Otto Wagner

Otto Koloman Wagner was an Austrian architect and urban planner. He was a leading member of the Vienna Secession movement of architecture, founded in 1897, the broader Art Nouveau movement. All of his works are found in his native city of Vienna, illustrate the rapid evolution of architecture during the period, his early works were inspired by classical architecture. By mid-1890s, he had designed several buildings in what became known as the Vienna Secession style. Beginning in 1898, with his designs of Vienna Metro stations, his style became floral and Art Nouveau, with decoration by Koloman Moser, his works, 1906 until his death in 1918, had geometric forms and minimal ornament expressed their function. They are considered predecessors to modern architecture. Wagner was born in 1841 in a district in Vienna, he was Rudolf Simeon Wagner, a notary to the Royal Hungarian Court. He began his architectural studies in 1857 at the age of sixteen at the Vienna Polytechnic Institute; when he finished his studies there, in 1860 he traveled to Berlin and studied at the Royal Academy of Architecture under Carl Ferdinand Busse, a classicist and student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, the leader of the German school of neoclassical and neo-Gothic architecture.

He returned to Vienna in 1861 and continued his architectural education at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, under August Sicard von von Sicardsburg and Edouard von der Nüll, who had designed the neoclassical Vienna State Opera and the architectural monuments along the Vienna Ringstraße. In 1862, at the age of 22, he joined the architectural firm of Ludwig von Förster, who studio had designed much of the new architecture along the Ringstraße; the first part of his career was devoted to the transformation of that boulevard into showcase of neo-Gothic, neo-Renassiance, neoclassical styles. During this period, which lasted until about 1880, he described his own style as "a sort of free Renaissance", his first realized major project was an Orthodox Synagogue on Rumbach Street in Budapest. His design was selected in a competition held in 1868; the octagonal hall of the synagogue was concealed behind a four-story structure facing the street. The hall was filled with light from stained glass windows windows on the octagonal lantern above, large circular windows in each of the eight bays.

On the first floor above the ground floor was an octagonal gallery reserved for women. The facade was made of brick of different colors, was decorated with minarets and towers with a Moorish appearance, while the interior featured colorful patterns of mosaic slender on the walls and decorated columns which supported arches over each of the bays, he began to develop his own philosophy of architecture, based the need for buildings to be, above all, functional. He continued to develop this idea throughout his career. In 1896, in his book Modern Architecture, he wrote, "only that, practical can be beautiful". In the 1880s, he began to construct buildings of which he was both the architect and investor in the project, sharing in the financial benefits. In 1882 he designed a luxury apartment building on Stadiongasse in Vienna, close to the Parliament and the city hall; the facade was inspired by the Renaissance, but the interior was designed to be practical and constructed with the highest quality materials available.

The benefits of this building allowed him to build several more similar apartment buildings. It illustrated his doctrine of the connection between function, his next major project was the headquarters of the Austrian Länderbank in Vienna. He won the design competition in 1882 and built it in 1883-84, it was built on a irregular site at an angle to the street, which allowed him to be more creative. The five-story Renaissance facade gave little idea of the complexity of the building behind it, which had multiple diverging axes; the visitor passed through a circular vestibule turned at an angle into multi-storied semi-circular central hall with a glass skylight, where the banking function was located. He used new materials, such as an enduit lisse, much larger windows than were customary in the period, repeated the plan on each floor, he described his approach to the building: "The demands for air and light, the desire to assure easy circulation and orientation inside the space, the fact that the activities of a bank can develop on one direction or another, made it desirable to be able to transform the work spaces."

He was to follow the same concepts twenty years when he designed the Postal Savings Bank in Vienna. The following project, in 1886, was the first Villa Wagner, a country house he built for himself on the edge of the Vienna woods, he called it his "Italian Dream", it had neoclassical elements inspired by Palladio. It was surrounded by a park designed to complement the architecture; the principal facade had a double stairway ascending to a portico with a colonnade, the entrance to the grand salon. The porch was decorated curving wrought iron, a coffered ceiling. At either end of the main villa were pergolas with open colonnades. On either side of the main stairway to the entrance he placed plaques in Latin concisely stating his philosophy On one side, "Without art and love, there is no life". In 1895, he modified the house. One of the pergolas was transformed from a winter garden into billiards room, illuminated by floral stained glass windows on designed by the painter Adolf Böhm; the other pergola was made into his s

Medby Chapel

Medby Chapel is a chapel of the Church of Norway in Senja Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. It is located in the village of Medby on the west coast of the island of Senja, it is an annex chapel for the Torsken parish, part of the Senja prosti in the Diocese of Nord-Hålogaland. The white, wooden chapel was built in a long church style in 1937; the chapel seats about 170 people. The church was first built on the island of Holmenvær, an island located about 11 kilometres west of Medby. Holmenvær was one of the largest fishing villages in the region and this church was built there in 1890; the church was in use there until about 1933. After motorized boats became more common, fishermen left Holmenvær to live in larger settlements on the main island of Senja; the church was no longer used and it was decided that it would be moved to Medby on Senja island. The church was moved and rebuilt and consecrated on 29 August 1937; the church was enlarged and renovated in 1967. List of churches in Troms

James Nesmith

James Willis Nesmith was an American politician and lawyer from Oregon. Born in New Brunswick to American parents, he grew up in New Maine. A Democrat, he moved to Oregon Country in 1843 where he entered politics as a judge, a legislator in the Provisional Government of Oregon, a United States Marshal, after statehood a United States Senator and Representative. Nesmith’s grandson, Clifton N. McArthur, son-in-law, Levi Ankeny, both served in Congress. James Nesmith was born in what is now the Canadian province of New Brunswick while his parents were on a visit from their home in Washington County, Maine, on July 23, 1820. Of Scottish and Irish heritage, his father was William Morrison Nesmith and his mother the former Harriet Miller. About 1828, James and his father moved to Claremont, New Hampshire, where he received a limited education. In 1838, Nesmith moved to Ohio, followed by Iowa in 1842 where he waited to immigrate to Oregon Country. Nesmith planned on traveling the Oregon Trail with Elijah White in 1842, but was late to arrive and instead left the next spring with Marcus Whitman after working as a carpenter in the interim at Fort Scott in Kansas.

In 1843, Nesmith arrived in Oregon where he studied law and was admitted to the bar before being selected to serve as Supreme Judge of the Provisional Government of Oregon in 1845. He finished his term in 1846 and moved to Polk County where he took a land claim, began farming, married Pauline Goff on June 21, with whom he would have seven children. In 1847, he was elected to the Provisional Legislature of Oregon from Polk County, served in the 1848 session before resigning. Nesmith next served as a captain during the Cayuse War against Native Americans in Eastern Oregon from 1847 to 1848; when news of the California Gold Rush reached the Willamette Valley in 1848, he traveled south to the gold fields, remaining until 1849. In 1849, he returned to Polk County where he purchased a flour mill on Rickreall Creek near the county seat of Dallas. There Nesmith engaged in agricultural pursuits in the community, for a time named after him, as well as stock raising, he again was a captain in the militia forces during the Rogue River War in 1853 and the Yakima Indian War in 1855.

Between the two wars he was the United States Marshal for the Oregon Territory, replacing Joseph Meek. From 1857 to 1859 he was the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Washington Territories; as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Nesmith was aggressive against American Indians on Oregon's south coast, once stated to Commissioner of Indian Affairs George Manypenny that the extermination of the Chetco people "would occasion no regrets at this office." On February 14, 1859, Oregon entered the Union as the 33rd state. In 1860, the Oregon Legislative Assembly elected Nesmith to the United States Senate. A Democrat, he served from March 4, 1861, to March 4, 1867, was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election. While in the Senate, he and Reverdy Johnson were the only Democrats in that chamber to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution to abolish slavery. After serving in the Senate, he was appointed Minister to Austria, but his nomination was not confirmed. After returning to Rickreall, he served as road supervisor of Polk County in 1868.

Nesmith was elected to the Forty-third Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his cousin, Joseph G. Wilson, served from December 1, 1873, to March 3, 1875, he did not seek re-nomination in 1874 to the Forty-fourth Congress and returned to farming in Polk County. In addition to his cousin Joseph Wilson, Nesmith's grandson, Clifton Nesmith McArthur, was a United States Representative from Oregon. Levi Ankeny, Senator for Washington, was his son-in-law. James Willis Nesmith died in Rickreall, Oregon, on June 17, 1885, at the age of 64 and was interred in Polk County on the south bank of Rickreall Creek