Forests into the Alamo National Forest.
A wholly new administrative unit, the Alamo National Forest was headquartered in Alamogordo and led by inaugural Forest Supervisor Arthur M. Neal. Nearly nine years on June 6, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson signed an Executive order that transferred the lands of the Alamo National Forest to the control of the Lincoln National Forest; as a result of this order, the main elements of the Alamo National Forest, the public lands around the Sacramento and Guadalupe Mountains, were transferred to the Lincoln expanding its size. The last major change in the Forest's boundaries came in 1945, when administrative control of the former Gallinas National Forest was transferred from the Lincoln to the sprawling Cibola National Forest. Transferred in 1958; the Gallinas area was renamed the Mountainair Ranger District, with its headquarters in Mountainair. The modern Lincoln National Forest is composed of three separate units, the Smokey Bear Ranger District, headquartered in Ruidoso, the Sacramento Ranger District, headquartered in Cloudcroft, the Guadalupe Ranger District, with its headquarters in Carlsbad.
Established April 24, 1907 as the Sacramento National Forest, the forested southern Sacramento Mountains, east of Alamogordo, were combined with the Guadalupe National Forest to form the Alamo National Forest in July 1908. One of the two major elements of the new forest, the former Sacramento National Forest was divided into a number of smaller ranger districts within the larger unit; these included the La Luz and Weed Ranger Districts, all of which administered lands around their respective villages. On June 6, 1917, these lands became part of the Lincoln National Forest, when their parent organization, the Alamo National Forest was disestablished; as a result of this order, some areas of the former Sacramento National Forest, like La Luz Ranger District, lost their independent status, others were renamed, such as the Fresnal district, which became the Cloudcroft Ranger District, others, like Mayhill and Weed, retained their original names and designations. In 1961, the Cloudcroft and Weed Ranger Districts were consolidated and given their current designation, the Sacramento Ranger District of the Lincoln National Forest.
Rising high above the gypsum sands of White Sands National Monument and the city of Alamogordo, the Sacramento district encompasses much of the southern half of the Sacramento Mountains. Located south of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, which covers the northern half of the mountains, the district is composed of Douglas Fir, Ponderosa pine and oak, as well as numerous creeks and waterfalls; the district is traversed east-west by that section of U. S. 82 between Artesia and Alamogordo, which goes through the villages of Cloudcroft and Mayhill. Other roads include New Mexico State Road 6563 known as the Sunspot Scenic Byway, which runs between Cloudcroft and the village of Sunspot, NM 244, which exits the district north of Cloudcroft and enters the Mescalero Apache Reservation. A forested area in an otherwise arid environment, the Sacramento Mountains have long been used for timber harvesting. To expedite the transport of timber to processing facilities and