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The Otoe are a Native American people of the Midwestern United States. The Otoe language, Chiwere, is part of the Siouan family and related to that of the related Iowa and Missouri tribes; the Otoe Tribe lived as a semi-nomadic people on the Central Plains along the bank of the Missouri River in Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. They lived in elm-bark lodges while they farmed, used tipis while traveling, like many other Plains tribes, they left their villages to hunt buffalo. In the early 19th century, many of their villages were destroyed due to warfare with other tribes. European-American encroachment and disease played a role in their decline. Today, they are federally recognized as the Otoe tribes of Oklahoma, share a reservation with the Sac and Fox people; the Otoe were once part of the Siouan tribes of the Great Lakes region, a group known as the Winnebago. At some point, a large group began to migrate to the South and West; this group split again, coalescing into at least three distinct tribes: the Ioway, the Missouria and the Otoe.

The Otoe settled in the lower Nemaha River valley. They adopted the horse culture and semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Great Plains, making the American bison central to their diet and culture; the States, the Lewis and Clark Expedition headed up the Missouri River to explore the new territory. The Otoe were the first tribe, they met at a place on the west bank of the Missouri River that would become known as the Council Bluff. Like other Great Plains tribes, the Otoe periodically left their villages to hunt for buffalo. Between 1817 and 1841, the Otoe lived around the mouth of the Platte River in present-day Nebraska. During this time, the remaining families of the Missouria rejoined them, they gathered with others to trade for European goods. In the 1830s, the tribe was noted to have problems with alcohol, dispensed by traders; some Otoe would trade vital supplies to the point of becoming destitute. As their dependence on alcohol grew, the men no longer hunted, but resorted to looting vacant Pawnee villages while the people were out hunting.

Christian missionaries built a mission there. In 1854 the Otoe-Missouria ceded most of their lands south of the Platte River in eastern Nebraska to the U. S. by treaty. They retained the Oto Reservation along the Big Blue River on the present Kansas-Nebraska border, they struggled to adapt to reservation life. During the 1870s, the tribe split into two factions; the Coyote band favored an immediate move to Indian Territory, where they believed they could better perpetuate their traditional tribal life outside the influence of the whites. The Quaker band favored remaining on the Big Blue River land, they were willing to sell the western half of the reservation to whites to gain income for a tribal annuity. By the spring of 1880, about half the tribe had left the reservation and taken up residence with the Sac and Fox Nation in Indian Territory. By the next year, in response to dwindling prospects of self-sufficiency and continued pressure from white settlers, the remaining Otoe members in Nebraska sold the Big Blue reservation.

They migrated to Oklahoma. With the Otoe-Missouria there, they purchased a new reservation in the Cherokee Outlet in the Indian Territory; this is in Pawnee Counties, Oklahoma. Today the Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians is federally recognized, it is based in Oklahoma. Annette Arkeketa and playwright Chono Ca Pe Eagle of Delight Shaumonekusse Anna Lee Walters, author Tommy Morrison, former heavyweight boxer/co-star in Rocky V movie Johny Hendricks, MMA Fighter Fort Atkinson Woodcliff Burials Ioway-Otoe Language, Ioway Cultural Institute.

Amazonian Kichwas

Amazonian Kichwas are a grouping of indigenous Kichwa peoples in the Ecuadorian Amazon, with minor groups across the borders of Colombia and Peru. Amazonian Kichwas consists of different ethnic peoples, including Canelos Kichwa. There are 419 organized communities of the Amazonian Kichwas; the basic socio-political unit is the ayllu. The ayllus in turn constitute territorial clans, based on common ancestry. Unlike other subgroups, the Napo Kichwa maintain less ethnic duality of acculturated natives or Christians. After a powerful protest of the Amazonian Kichwas held in Pastaza in 1992, the Ecuadorian state handed over the rights to 1,115,000 hectares of land for their use. Related groups: The Inca people who established the Incan empire and colonized the Quijos; the Chanka people from Huancavelica and Ayacucho, Peru. The Inga people from Colombia, who speak a related Kichwa; the Huanca people from Junin, Peru. The Quijos people from the Eastern lowlands of Ecuador. Amazonian Kichwa is a group of Quechuan dialects including varieties in Ecuador and Peru.

The name "Kichwa" reflects the absence of phonetic mid-vowel allophones in Kichwa, due to its lack of uvular consonants, in contrast to other Quechua languages. Ethnologue estimated 408,000 speakers of Amazonian Kichwa in 2011. In Ecuador, Amazonian Kichwa is spoken by around 109,000 people from the 6 Amazonian provinces. According to the classification of Quechuan languages, Amazonian Kichwa dialects belong to the Northern Quechua group of Quechua II. Most speakers of Amazonian Kichwa are now bilingual in Spanish. There are some groups amongst the Amazonian Kichwa who speak Shuar or Wao Terero. Among themselves, the Amazonian Kichwa differentiate from one another by using the names of towns or a regional part of a river in which their communities live, for example Napu Runa or Pastaza Runa. For dialectal variation on the municipality level, subgroups of Kichwa include the Panos, Archidonas and Shandias; the earliest Kichwa manuscripts were written in the 17th century in an effort to produce a written form of the language.

Hernando de Alcocer, a Jesuit priest, gave the first grammatical description of Kichwa in his book Breve Declaracion del Arte y Vocabulario de la Lengua del Ynga Conforme al Estilo de la Provincia de Quito. The prefecto, or religious regional governor’s main mission was to evangelize the Kichwa living near the Amazon River, it is known as a peripheral Quechuan dialect in contrast to the central Quechua spoken in Peru. The use of Quechua as a lingua franca was the result of Spanish conquest that linked different groups of indigenous people from Peru, Bolivia and Bolivia and classified the language as one. Linguists believe that Amazonian Kichwas did not derive from the “central” Quechua from the Peruvian Incas; the original inhabitants, or ancestors of the Kichwa are believed to be the Quijos. They were found by the Incas in the 1400s and rivalries started when the Incas demanded resources such as cinnamon and fur. By the 1500s most of Ecuador was part of the Inca empire; the Spanish conquered Quito, the modern capital of Ecuador in the sierra region in 1533 after the decline of the Incan army following the execution of Atahualpa.

Shortly after the conquest, Francisco Pizzaro sent his brother, Gonzalo Pizzaro on several expeditions to explore land to the east Tahuantinsuyo. They were motivated by the Dorado and Canela myth, the belief that the east was rich in gold and cinnamon, an exotic spice for the Spaniards. After reaching Quito, Gonzalo Pizzaro and many of his explorers returned to the West. Fransciso Orellana, the second in command, continued toward the Napo River and discovered the Amazon River where the ancestors of the Kichwas lived. To the native people of the Ecuadorian rain forest, the idea of owning nature is not ideal and goes against their beliefs rooted in their cultural and spiritual connection to Mother Earth; the Kichwas have a strong connection with the animals that live among them. The native concept of what is means to be alive and have a soul is different than other related groups labeled under the umbrella term, Quechuan; the Napo Runa believe humans and animals all have souls and are regarded as equals.

The souls of plants are of particular interest because the wellbeing of a community depends on a healthy relationship with nature. The soul of a plant is called an anima and each organism has its own unique anima. Unlike the Christian understanding of a soul, an anima is thought to be physical and visible through Ayahuasca rituals or dreams. Ayahuasca revered as a magical plant due to its medicine and spiritual purposes, it is the power to impart instruct in healing. It is believed to be the mother of all mother of all plants. Other kinships such as a relationship similar to a grandmother figure is constructed by others; this is because the relationship to each is unique for every person and could be seen as a translator or communicator between two worlds. Other plants are used for medicinal and spiritual purposes and are treated by the communities with the same respect as they would give another human; the union between plants and humans als

Interval estimation

In statistics, interval estimation is the use of sample data to calculate an interval of possible values of an unknown population parameter. Jerzy Neyman identified interval estimation as distinct from point estimation. In doing so, he recognized that then-recent work quoting results in the form of an estimate plus-or-minus a standard deviation indicated that interval estimation was the problem statisticians had in mind; the most prevalent forms of interval estimation are: confidence intervals. Other forms include: likelihood intervals. Other forms of statistical intervals, which do not estimate parameters, include: tolerance intervals. Non-statistical methods that can lead to interval estimates include fuzzy logic. An interval estimate is one type of outcome of a statistical analysis; some other types of outcome are point decisions. The scientific problems associated with interval estimation may be summarised as follows: When interval estimates are reported, they should have a held interpretation in the scientific community and more widely.

In this regard, credible intervals are held to be most understood by the general public. Interval estimates derived from fuzzy logic have much more application-specific meanings. For occurring situations there should be sets of standard procedures that can be used, subject to the checking and validity of any required assumptions; this applies for credible intervals. For more novel situations there should be guidance on. In this regard confidence intervals and credible intervals have a similar standing but there are differences:credible intervals can deal with prior information, while confidence intervals cannot. Confidence intervals are more flexible and can be used in more situations than credible intervals: one area where credible intervals suffer in comparison is in dealing with non-parametric models. There should be ways of testing the performance of interval estimation procedures; this arises because many such procedures involve approximations of various kinds and there is a need to check that the actual performance of a procedure is close to what is claimed.

The use of stochastic simulations makes this is straightforward in the case of confidence intervals, but it is somewhat more problematic for credible intervals where prior information needs to be taken properly into account. Checking of credible intervals can be done for situations representing no-prior-information but the check involves checking the long-run frequency properties of the procedures. Severini discusses conditions under which credible intervals and confidence intervals will produce similar results, discusses both the coverage probabilities of credible intervals and the posterior probabilities associated with confidence intervals. In decision theory, a common approach to and justification for Bayesian statistics, interval estimation is not of direct interest; the outcome is a decision, not an interval estimate, thus Bayesian decision theorists use a Bayes action: they minimize expected loss of a loss function with respect to the entire posterior distribution, not a specific interval.

Algorithmic inference Coverage probability Estimation statistics Induction Multiple comparisons Philosophy of statistics Predictive inference Behrens–Fisher problem This has played an important role in the development of the theory behind applicable statistical methodologies. Neyman, J. "Outline of a Theory of Statistical Estimation Based on the Classical Theory of Probability", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 236, 333–380. Severini, T. A. "On the relationship between Bayesian and Non-Bayesian interval estimates", Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 53, 611–618 Kendall, M. G. and Stuart, A.. The Advanced Theory of Statistics. Vol 2: Inference and Relationship. Griffin, London. In the above Chapter 20 covers confidence intervals, while Chapter 21 covers fiducial intervals and Bayesian intervals and has discussion comparing the three approaches. Note that this work predates modern computationally intensive methodologies. In addition, Chapter 21 discusses the Behrens–Fisher problem.

Meeker, W. Q. Hahn, G. J. and Escobar, L. A.. Statistical Intervals: A Guide for Practitioners and Researchers. John Wiley & Sons

V Media Group

V Media Group Inc. is a held Canadian media firm, owned by the film production and distribution company Remstar. It owns the French-language broadcast network V, which operates in Quebec, as well as the French-language specialty channels Elle Fictions and Max. In June 2008, Remstar acquired the French-language network TQS, owned by Cogeco and CTVglobemedia but entered bankruptcy protection in late 2007; the network was renamed V the following year. It was reorganized into a separate entity named V Media Group, still majority-owned by Remstar, with a minority share held by a trust controlled by Remstar's owner, Maxime Rémillard. In December 2013, V Media Group announced plans to purchase MusiquePlus and MusiMax from CTVglobemedia's successor Bell Media, which had earlier in the year received approval to purchase Astral Media, but divested several networks in order to reduce its total market share following the purchase; the acquisition was approved by the CRTC on September 11, 2014. To fund the purchase, 15% stakes in V Media Group were purchased by each of the Caisse, Fonds de solidarité FTQ, Investissement Québec, while Rémillard's trust increased its stake.

As a result, Remstar remains the largest single shareholder but no longer holds a majority interest in V Media. The sale closed on September 16, 2014. In June 2016, V Media Group announced a partnership with Vice Media. In July 2019, V Media Group announced that it would sell its namesake television network, its streaming service, to Bell Media, pending CRTC approval. The company will retain its specialty channels. Following the purchase of MusiquePlus and MusiMax, the shareholders and voting interests of V Media Group are now as follows: Remstar Broadcasting: 45.14% Fiducie Seismikmax: 9.86% Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec: 15% Fonds de solidarité FTQ: 15% Investissement Québec: 15% Noovo


Year 1457 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. February 11 – After years of captivity and absence from the Ming throne, the Zhengtong Emperor of China is reinstated, as the Tianshun Emperor. February 24 – Charles VIII of Sweden is declared deposed; the Archbishop of Sweden, Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, statesman Erik Axelsson Tott become co-regents of Sweden. The throne is offered to Christian I of Denmark and Norway. March 6 – King James II of Scotland decrees that "... ye futebawe and ye golf be uterly cryt done and not usyt.. " The first historical mention of the game of golf. April 12 – Ştefan cel Mare secures the throne of Moldavia, which he retains for the next 47 years. June 23 – Christian I is elected king of Sweden, ending the war between Sweden and Denmark and restoring the Kalmar Union. August 14 – The Mainz Psalter, the second major book printed with movable type in the West, the first to be wholly finished mechanically, the first to carry a printed date, is printed for the Elector of Mainz.

September 2 – Battle of Ujëbardha: One of Skanderbeg's most important victories is won against the Ottoman army, in the open field. Albrechts University is founded, at Freiburg im Breisgau. Edo Castle is built in modern-day Tokyo. January 18 – Antonio Trivulzio, Roman Catholic cardinal January 28 – King Henry VII of England February 2 – Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, Italo-Spanish historian and diplomat February 13 – Mary of Burgundy, sovereign duchess regnant of Burgundy, married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor August 20 – Seongjong of Joseon, King of Joseon September 21 – Hedwig Jagiellon, Duchess of Bavaria, Polish princess November 16 – Beatrice of Naples, Hungarian queen date unknown Jacob Obrecht, Dutch composer Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset George Nevill, Duke of Bedford probable Sebastian Brant, German humanist and satirist Filippino Lippi, Florentine painter Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr March 14 – Jingtai Emperor of China March 16 – László Hunyadi, Hungarian statesman and warrior May 22 – Saint Rita of Cascia, Italian saint August 1 – Lorenzo Valla, Italian humanist August 19 – Andrea del Castagno, Italian painter September 12 – Gabriele Sforza, Archbishop of Milan September 14 – Countess Palatine Margaret of Mosbach, countess consort of Hanau September 22 – Peter II, Duke of Brittany November 3 – Ludwig II, Count of Württemberg-Urach, German noble November 23 – King Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary December 24 – Danjong of Joseon, King of Joseon date unknown Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza, ruler of Khurasan Bartolomeu Perestrello, Portuguese navigator and explorer

Live in Europe (Billy Paul album)

Live in Europe is an album by soul singer Billy Paul. The album was arranged by Billy Paul and Caldwell McMillan, it was recorded at Hammersmith Odeon and Central Hall, England in December 1973. Released in 1974, this album reached #10 on the Billboard Soul Album chart and #187 on the Billboard Pop album chart. Following his 1973 European tour, Billy Paul taped an episode of Soul Train on January 20, 1974. Stephen McMillian wrote: "During Billy's interview with Don, he mentioned that he had returned from a European tour with the O'Jays and The Intruders, stating that the response was great and receptive.'The most amazing thing is to see people who can’t understand your language but they enjoy your music and the sound,' Billy told Don. Several of the songs he performed on the London leg of the European tour were released on his wonderful live album entitled Billy Paul Live in Europe."On its release in 1974, Billboard noted in its June 22 issue: "The five songs on the album average eight minutes in length, but the time is taken up by extended singing, concentrating on separate parts of the material, rather than a lot of empty rapping.

The excitement at Paul's London debut is palpable. Best cut:'Brown Baby.' Dealers: Can display in tandem with new O'Jay live LP cut at same hall."AllMusic's Ron Wynn wrote: "Paul was not a great live vocalist either as a jazz or soul singer, something, evident on this mid-'70s set. No matter how polished or well-rehearsed the backing band, Paul's flaws couldn't be covered as smoothly in a concert setting, they're revealed along with his strengths -- timing, a good delivery, decent range and interpretative skills." All tracks composed by Leon Huff. Arranged By – Billy Paul, Caldwell McMillan Art DirectionEd Lee Engineer – Bob Hall Engineer, Remix – Jay Mark Liner Notes – John E. Abbey Photography By – Urve Kuusik Producer – Bobby Martin Mobile Recording facilities provided by The Rolling Stones and The Manor Remixed At – Sigma Sound Studios Mastered At – Frankford/Wayne Recording Labs Billy Paul-Live in Europe at Discogs