The ear canal is a pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear. The adult human ear canal extends from the pinna to the eardrum and is about 2.5 centimetres in length and 0.7 centimetres in diameter. The human ear canal is divided into two parts; the elastic cartilage part forms the outer third of the canal. The cartilage is the continuation of the cartilage framework of pinna; the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal contains small hairs and specialized sweat glands, called apocrine glands, which produce cerumen. The bony part forms the inner two thirds; the bony part is only a ring in the newborn. The layer of epithelium encompassing the bony portion of the ear canal is much thinner and therefore, more sensitive in comparison to the cartilaginous portion. Size and shape of the canal vary among individuals; the canal is 2.5 centimetres long and 0.7 centimetres in diameter. It runs from behind and above downward and forward. On the cross-section, it is of oval shape; these are important factors to consider.
Due to its relative exposure to the outside world, the ear canal is susceptible to diseases and other disorders. Some disorders include: Atresia of the ear canal Cerumen impaction Bone exposure, caused by the wearing away of skin in the canal Auditory canal osteoma Cholesteatoma Contact dermatitis of the ear canal Fungal infection Ear mites in animals Ear myiasis, an rare infestation of maggots Foreign body in ear Granuloma, a scar caused by tympanostomy tubes Otitis externa, bacteria-caused inflammation of the ear canal Stenosis, a gradual closing of the canal Earwax known as cerumen, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canals, it plays an important role in the human ear canal, assisting in cleaning and lubrication, provides some protection from bacteria and insects. Excess or impacted cerumen can press against the eardrum and/or occlude the external auditory canal and impair hearing, causing conductive hearing loss. If left untreated, cerumen impaction can increase the risk of developing an infection within the ear canal.
List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system Veterans Health Administration web site OSHA web site Continuing Medical Education Ear Photographs Otoscopy Tutorial w/ Images "Anatomy diagram: 34257.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra. It contains the larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, a flap separating the esophagus from the trachea preventing food and drink being inhaled into the lungs; the throat contains various blood vessels, pharyngeal muscles, the nasopharyngeal tonsil, the tonsils, the palatine uvula, the trachea, the esophagus, the vocal cords. Mammal throats consist of the hyoid bone and the clavicle; the "throat" is sometimes thought to be synonymous for the isthmus of the fauces. It works with the mouth and nose, as well as a number of other parts of the body, its pharynx is connected to the mouth, allowing speech to occur, food and liquid to pass down the throat. It is joined to the nose by the nasopharynx at the top of the throat, to ear by its Eustachian tube; the throat's trachea carries inhaled air to the bronchi of the lungs. The esophagus carries food through the throat to the stomach. Adenoids and tonsils are composed of lymph tissue.
The larynx contains vocal cords, the epiglottis, an area known as the subglottic larynx—the narrowest section of the upper part of the throat. In the larynx, the vocal cords consist of two membranes that act according to the pressure of the air; the Jugulum is a low part of the throat, located above the breast. The term Jugulum is reflected both by the internal and external jugular veins, which pass through the Jugulum. Strep throat Tracheotomy Tonsilloliths Throat singing
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, small bowel, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, the thyroid gland. They deal with diseases involving the skin, soft tissue, peripheral vascular surgery and hernias and perform endoscopic procedures such as gastroscopy and colonoscopy. General surgeons may sub-specialize into one or more of the following disciplines: In many parts of the world including North America and the United Kingdom, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery; some general surgeons obtain advanced training in this field and specialty certification surgical critical care. General surgeons must be able to deal with any surgical emergency, they are the first port of call to critically ill or gravely injured patients, must perform a variety of procedures to stabilize such patients, such as thoracostomy, cricothyroidotomy, compartment fasciotomies and emergency laparotomy or thoracotomy to stanch bleeding.
They are called upon to staff surgical intensive care units or trauma intensive care units. All general surgeons are trained in emergency surgery. Bleeding, bowel obstructions and organ perforations are the main problems they deal with. Cholecystectomy, the surgical removal of the gallbladder, is one of the most common surgical procedures done worldwide; this is most done electively, but the gallbladder can become acutely inflamed and require an emergency operation. Infections and rupture of the appendix and small bowel obstructions are other common emergencies; this is a new specialty dealing with minimal access techniques using cameras and small instruments inserted through 3 to 15mm incisions. Robotic surgery is now evolving from this concept. Gallbladders and colons can all be removed with this technique. Hernias are able to be repaired laparoscopically. Bariatric surgery can be performed laparoscopically and there a benefits of doing so to reduce wound complications in obese patients. General surgeons that are trained today are expected to be proficient in laparoscopic procedures.
General surgeons treat a wide variety of major and minor colon and rectal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticulitis and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhoids. General surgeons perform a majority of all non-cosmetic breast surgery from lumpectomy to mastectomy pertaining to the evaluation and treatment of breast cancer. General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training and certification in vascular surgery. Otherwise, these procedures are performed by vascular surgery specialists. However, general surgeons are capable of treating minor vascular disorders. General surgeons are trained to remove all or part of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck and the adrenal glands just above each kidney in the abdomen. In many communities, they are the only surgeon trained to do this. In communities that have a number of subspecialists, other subspecialty surgeons may assume responsibility for these procedures. Responsible for all aspects of pre-operative and post-operative care of abdominal organ transplant patients.
Transplanted organs include liver, kidney and more small bowel. Surgical oncologist refers to a general surgical oncologist, but thoracic surgical oncologists, gynecologist and so forth can all be considered surgeons who specialize in treating cancer patients; the importance of training surgeons who sub-specialize in cancer surgery lies in evidence, supported by a number of clinical trials, that outcomes in surgical cancer care are positively associated to surgeon volume—i.e. The more cancer cases a surgeon treats, the more proficient he or she becomes, his or her patients experience improved survival rates as a result; this is another controversial point, but it is accepted—even as common sense—that a surgeon who performs a given operation more will achieve superior results when compared with a surgeon who performs the same procedure. This is true of complex cancer resections such as pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer, gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer.
Surgical oncology is a 2 year fellowship following completion of a general surgery residency. Most cardiothoracic surgeons in the U. S. first complete a general surgery residency, followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship. Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery. Pediatric surgeons do surgery on patients age lower than 18. Pediatric surgery is 5 -- 7 years of a 2-3 year fellowship. In the 2000s minimally invasive surgery became more prevalent. Considerable enthusiasm has been built around robot-assisted surgery, despite a lack of data suggesting it has significant benefits that justify its cost. In Canada, New Zealand, the United States general surgery is a five to seven year residency and follows completion of medical school, either MD, MBBS, MBChB, or DO degrees. In Australia and New Zealand, a residency leads to eligibility for Fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. In Canada, residency leads to eligibility for certification by and Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, while in the United States, completion of a residency in general surgery leads to eligibility for board certification by the
New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is viewed as still existing and subject to new word formation; as a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, it is distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin. Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the Latin that developed in Renaissance Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary and after the Renaissance; the beginning of the period cannot be identified. The end of the New Latin period is indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, by 1900 it survived in international scientific vocabulary and taxonomy.
The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists. New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers; this area consisted including Central Europe and Scandinavia. Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia; the use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the cultural heritage of Ancient Greece and Byzantium, as well as Greek and Old Church Slavonic languages. Though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of the lexicon can trace its origin to Latin, thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with relative ease as cognates are quite common. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led by such writers as Erasmus and Colet.
Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic Church, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical authors; the humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, to make Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century; the Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation, coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all kinds of secular as well as religious subjects; the heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries, when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin tradition, it served as the lingua franca of science, to some degree diplomacy in Europe.
Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica were written in the language. Throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, indeed, the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All universities required Latin proficiency to obtain admittance as a student. Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and used between the 9th and 18th centuries used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility. Through most of the 17th century, Latin was supreme as an international language of diplomatic correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster. As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a wide variety of documents, legal, diplomatic and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki.
As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, was serviceable as an international auxiliary language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the Hanoverian king George I of Great Britain, who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who knew neither German nor French. By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages had reached academia, an example of the transition is Newton's writing career, which began in New Latin and ended in Eng
Base of skull
The base of skull known as the cranial base or the cranial floor, is the most inferior area of the skull. It is composed of the lower parts of the skull roof. Structures found at the base of the skull are for example: There are five bones that make up the base of the skull: Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Occipital bone Frontal bone Temporal bone Occipital sinus Superior sagittal sinus Superior petrosal sinus Foramen cecum Optic foramen Foramen lacerum Foramen rotundum Foramen magnum Foramen ovale Jugular foramen Internal auditory meatus Mastoid foramen Sphenoidal emissary foramen Foramen spinosum Frontoethmoidal suture Sphenofrontal suture Sphenopetrosal suture Sphenoethmoidal suture Petrosquamous suture Sphenosquamosal suture Sphenoidal lingula Subarcuate fossa Dorsum sellae Jugular process Petro-occipital fissure Condylar canal Jugular tubercle Tuberculum sellae Carotid groove Fossa hypophyseos Posterior clinoid processes Sigmoid sulcus Internal occipital protuberance Internal occipital crest Ethmoidal spine Vestibular aqueduct Chiasmatic groove Middle clinoid process Groove for sigmoid sinus Trigeminal ganglion Middle cranial fossa Anterior cranial fossa Middle meningeal artery Cribriform plate Posterior cranial fossa Nasociliary nerve Hypoglossal canal