Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Kingdom of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire and it became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, and its successor state is the Free State of Saxony. Before 1806 Saxony was part of the Holy Roman Empire, an entity which had once aspired to be a single state. The rulers of Electorate of Saxony of the House of Wettin had held the title of elector for several centuries, the last elector of Saxony became King Frederick Augustus I. The Kingdom joined the German Confederation, the new organization of the German states to replace the Holy Roman Empire. This effectiveness probably allowed Saxony to escape the fate of other north German states allied with Austria — notably the Kingdom of Hanover — which were annexed by Prussia after the war, the Austrians insisted as a point of honour that Saxony must be spared, and the Prussians acquiesced.
Saxony nevertheless joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation the next year, with Prussias victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, the members of the Confederation were organised by Otto von Bismarck into the German Empire, with Wilhelm I as its Emperor. Wilhelm Is grandson Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated in 1918 as a result of Germanys defeat in World War I, King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony followed him into abdication and the erstwhile Kingdom of Saxony became the Free State of Saxony within the newly formed Weimar Republic. The 1831 Constitution of Saxony established the state as a parliamentary monarchy, the king was named as head of the nation. He was required to follow the provisions of the constitution, and could not become the ruler of any other state without the consent of the Diet, or parliament. The crown was hereditary in the line of the royal family through agnatic primogeniture. Added provisions concerned the formation of a if the king was too young or otherwise unable to rule.
Any acts or decrees signed or issued by the king had to be countersigned by at least one of his ministers, without the ministerial countersignature, no act of the king was to be considered valid. The king was given the right to declare any accused person innocent, or alternately to mitigate or suspend their punishment or pardon them and he was given supreme power over religious matters in Saxony. The king was given power to promulgate laws, and to carry them into effect. He could not, change the constitution itself or the laws in this manner. He was permitted to veto laws passed by the Diet, or to them back with proposed amendments for reconsideration
Herford is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, located in the lowlands between the hill chains of the Wiehen Hills and the Teutoburg Forest. It is the capital of the district of Herford, the former Hanseatic town of Herford is situated in the chain of hills south of the Wiehen Hills. The highest place is the Dornberg in the Schwarzenmoor district, the lowest point is located in the Werretal in the Falkendiek district, the River Aa joins the river Werre in the centre of the town. The Stuckenberg is located east of the town, the Herforder Ev play in the regionaliga and have been a regular winning team. They draw an average of 800 fans, Enger, Hiddenhausen North, Löhne North-East, Vlotho South-East, Bad Salzuflen South-West, Bielefeld. The town was founded in 789 by Charlemagne in order to guard a crossing the narrow Werre river. A century later, daughter of Theudebert, duke of Saxony, grew up in the abbey of Herford, in Herford she met Henry the Fowler, who became king of Germany. In late medieval times Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League and it was a Free Imperial City, i. e. it was directly subordinated to the emperor.
This status was lost after the Peace of Westphalia, when Herford was annexed by Brandenburg-Prussia and it was administered within the Province of Westphalia following the Napoleonic Wars, and made part of the new state North Rhine-Westphalia after World War II. The Herford Minster is a late Romanesque hall church, built about 1220-1250 for the Fürstabtei Herford. It is one of the earliest hall churches in Germany St. Jacobs is a late Gothic hall church St. Johns is a late Gothic hall church St. Marys is a late Gothic hall church, the current artistic director is Roland Nachtigäller. Plans to construct a museum of city history next to the city hall, Herford is the seat of the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie which performs regularly in the Stadtpark Schützenhof as well as many neighbouring cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. Eugene Tzigane is the principal conductor designate, the current director is Andreas Kuntze. The Stadttheater provides seats for 706 viewers and it is served by visiting theatre companies, the British Forces Broadcasting Service studio for Germany was located in Wentworth Barracks until 2009 when it moved to Hohne
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally undersea boat. While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role. Austro-Hungarian navy submarines were known as U-boats. The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive, the inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer had designed this vessel in 1850, and Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher, it was raised and put on display in Germany, there followed in 1890 the boats WW1 and WW2, built to a Nordenfelt design. The SM U-1 was a completely redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built, the Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906.
It had a hull, a Körting kerosene engine. The 50%-larger SM U-2 had two torpedo tubes, the U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction, during that war the Imperial German Navy used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, on 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy, for the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the prize rules of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the first merchant ship, surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, and on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles.
This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades, under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning. In February 1915, a submarine U-6 was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo, on 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. The sinking claimed 1,198 lives,128 of them American civilians, munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire, a widespread reaction in the U. S was not seen until the sinking of the ferry SS Sussex. The sinking occurred in 1915 and the United States entered the war in 1917, the initial U. S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat activity
Action of 22 September 1914
Approximately 1,450 sailors were killed and there was a public outcry in Britain at the losses. The sinkings eroded confidence in the British government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, the force was assigned patrol duties in the North Sea, supporting destroyers and submarines of the Harwich Force to guard against incursions by the Kaiserliche Marine into the English Channel. The War Orders of 28 July 1914, which conformed to pre-war assumptions about attacks by destroyers rather than submarines, had not been modified. The orders required the ships to patrol the south of the 54th parallel clear of enemy torpedo craft and destroyers with the support of Cruiser Force C. The cruisers shifted area to the Broad Fourteens and reinforced the fourth cruiser there during troops movements from Britain to France, heading south meant sailing towards German bases and becoming more vulnerable to submarine attack. The U-boat was treated equally lightly by the Imperial German Navy, in the first six weeks of the war, on the morning of 22 September, U-9 passed through the Broad Fourteens on her way back to base.
Next day, the escorts had been forced to depart by heavy weather. The Admiralty ordered that the ships were to cancel the Dogger Patrol, on 20 September, Euryalus returned to port to re-fuel and by 22 September, Aboukir and Cressy were on patrol under the command of Captain J. E. Drummond of Aboukir. At 06,00 on 22 September, the weather had calmed, lookouts were posted for submarine periscopes or ships and one gun either side of each ship was manned. U-9 had been ordered to attack British transports at Ostend but had forced to dive. On surfacing, she spotted the British ships and moved to attack. At 06,20, the submarine fired a torpedo at the nearest ship from a range of 550 yd and struck Aboukir on the side, flooding the engine room. No submarines had been sighted, so Drummond assumed that the ship had hit a mine, after 25 minutes, Aboukir capsized and sank five minutes later. Only one boat could be launched, because of damage from the explosion, U-9 rose to periscope depth from her dive after firing the torpedo, to observe two British cruisers engaged in the rescue of men from the sinking ship.
Weddigen fired two torpedoes at Hogue, from 300 yd. As the torpedoes left the submarine, her bows rose out of the water and she was spotted by Hogue, which opened fire before the submarine dived. The two torpedoes struck Hogue, within five minutes, Captain Wilmot Nicholson gave the order to abandon ship, watchers on Cressy had seen the submarine, opened fire and made a failed attempt to ram, turned to pick up survivors. At 07,20, U-9 fired two torpedoes toward Cressy from her torpedo tubes at a range of 1,000 yd
Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership, in November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, from 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. Prussia existed de jure until its liquidation by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them.
In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk and their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a Lesser Germany which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleons defeat, Prussia acquired a section of north western Germany.
The country grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians. In the Weimar Republic, the state of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. East Prussia lost all of its German population after 1945, as Poland, the main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a cross with gold insert
HMS Aboukir (1900)
HMS Aboukir was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. Upon completion she was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet and spent most of her career there, upon returning home in 1912, she was placed in reserve. Recommissioned at the start of the First World War, she played a role in the Battle of Heligoland Bight a few weeks after the beginning of the war. Aboukir was sunk by the German submarine U-9, together two of her sister ships, on 22 September 1914,527 men of her complement died. Aboukir was designed to displace 12,000 long tons, the ship had an overall length of 472 feet, a beam of 69 feet 9 inches and a deep draught of 26 feet 9 inches. She was powered by two 4-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one shaft, which produced a total of 21,000 indicated horsepower, the engines were powered by 30 Belleville boilers. On their sea trials all of the Cressy-class cruisers, except the lead ship and she carried a maximum of 1,600 long tons of coal and her complement ranged from 725 to 760 officers and enlisted men.
Her main armament consisted of two breech-loading 9. 2-inch Mk X guns in gun turrets, one each fore. They fired 380-pound shells to a range of 15,500 yards and her secondary armament of twelve BL 6-inch Mk VII guns was arranged in casemates amidships. Eight of these were mounted on the deck and were only usable in calm weather. They had a range of approximately 12,200 yards with their 100-pound shells. A dozen quick-firing 12-pounder 12 cwt guns were fitted for defence against torpedo boats, eight on casemates on the upper deck, the ship carried three 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns and two submerged 18-inch torpedo tubes. The ships waterline belt ranged in thickness from 2 to 6 inches and was closed off by 5-inch transverse bulkheads. The armour of the gun turrets and their barbettes was 6 inches thick while the armour was 5 inches thick. The protective deck ranged in thickness from 1–3 inches and the conning tower was protected by 12 inches of armour. Aboukir was laid down by Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering at their shipyard in Govan, Scotland on 9 November 1898, in March 1901 she arrived at Portsmouth Dockyard for fitting out.
She was completed early the year, and commissioned on 3 April 1902 by Captain Charles John Graves-Sawle. The ship was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet upon commissioning, and left Portsmouth in early May and she made two deployments to the Mediterranean, 1902–05 and 1907–12
British Forces Germany
British Forces Germany, is the name for British Armed Forces service personnel and civilians based in Germany. It was first established following the Second World War as the British Army of the Rhine, although much smaller than BAOR, it is still the largest concentration of British armed forces permanently stationed outside the United Kingdom. With the end of the Cold War and the Options for Change defence review in the early 1990s, since the 1990s, the British presence has centred on the 1st Armoured Division, and supporting elements. With restructuring under the Army 2020 change programme and with units rebasing, following the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review, the permanent deployment will end by 2020. As of 2015, there are 5,200 troops still in Germany, the British presence was estimated to have been contributing 1.5 billion Euros annually to the German economy in 2004. Following a further spending review, one brigade was withdrawn and Osnabrück Garrison closed in 2009, administrative support for British service personnel in Germany and across Continental Europe was delegated to United Kingdom Support Command.
The four Army garrisons in Germany were under the administrative control of UKSC. The General Officer Commanding UKSC functioned as head of the British Forces Liaison Organisation, HQ British Forces Germany was formed in January 2012 replacing the United Kingdom Support Command and the Germany Support Group. The two central garrisons - Gütersloh and Paderborn - combined to form a single super garrison called Westfalen Garrison in April 2014. With the departure of Major General John Henderson in March 2015, in summer 2015, a further brigade was withdrawn and Bergen-Hohne Garrison closed leaving a minimal presence in the state of Lower Saxony and just one brigade in North Rhine-Westphalia. British Forces Germany is concentrated in North Rhine-Westphalia, the HQ is located at Bielefeld and 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade is located at Westfalen Garrison. Under the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review, permanent deployment will end by 2019, the British Forces Broadcasting Service radio services are widely available on FM across north-western Germany.
The British Army Germany rugby union team plays games against emerging rugby nations like Belgium, Netherlands, Germany. During the height of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the IRA targeted personnel in Germany between 1988 and 1990, the attacks resulted in the deaths of 9 people, including three civilians, and many wounded. As a result, vehicles owned by personnel ceased to have registration plates. The British Garrison Berlin 1945-1994, nowhere to go
SM U-9 was a German Type U9 U-boat. She was one of 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy and her construction was ordered on 15 July 1908 and her keel was laid down by Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig. She was launched on 22 February 1910 and commissioned on 18 April 1910, U-9 had an overall length of 57.38 m, her pressure hull was 48 m long. The boats beam was 6 m, while the pressure hull measured 3.65 m and she had a draught of 3.13 m with a total height of 7.05 m. The boat displaced 493 t when surfaced and 611 t when submerged and these engines powered two shafts each with a 1.45 m propeller, which gave the boat a top surface speed of 14.2 knots, and 8.1 knots when submerged. Cruising range was 1,800 nautical miles at 14 knots on the surface, the U-boat was armed with four 50 cm torpedo tubes, two fitted in the bow and two in the stern, and carried 6 torpedoes. Originally, the boat was equipped with a gun, which was augmented with a 3.7 cm Hotchkiss gun when war broke out in 1914.
In 1915, an additional 5 cm gun was fitted, when U-9 underwent a major refit in 1916, two mine-laying rails were added, which were removed again. The boats complement was 4 officers and 31 enlisted, on 16 July 1914, the crew of U-9 reloaded her torpedo tubes while submerged, the first time any submarine had succeeded in doing so. On 1 August 1914, Kapitänleutnant Otto Weddigen took command and she fired four of her torpedoes, reloading while submerged, and sank all three in less than an hour. It was one of the most notable actions of all time. Members of the Admiralty who had considered submarines mere toys no longer expressed that opinion after this event, on 15 October, U-9 sank the protected cruiser HMS Hawke. On 12 January 1915, Johannes Spieß relieved Weddigen, and commanded U-9 until 19 April 1916, during this period, she sank 13 ships totalling 8,635 GRT,10 small fishing vessels and three British steamers. After April 1916, she was withdrawn from front-line duties to be used for training, U-9 and the raider SMS Emden were the only ships which Kaiser Wilhelm II awarded the Iron Cross.
Room 40, British Naval Intelligence 1914–1918, the Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, U-Boats, Volume 23, p.2534. Gröner, Jung, Maass, translated by Thomas, Magowan, Rachel. A Naval History of World War I, Room 40, German Naval Warfare 1914–1918. Room 40, German Naval Warfare 1914–1918, Konstruktionen für das Ausland und die Jahre 1935–1945