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Otto Preminger

Otto Ludwig Preminger was an American theatre and film director from Austria-Hungary. He directed more than 35 feature films in a five-decade career after leaving the theatre, he first gained attention for film noir mysteries such as Laura and Fallen Angel, while in the 1950s and 1960s, he directed a number of high-profile adaptations of popular novels and stage works. Several of these films pushed the boundaries of censorship by dealing with topics which were taboo in Hollywood, such as drug addiction and homosexuality, he was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director. He had a few acting roles. Preminger was born in 1905 in Wischnitz, Austro-Hungarian Empire, into a Jewish family, his parents were Markus Preminger. The couple provided a stable home life for Preminger and his younger brother Ingwald, known as "Ingo" the producer of the original film version of M*A*S*H. After the assassination in 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which led to the Great War, Russia entered the war on the Serbian side.

Bukovina was invaded by the Russian Army and the Preminger family fled. Like other refugees in flight, Markus Preminger saw Austria as a safe haven for his family, he secured a position as public prosecutor in capital of Styria. When the Preminger family relocated, Otto was nearly nine, was enrolled in a school where instruction in Catholic dogma was mandatory and Jewish history and religion had no place on the syllabus. Ingo, not yet four, remained at home. After a year in Graz, the decisive public prosecutor was summoned to Vienna, where he was offered an eminent position equivalent to that of the United States Attorney General. Markus was told that the position would be his only if he converted to Catholicism, which he refused to do; the next year, he relocated his family to Vienna, where Otto claimed to have been born. Preminger's first theatrical ambition was to become an actor. In his early teens, he was able to recite from memory many of the great monologues from the international classic repertory, never shy, he demanded an audience.

Preminger's most successful performance in the National Library rotunda was Mark Antony's funeral oration from Julius Caesar. As he read and after a fashion began to produce plays, he began to miss more and more classes in school; when the war came to an end, Markus formed his own law practice. He instilled in both his sons a sense of fair play as well as respect for those with opposing viewpoints; as his father's practice continued to thrive in postwar Vienna, Otto began contemplating a career in the theater. In 1923, when Preminger was 17, his soon-to-be mentor, Max Reinhardt, the renowned Viennese-born director, announced plans to establish a theatrical company in Vienna. Reinhardt's announcement was seen as a call of destiny to Preminger, he began requesting an audition. After a few months, frustrated, gave up, stopped his daily visit to the post office to check for a response. Unbeknownst to him, a letter was waiting with a date for an audition which Preminger had missed by two days, he juggled a commitment to his new position as a Reinhardt apprentice.

The two developed a mentor-and-protege relationship, becoming both teacher. When the theater opened, on April 1, 1924, Preminger appeared as a furniture mover in Reinhardt's comedic staging of Carlo Goldoni's The Servant of Two Masters, his next appearance came the next month with William Dieterle in The Merchant of Venice. Other notable alumni with whom Preminger would work the same year were Mady Christians, who died of a stroke after having been blacklisted during the McCarthy era, Nora Gregor, to star in Jean Renoir's La Règle du jeu; the following summer, a frustrated Preminger was no longer content to occupy the place of a subordinate and he decided to leave the Reinhardt fold. His status as a Reinhardt muse gave him an edge over much of his competition when it came to joining German-speaking theater, his first theater assignments as a director in Aussig were plays ranging from the sexually provocative Wedekind Lulu plays, to the Berlin-tried, Sergei Tretyakov play Roar China!, a pro-Communist Agitprop.

In 1930, a wealthy industrialist from Graz approached Otto with an offer to direct a film called Die große Liebe. Preminger did not have the same passion for the medium, he accepted the assignment nonetheless. The film premiered at the Emperor Theater in Vienna on 21 December 1931, to strong reviews and business. From 1931-35, he directed twenty-six shows. On 3 August 1932, he wed Marion Mill; the couple married. In April 1935, as Preminger was rehearsing a boulevard farce, The King with an Umbrella, he received a summons from American film producer Joseph Schenck to a five o'clock meeting at the Imperial Hotel. Schenck and partner, Darryl F. Zanuck, co-founders of Twentieth Century-Fox, were on the lookout for new talent. Within a half-hour of meeting Schenck, Preminger accepted an invitation to work for Fox in Los Angeles. Preminger's first assignment was to direct a vehicle for Lawrence Tibbett. Preminger worked efficiently, completing the film well within the budget and well before the scheduled shooting deadline.

The film opened to tepid notices in November 1936. Zanuck gave Preminger the task of directing an

Patrick N. L. Bellinger

Patrick Nieson Lynch Bellinger was a United States Navy officer with the rank of Vice Admiral, a naval aviator and a naval aviation pioneer. He was born in Cheraw, South Carolina and went to the United States Naval Academy, graduating in 1907. After first trying submarines he soon transferred to aviation, he was part of the first group of US Naval aviators trained and was rated as Naval Aviator #5. In 1914, during the United States occupation of Veracruz, while flying off the USS Mississippi, Bellinger became the first American to encounter enemy fire in an airplane, was recommended for the Medal of Honor. On 13 June 1913 he set an altitude record when he flew a Curtiss seaplane to the height of 6,200 feet. Bellinger was one of the commanders of the squadron of seaplanes to make the first trans-Atlantic flight. On May 8, 1919, NC-1, NC-3, NC-4 took off from Naval Air Station Rockaway in Long Island, New York. Bellinger's plane, the NC-1, sank near the Azores and he and his crew transferred to the Greek steamer Ionia and soon after to the USS Gridley.

For his leadership in the flight, he was awarded the Navy Cross. He was made a commander of the Order of the Tower and Sword by the Portuguese government on June 3, 1919. By 1940 he had advanced to the rank of Rear Admiral in command of Patrol Wing 2 based in Honolulu, he was the senior Naval Air Commander present during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor when the Japanese launched their "day of infamy" attack on December 7, 1941. and sent out the first radio alert: "Air raid. Pearl Harbor - this is no drill." In May 1942 he took command of all patrol wings in the Pacific, in August became Chief of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief of the US Fleet, Admiral Ernest J. King. In March 1943, he was given command of the Atlantic Fleet Air Force, he was promoted to Vice Admiral in October 1943. He retired with the rank of vice admiral on 7 July 1947 to his home, "Earlhurst" in Covington and died on 30 May 1962 at Clifton Forge, Virginia. Admiral Bellinger is buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery.

As well as the Navy Cross and Distinguished Service Medal, Bellinger's foreign decorations include the Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, from Italy. Coletta, Paolo Enrico. Patrick N. L. Bellinger and U. S. Naval Aviation. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1987. ISBN 0-8191-6534-4 Patrick N. L. Bellinger at Find a Grave

Medical Arts Building (Oak Park, Illinois)

The Medical Arts Building is an Art Deco office building at 715 Lake Street, Oak Park, Illinois. It is a contributing property to the Ridgeland–Oak Park Historic District. At 122 feet, it was the tallest building in Oak Park for several decades; the Medical Arts Building was designed by Oak Park architect Roy J. Hotchkiss and was built by Harper & Stelzer at an approximate cost of $250,000. Hotchkiss had worked as head draftsman for Eben Ezra Roberts; the Medical Arts Building was Hotchkiss's principal contribution to Oak Park's architectural landscape. Ground was broken on December 5, 1928, the first tenants moved in November 15, 1929. By January 1930, the building was fully occupied, it was owned by Charles B. Scoville and was owned by the Scoville Trust. Original plans called for four story east and west wings. During World War II, the Oak Park unit of the Association of Army and Navy Wives was located in the Medical Arts Building. In 1976, the building was sold to Company, it was acquired by Jack and Tim Sheehan.

The building's terra cotta facade was restored in 2007. Peterson's Pharmacy was a tenant from 1929, when the building opened, until 2014

Cyclone Viyaru

Cyclonic Storm Viyaru, operationally known as Cyclonic Storm Mahasen, was a weak tropical cyclone that caused loss of life across six countries in Southern and Southeastern Asia. Originating from an area of low pressure over the southern Bay of Bengal in early May 2013, Viyaru consolidated into a depression on May 10; the depression gained forward momentum and attained gale-force winds on May 11 and was designated as Cyclonic Storm Viyaru, the first named storm of the season. Owing to adverse atmospheric conditions, the depression struggled to maintain organized convection as it moved closer to eastern India. On May 14, the exposed circulation of Viyaru turned northeastward; the following day, conditions again allowed for the storm to intensify. Early on May 16, the cyclone attained its peak intensity with winds of 85 km/h and a barometric pressure of 990 mbar. Shortly thereafter Viyaru made landfall near Bangladesh. On May 17, it moved over the eastern Indian state of Nagaland. Early in the storm's existence, it brought flooding rains to much of northwestern Indonesia, resulting in significant damage.

At least four people died and six others were reported missing. Offshore, a further 11 people were feared dead. In preparation for the storm, large-scale evacuations were recommended for parts of Myanmar; this resulted with people overcrowding boats to escape, one or several vessels capsized, causing at least 39 deaths. The storm's expansive cloud mass brought unsettled weather to Sri Lanka and southeastern India. Severe storms in India and Sri Lanka were responsible for at least 16 fatalities and significant damage. Striking Bangladesh in a weaker state than expected, the storm caused moderate to severe damage. A total of 95,003 poorly constructed huts were damaged or destroyed, 17 people died, nearly 1.3 million were affected across the country. Losses to crops reached ৳2.75 billion. Myanmar was spared further casualties. Operationally, the storm was referred to as Mahasen, they claimed that the name comes from King Mahasena of Anuradhapura who brought prosperity to the island, thus naming a destructive force of nature after him would be improper.

As such, Sri Lankan agencies referred to the system as a nameless cyclone and requested that international agencies do the same. The name had been submitted to be used in the basin by Sri Lanka in 2003; the India Meteorological Department renamed the system as Viyaru in their final reports and removed Mahasen from all previous archived advisories. In early May 2013, an area of disturbed weather formed over the southern Bay of Bengal. Remaining nearly stationary, the system developed. By May 8, organized convection formed around a defined low pressure area, with banding features present. With conditions favoring intensification, low wind shear, excellent poleward outflow, unusually high sea surface temperatures, the system was anticipated to become a tropical cyclone over the following days. A pulse in the Madden–Julian oscillation, coupled with a convective Kelvin wave allowed the system, along with its Southern Hemisphere counterpart Tropical Storm Jamala, to further develop. Following additional organization, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for the low on May 10.

Despite an increase in wind shear, causing the low to become dislocated from the deepest convection, the system further intensified and a scatterometer pass from the Oceansat-2 satellite indicated winds up to 65 km/h. In light of this data, the JTWC classified the system as Tropical Cyclone 01B while it was situated 1,950 km south of Chittagong, Bangladesh. At the time, the agency anticipated significant strengthening of the cyclone, forecasting it to attain winds in excess of 155 km/h; the India Meteorological Department followed suit hours designating the system as Depression BOB 01 and soon upgrading it to a deep depression. Situated to the south of a subtropical ridge, the storm tracked west-northwestward to northwestward. Early on May 11, the IMD assigned it the name Mahasen. Deep convection, with cloud tops estimated as cold as −85 °C developed near the storm's center. Despite moderate to strong wind shear, Viyaru's prominent outflow offset the negative influence of the shear, allowing a central dense overcast to form.

That day, the cyclone's motion matched that of the shear, further decreasing the effects of it. This allowed Viyaru to intensify, with the JTWC estimating one-minute sustained winds reaching 95 km/h. By May 12, the central dense overcast broke apart into fragmented banding features that wrapped into the center. Dry air soon began to flow into the circulation, disrupting convection and causing the low to relocate eastward and become exposed; that day, the system began turning northward as it approached the western edge of the subtropical ridge. By this time, the circulation had become indicating that the storm weakened. On May 13, steering currents weakened around the cyclone due to a shortwave trough over India, causing Viyaru to move northwestward. Wind shear increased once again as the outflow degraded. By May 14, the exposed and elongated circulation of Viyaru turned northeastward as the ridge became more pronounced; the majority of convection remained sheared to the west, though upper-level conditions were anticipated to become somewhat favorable for restrengthening.

As the

Ed Z'berg Sugar Pine Point State Park

Ed Z'berg Sugar Pine Point State Park is a state park in California in the United States. It occupies nearly two miles of the western shore of Lake Tahoe and a total of about 1,000 hectares of forested mountains in El Dorado County. Called Sugar Pine Point State Park, its name was changed in 2003 to honor Edwin L. Z'berg, a California state assemblyman who specialized in environmental legislation and worked to develop state parks and other natural areas; the park is in the high Sierra Nevada mountain range at an elevation of around 1,900 metres. It is covered in mixed coniferous forest with tree species such as Jeffrey pine, white fir, Sierra lodgepole pine, California incense cedar, sugar pine, red fir. Black cottonwood and quaking aspen are part of the local fall foliage display; this forest is not pristine. Wood was used by miners in other great mineral deposits. Long-term fire suppression and periods of drought and bark beetle infestation have altered the fire regime. Controlled burns are used to help prevent destructive wildfires.

The park is bisected by General Creek, a stream about 15 kilometers long which runs from the Desolation Wilderness into Lake Tahoe. On the General Creek Trail along the stream there are lakes, mountain meadows with wildflowers, two large moraines; the trail enters Eldorado National Forest. In the summer, the high temperature is about 80 °F and the low is near 40 °F. Winter highs reach about 40 °F and the coolest lows are below 0 °F; the park receives about 32 inches of precipitation in an average year in the form of snow in the winter. The area was inhabited by the Washoe people, their stone mortars can be found in the park. The trapper William "General" Phipps was the first white settler on the land; the cabin he built in 1860 still stands. In 1903 the wealthy San Francisco banker Isaias W. Hellman obtained land and built the Pine Lodge, now known as the Hellman-Ehrman Mansion; the house was designed by Walter Danforth Bliss and featured electric lighting, indoor plumbing, water directly from the lake.

The estate included a tennis court, two boathouses, cabins for the 27 resident staff. Hellman's family spent summers on the estate for decades, sold it to the state in 1965 when the park was established; the family still provides funds for the upkeep of the property. The 1960 Winter Olympics were held around the nearby Squaw Valley Ski Resort; the biathlon and cross-country skiing events took place in. The park and the communities of the western shore of Lake Tahoe hold an annual Olympic Heritage Celebration Week every January to commemorate the events; this is the only California state park in the Sierra Nevada that operates recreational facilities during the winter. There are 11 miles of skiing and snowshoeing trails for public use, some of which were sites of the Olympic events in 1960; some snow paths are machine groomed. Park rangers lead occasional snowshoeing tours of the park. Winter camping is available, with many more sites opening for the summer. Other summer recreation includes swimming and other beach activities and hiking.

There is a nature center for interpretation. D. L. Bliss State Park Sugar Pine Point Light


Templemaley is a civil parish in County Clare, Ireland. It contains part of the town of Ennis; the parish of Templemaley is in the barony of Bunratty Upper, 2.5 miles east of Ennis. It covers 4,648 acres. Lough Dromore lies on the north boundary; the land slopes down from there to the River Fergus opposite Ennis. Lough Ballyallia is on Lough Cleggan on the western boundary. In 1841 the population was 1,634 in 251 houses. By 1837 the medieval Roman Catholic parish was part of a union with the parish of Doora, it is now part of the parish of Doora Barefield in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe. This parish serves the civil parishes of Doora and Templemaley, including the village of Barefield; the church of The Immaculate Conception is in Barefield. The Barefield National School is run by the Doora-Barefield parish. St Josephs Doora-Barefield GAA is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club, it has its ground at Gurteen. The parish appears to be named after the same saint as the parish of Kilmaley, but there are no records that discuss him.

As of 1893 his church, which had a plain architecture, was still in reasonable condition. There were no other ancient ecclesiastical buildings in the parish. There is one holy well dedicated to the patroness of Killanaboy parish. There were three old castles in Templemaley. One at Ballyallia belonged to Dr. James Neylan in 1580, it has been demolished. A castle at Ballycarrol belonged to Conor M‘Clancy in that year; the third castle, at Drumeen, does not appear in the 1580 list and may not have been standing at the time. Townlands are Ardcarney, Ballycarroll, Ballyduff, Ballyhee, Ballymaquiggin, Barefield or Gortlumman, Cloonteen, Derry, Faunrusk, Killian, Knockaderry, Licknaun, Newpark and Reaskaun; the townlands of Ballycorey, Dulick and Knockanoura are in the town of Ennis. Citations Sources