Delaware County, Oklahoma
Delaware County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,487, its county seat is Jay. The county was named for the Delaware Indians who had established a village in the area prior to the arrival of the Cherokees in Indian Territory in the 1830s. Delaware County was created in 1907. Prior to becoming Delaware County, a large portion of the area was known as the Delaware District of the Cherokee Nation. Today, Delaware County continues to be recognized by the Cherokee Nation as the Delaware District. Archaeological studies have shown that at least three different periods of prehistoric people had lived in the area covered by Delaware County; these included 23 Archaic, 17 Woodland, 63 Eastern Villager sites. Artifacts date back between 2000 years from the present. Many of these sites have been submerged since the creation of Grand Lake o' the Cherokees. Few Native Americans lived in the area until the early nineteenth century, when the federal government began relocating tribes from the Eastern United States.
About 1820, a group of Delaware, who had allied with the Cherokee against the Osage, settled Delaware Town, about two miles south of the present town of Eucha. In 1828, the Western Cherokee moved from Arkansas Territory into the area just south of the present Delaware County. In 1832, the Seneca moved from Ohio into an area that included the northeastern part of Delaware County; the present day county was created at statehood in 1907. Grove, the only incorporated town in the county, was designated as the county seat. However, a large number of county residents wanted a more centrally located seat; this group founded the town of Jay, where they built a wooden courthouse and won an election to move the county seat. A court suit resolved the dispute in favor of the Jay location. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 792 square miles, of which 738 square miles is land and 54 square miles is water; the county lies on the western slope of the Ozark Plateau. There are no oil, gas or mineral resources of economic consequence, but the county has abundant water.
Lake Eucha, a man-made reservoir on Spavinaw Creek, completed in 1952, lies within Delaware County. Grand Lake o' the Cherokees, completed in 1940, Lake Spavinaw, completed in 1924, are within Delaware County; the Grand River and the Elk River drain the northern part of the county, while Flint Creek and the Illinois River drain the southern part. U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 412 State Highway 10 State Highway 20 State Highway 25 State Highway 28 Ottawa County McDonald County, Missouri northeast) Benton County, Arkansas Adair County Cherokee County Mayes County Craig County As of the 2010 census, there were 41,487 people, up from 37,077 people in 2000. In 2000, there were 14,838 households, 10,772 families residing in the county; the population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 22,290 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.22% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 22.31% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 6.53% from two or more races.
Self-identified Hispanic or Latino Americans made up 1.75% of the population. 93.8 % spoke 2.3 % Spanish as their first language. There were 14,838 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,996, the median income for a family was $33,093. Males had a median income of $25,758 versus $19,345 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $15,424. About 14.10% of families and 18.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.40% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over. Grove Jay Bernice Colcord Kansas Oaks West Siloam Springs Chloeta Eucha The following sites are in Delaware County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Bassett Grove Ceremonial Grounds, Grove Beattie's Prairie, Jay Corey House/Hotel, Grove Hildebrand Mill, Siloam Springs Polson Cemetery, Jay Saline Courthouse, Rose Splitlog Church, Grove Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Delaware County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley. The Dhegiha Siouan-speaking tribe migrated from the Ohio Valley area to the west side of the Mississippi River and resettled in what is now the state of Arkansas; the Quapaw are federally recognized as the Quapaw Nation. The US federal government removed them to Indian Territory in 1834, their tribal base has been in present-day Ottawa County in northeastern Oklahoma; the number of members enrolled in the tribe was 3,240 in 2011. Algonquian-speaking people called the Quapaws /akansa/, the French called them Arcansas; the French named the territory and state of Arkansas for them. The Quapaw Nation is headquartered in Quapaw in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, in the northeast corner of the state, they have a 13,000-acre Quapaw tribal jurisdictional area. The Quapaw people elect the tribal chairman, who serves a two-year term; the governing body of the tribe is outlined in the governing resolutions of the tribe, which were voted upon and approved in 1956 to create a written form of government.
The Chairman is John L. Berrey. Of the 3,240 enrolled tribal members, 892 live in the state of Oklahoma. Membership in the tribe is based on lineal descent; the tribe operates a Tribal Police Department and a Fire Department, which handles both fire and EMS calls. They have their own housing authority; the tribe owns two smoke shops and motor fuel outlets, known as the Quapaw C-Store and Downstream Q-Store. They have both located in Quapaw. In 2012 the Quapaw Tribe's annual economic impact was measured at more than $225,000,000, they own and operate the Eagle Creek Golf Course and resort, located in Loma Linda, Missouri. The Tar Creek Superfund site has been listed by the Environmental Protection Agency for clean-up of environmental hazards. European-Americans leased lands for development; the traditional Quapaw language is part of the Dhegiha branch of the Siouan language family. There are few remaining native speakers, but Quapaw was well documented in fieldnotes and publications from many individuals, including George Izard in 1827, Lewis F. Hadley in 1882, 19th-century linguist James Owen Dorsey, Frank T. Siebert in 1940, by linguist Robert Rankin in the 1970s.
Classes in the Quapaw language are taught at the tribal museum. An online audio lexicon of the Quapaw language was created by editing old recordings of Elders speaking the language. Other efforts at language preservation and revitalization are being undertaken. In 2011 the Quapaw participated in the first annual Dhegiha Gathering; the Osage language program hosted and organized the gathering, held at the Quapaw tribe's Downstream Casino. Language-learning techniques and other issues were discussed and taught in workshops at the conference among the five cognate tribes; the Annual Dhegiha Gathering was held in 2012 at Downstream Casino. The Quapaw host cultural events throughout the year held at the tribal museum; these include Indian dice games, traditional singing, classes in traditional arts, such as finger weaving, shawl making, flute making. In addition, Quapaw language classes are held there; the tribe's annual dance is during the weekend of the Fourth of July. This dance started shortly after the American Civil War, 2011 was the 139th anniversary of this dance.
Common features of this powwow include gourd dance, war dance, stomp dance, 49s. Other activities take place such as Indian football, traditional footraces, traditional dinners, turkey dance, other dances such as Quapaw Dance, dances from other area tribes; this weekend is when the tribe convenes the annual general council meeting, during which important decisions regarding the policies and resolutions of the Quapaw tribe are voted upon by tribal members over the age of eighteen. The Quapaw Nation are descended from a historical group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the lower Ohio River valley area; the modern descendants of this group include the Omaha, Ponca and Kaw. The Quapaw and the other Dhegiha Siouan speaking tribes are believed to have migrated from the Ohio River valley after 1200 CE. Scholars are divided in whether they think the Quapaw and other related groups left before or after the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, in which the more powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois drove out other tribes from the Ohio Valley and retained the area for hunting grounds.
They arrived at their historical territory, the area of the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, at minimum by the mid-17th century. The timing of the Quapaw migration into their ancestral territory in the historical period has been the subject of considerable debate by scholars of various fields, it is referred to as the "Quapaw Paradox" by academics. Many professional archaeologists have introduced numerous migration scenarios and time frames, but none has conclusive evidence. Glottochronological studies suggest the Quapaw separated from the other Dhegihan-speaking peoples ranging between AD 950 to as late as AD 1513; the Illinois and other Algonquian-speaking peoples to the northeast referred to them as the Akansea or Akansa, meaning "land of the downriver people". As French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet met the Illinois before they did the Quapaw, they adopted this exonym for the more westerly people. English-speaking settlers who ar
Picher is a ghost town and former city in Ottawa County, United States. This was a major national center of lead and zinc mining at the heart of the Tri-State Mining District. More than a century of unrestricted subsurface excavation dangerously undermined most of Picher's town buildings and left giant piles of toxic metal-contaminated mine tailings heaped throughout the area; the discovery of the cave-in risks, groundwater contamination, health effects associated with the chat piles and subsurface shafts resulted in the site being included in 1980 in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The state collaborated on mitigation and remediation measures, but a 1996 study found that 34% of the children in Picher suffered from lead poisoning due to these environmental effects, which could result in lifelong neurological problems; the EPA and the state of Oklahoma agreed to a mandatory evacuation and buyout of the entire township. The contaminated satellite towns of Treece and Cardin, Oklahoma were included in the Tar Creek Superfund site.
A 2006 Army Corps of Engineers study showed 86% of Picher's buildings were badly undermined and subject to collapse at any time. The destruction of 150 homes by an EF4 tornado in May 2008 accelerated the exodus. On September 1, 2009, the state of Oklahoma dis-incorporated the city of Picher, which ceased official operations on that day; the population plummeted from 1,640 at the 2000 census to 20 at the 2010 census. As of January 2011, only six homes and one business remain, their owners having refused to leave at any price. Except for some historic structures, the rest of the town's buildings were scheduled to be demolished by the end of the year. One of the last buildings, which had housed the former Picher mining museum was destroyed by arson in April 2015. Picher is among a small number of locations in the world to be evacuated and declared uninhabitable due to environmental and health damage caused by the mines the town once serviced; the closest towns to Picher, other than nearby Cardin and Douthat, are Commerce and Miami, Oklahoma.
In 1913, as the Tri-State district expanded and zinc ore were discovered on Harry Crawfish's claim and mining began. A townsite developed overnight around the new workings and was named Picher in honor of O. S. Picher, owner of Picher Lead Company; the city was incorporated in 1918, by 1920, Picher had a population of 9,726. Peak population occurred in 1926 with 14,252 residents and was followed by a gradual decline due to the decrease in mining activity, leaving Picher with only 2,553 by 1960; the Picher area became the most productive lead-zinc mining field in the Tri-State district, producing over $20 billion worth of ore between 1917 and 1947. More than fifty percent of the lead and zinc metal used during World War I were produced by the Picher district. At its peak more than 14,000 miners worked another 4,000 worked in mining services. Many workers commuted by an extensive trolley system from as far away as Joplin and Carthage, Missouri. Mining ceased in 1967 and water pumping from the mines ceased.
The contaminated water from some 14,000 abandoned mine shafts, 70 million tons of mine tailings, 36 million tons of mill sand and sludge remained as a huge environmental cleanup problem. As a result of national legislation to identify and remediate such environmentally hazardous sites, in 1980 the area was designated as part of the Tar Creek Superfund site. While some remediation took place in the following quarter century and other environmental hazards were found to be so severe that the government decided to close Picher and relocate its residents, as reported on April 24, 2006, by Reuters. Due in large part to the removal of large amounts of subsurface material during mining operations, many of the city's structures have been deemed in imminent danger of caving in; the city's pharmacist, Gary Linderman, was featured in the May 28, 2007, issue of People magazine in the Heroes Among Us article: "Prescription for Kindness". He vowed to stay as long as there was anyone left who needed him and to be the last one out of the city.
Linderman, the only remaining resident of Picher, died on June 6, 2015, at age 60 after a sudden illness. On May 10, 2008, Picher was struck by an EF4 tornado. There were eight confirmed deaths including one child, many other people injured; the tornado first touched down near the Kansas–Oklahoma border in Oklahoma southwest of Chetopa and tracked eastward. It struck Picher, causing extensive damage to 20 blocks of the city, with houses and businesses destroyed or flattened; the damage in Picher was rated at "EF4". At least 150 people were injured in Picher alone; the tornado continued eastward, passing just north of Quapaw and Peoria before crossing Interstate 44 into Missouri. Given the existing plan to vacate the city, the federal government decided against aid to rebuild homes, the buyouts continued as scheduled, with people being assisted in relocation. Oklahoma Governor Brad Henry sent National Guard troops as well as emergency personnel to assist the hardest hit area in Picher. Loss of power from the tornado forced the city to go on a boiled water notice.
Staff from the Oklahoma Rural Water Association arrived to assist, since the utility's testing equipment was destroyed by the storm. With an emergency generator to supply power, rural water staff had the system running only two days after the tornado struck. In April 2009, residents v
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River to a designated Indian Territory. The Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson, who took a hard line on Indian removal, but it was put into effect under the Martin van Buren administration. Indian removal was a consequence of actions first by European settlers to North America in the colonial period by the United States government and its citizens until the mid-20th century; the policy traced its direct origins to the administration of James Monroe, though it addressed conflicts between European Americans and Native Americans, occurring since the 17th century, were escalating into the early 19th century as white settlers were continually pushing westward. The Indian Removal Act was the key law that forced the removal of the Indians, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
American leaders in the Revolutionary and Early National era debated whether the American Indians should be treated as individuals or as nations in their own right. Some of these views are summarized below. In a draft, "Proposed Articles of Confederation", presented to the Continental Congress on May 10, 1775, Benjamin Franklin called for a "perpetual Alliance" with the Indians for the nation about to take birth with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Article XI. A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be entered into as soon as may be with the Six Nations; the Boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall be ascertained and secured to them in the same manner. And all Purchases from them shall be by the Congress for the General Advantage and Benefit of the United Colonies. In his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson defended American Indian culture and marveled at how the tribes of Virginia "never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government" due to their "moral sense of right and wrong".
He would write to the Marquis de Chastellux in 1785, "I believe the Indian to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman". His desire, as interpreted by Francis Paul Prucha, was for the Native Americans to intermix with European Americans and to become one people. To achieve that end, Jefferson would, as President, offer U. S. citizenship to some Indian nations, propose offering credit to them to facilitate their trade—with the expectation, as Bernard Sheehan argues, that they would be unable to honor their debts and thereby allow the United States to acquire their land. President George Washington, in his address to the Seneca nation in 1790, describing the pre-Constitutional Indian land sale difficulties as "evils", asserted that the case was now altered, publicly pledged to uphold their "just rights". In March and April 1792, Washington met with 50 tribal chiefs in Philadelphia—including the Iroquois—to discuss closer friendship between them and the United States; that same year, in his Fourth Annual Message to Congress, Washington stressed the need for building peace and commerce with America's Indian neighbors: I cannot dismiss the subject of Indian affairs without again recommending to your consideration the expediency of more adequate provision for giving energy to the laws throughout our interior frontier, for restraining the commission of outrages upon the Indians.
To enable, by competent rewards, the employment of qualified and trusty persons to reside among them, as agents, would contribute to the preservation of peace and good neighbourhood. If, in addition to these expedients, an eligible plan could be devised for promoting civilization among the friendly tribes, for carrying on trade with them, upon a scale equal to their wants, under regulations calculated to protect them from imposition and extortion, its influence in cementing their interests with our’s could not but be considerable. In 1795, in his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, Washington intimated that if the U. S. government wanted peace with the Indians it must give peace to them, that if the U. S. wanted raids by Indians to stop raids by American "frontier inhabitants" must stop. The Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which would serve broadly as a precedent for the manner in which the United States' territorial expansion would occur for years to come, calling for the protection of Indians' "property and liberty": The U.
S. Constitution of 1787 makes Congress responsible for regulating commerce with the Indian tribes. In 1790, the new U. S. Congress passed the Indian Nonintercourse Act to protect and codify the land rights of recognized tribes; as president, Thomas Jefferson developed a far-reaching Indian policy. First, the security of the new United States was paramount, so Jefferson wanted to assure that the Native nations were bound to the United States, not other foreign nations. Second, he wanted "to
McDonald County, Missouri
McDonald County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,083, its county seat is Pineville. The county was organized in 1849 and named for Sergeant Alexander McDonald, a soldier in the American Revolutionary War; the county has three sites on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Old McDonald County Courthouse and the Powell Bridge. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 540 square miles, of which 539 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Newton County Barry County Benton County, Arkansas Delaware County, Oklahoma Ottawa County, Oklahoma Interstate 49 U. S. Route 71 Route 43 Route 59 Route 76 Route 90 As of the census of 2000, there were 21,681 people, 8,113 households, 5,865 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 9,287 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.66% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 2.88% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 3.70% from other races, 3.30% from two or more races.
9.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.0 % were of American, 11.5 % 10.5 % Irish and 6.6 % English ancestry. There were 8,113 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.90% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,010, the median income for a family was $31,530. Males had a median income of $23,434 versus $18,157 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $13,175. About 15.60% of families and 20.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.60% of those under age 18 and 17.20% of those age 65 or over. McDonald County R-I School District - Anderson Noel Primary School - Noel Pineville Primary School - Pineville Anderson Elementary School - Anderson Noel Elementary School - Noel Pineville Elementary School - Pineville Rocky Comfort Elementary School - Rocky Comfort Southwest City Elementary School - Southwest City White Rock Elementary School - Jane Anderson Middle School - Anderson McDonald County R-I High School - Anderson The present McDonald County R-I School District is the result of consolidations of several county school districts; the first two school districts to consolidate were the Anderson school districts. This was the first step in what was a long-range plan to combine all of the remaining high schools in the county with the exception of the Goodman School District which would become a part of the Neosho school system.
The plan for the Pineville–Anderson consolidation was approved and the state offered a $50,000 matching grant for the building of a new high school. If the remaining high schools were to have joined, an additional $200,000 in matching grants would have been recurred; the first consolidated class from Pineville and Anderson was the Class of 1966. David Alumbaugh was a member of that class and remembers it was the class that elected the school mascot as the mustang and the school colors of red and black. There was not a new high school so each town maintained a high school faculty but all activities including athletics were combined; when asked what the mood of the people in Pineville was concerning the school consolidation, Alumbaugh said, "I don't remember it being a great deal. It was something that could not be stopped, according to Larry Warner who taught during the first year at the Pineville campus and at the new high school in Anderson its next year. "It was something, needed. The faculty at the old Pineville High School was not good either at the end of their careers or just beginning.
The kids got along fine at the new school but it was the parents who fought." The next school district to consider joining Pineville and Anderson was the Noel School District. Noel Lawmen had a serious concern on where the new high school, which would serve all students, would be located; the proposed site was about a mile east of the city of Anderson at the junction of Highway 76 and new Highway 71. The Noel patrons wanted a site more close to the center of the county which would be just north of the Indian River Bridge at the city of Lanagan; the Noel School Board sent a letter to the Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education calling for a vote of the people of McDonald County on the site but this didn't happen. The reasoning for there not being a countywide vote couldn't be found, but the proposed new high school site had been approved by the Missouri Department of Education....... Once a school district was asked to be included in the reorganized district the people of the district asked to be included and the people of the reorganized district both voted.
What this meant was that the people of Pineville and Anderson could vote in other districts if that other district's patrons didn't want t
The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia and Western Maryland. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Kansas. In the 1830s some were removed from the upper Midwest to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, Shawnee Tribe; the Shawnee language, an Algonquian language, was spoken by 200 people in 2002, including over 100 Absentee Shawnee and 12 Loyal Shawnee speakers. The language is written in the Latin script, it has a dictionary and portions of the Bible were translated into Shawnee.
Some scholars believe that the Shawnee are descendants of the people of the precontact Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio region, although this is not universally accepted. Fort Ancient culture flourished from 1000 to 1650 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited lands on both sides of the Ohio River in areas of present-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky and western West Virginia, they were mound builders. Fort Ancient culture was once thought to have been an extension of the Mississippian culture. But, scholars now believe Fort Ancient culture developed independently and was descended from the Hopewell culture a mound builder people. Uncertainty surrounds the fate of the Fort Ancient people. Most their society, like the Mississippian culture to the south, was disrupted by waves of epidemics from new infectious diseases carried by the first Spanish explorers in the 16th century. After 1525 at Madisonville, the type site, the village's house sizes became smaller and fewer, with evidence showing the people changed from their "horticulture-centered, sedentary way of life".
There is a gap in the archaeological record between the most recent Fort Ancient sites and the oldest sites of the Shawnee. The latter were recorded by European archaeologists as occupying this area at the time of encounter. Scholars accept that similarities in material culture, art and Shawnee oral history linking them to the Fort Ancient peoples, can be used to support the connection from Fort Ancient society and development as the historical Shawnee society; the Shawnee traditionally considered the Lenape of the East Coast mid-Atlantic region, who were Algonquian speaking, as their "grandfathers." The Algonquian nations of present-day Canada regarded the US Shawnee as their southernmost branch. Along the East Coast, the Algonquian-speaking tribes were located in coastal areas, from Quebec to the Carolinas. Algonquian languages have words similar to the archaic shawano meaning "south". However, the stem šawa- does not mean "south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm": See Voegelin "šawa MODERATE, WARM.
Cp. šawani'it is moderating...". In one Shawnee tale, "Sawage" is the deity of the south wind. Curtin translates Sawage as ` it thaws'. Šaawaki is attested as the spirit of the South, or the South Wind, in this account, in one of Voegelin's tales, in a song collected by Voegelin. Europeans reported encountering the Shawnee over a wides geographic area. One of the earliest mentions of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing some Sawwanew located just east of the Delaware River. 17th-century Dutch sources place them in this general location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century located the Shawnee along the Ohio River, where the French encountered them on forays from eastern Canada and the Illinois Country. A Shawnee town might have from forty to one hundred bark-covered houses similar in construction to Iroquois longhouses; each village had a meeting house or council house sixty to ninety feet long, where public deliberations took place. According to one English legend, some Shawnee were descended from a party sent by Chief Opechancanough, ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy 1618–1644, to settle in the Shenandoah Valley.
The party was led by Sheewa-a-nee. Edward Bland, an explorer who accompanied Abraham Wood's expedition in 1650, wrote that in Opechancanough's day, there had been a falling-out between the Chawan chief and the weroance of the Powhatan, he said. The Shawnee were "driven from Kentucky in the 1670s by the Iroquois of Pennsylvania and New York, who claimed the Ohio valley as hunting ground to supply its fur trade; the colonists Batts and Fallam in 1671 reported that the Shawnee were contesting control of the Shenandoah Valley with the Haudenosaunee Confederacy in that year, were losing. Sometime before 1670, a group of Shawnee migrated to the Savannah River area; the English based in Charles Town, South Carolina were contacted by these Shawnee in 1674. They forged a long-lasting alliance; the Savannah River Shawnee were known to the Carolina English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time, other Shawnee groups migrated to Florida, Maryland and other regions south and east of the Ohio country. D'Iberville, writing in his journal in 1699, describes the Shawnee as "the single nati