An urn is a vase with a cover, that has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal. Describing a vessel as an "urn", as opposed to a vase or other terms reflects its use rather than any particular shape or origin; the term is often used for funerary urns, vessels used in burials, either to hold the cremated ashes or as grave goods, but is used in many other contexts. Large sculpted vases are called urns, whether placed outdoors, in gardens or as architectural ornaments on buildings, or kept inside. Funerary urns have been used by many civilizations. After death, corpses are cremated, the ashes are collected and put in an urn. Pottery urns, dating from about 7000 BC, have been found in an early Jiahu site in China, where a total of 32 burial urns are found, another early finds are in Laoguantai, Shaanxi. There are about 700 burial urns unearthed over the Yangshao areas and consisting more than 50 varieties of form and shape; the burial urns were used for children, but sporadically for adults.
The Urnfield culture, a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, takes its name from its large cemeteries of urn burials. The discovery of a Bronze Age urn burial in Norfolk, prompted Sir Thomas Browne to describe the antiquities found, he expanded his study to survey burial and funerary customs and current, published it as Hydriotaphia or Urn Burial. In ancient Greece, cremation was usual, the ashes placed in a painted Greek vase. In particular the lekythos, a shape of vase, was used for holding oil in funerary rituals. Romans placed; the interior of a dovecote has niches to house doves. Cremation urns were commonly used in early Anglo Saxon England, in many Pre-Columbian cultures. In some European traditions, a king's heart, sometimes other organs, could be placed in one or more urns upon his death, as happened with King Otto of Bavaria in 1916, buried in a different place from the body, to symbolize a particular affection for the place by the departed. In the modern funeral industry, cremation urns of varying quality and cost are offered, urns are another source of potential profit for an industry concerned that a trend toward cremation might threaten profits from traditional burial ceremonies.
Biodegradable urns are sometimes used for both animal burial. They are made from eco-friendly materials such as recycled or handmade paper, cellulose or other natural products that are capable of decomposing back into natural elements, sometimes include a seed intended to grow into a tree at the site of the burial. Besides the traditional funeral or cremation ashes urns, it may be possible to keep a part of the ashes of the loved one or beloved pet in keepsake urns or ash jewellery, although this might be banned in some localities as the law of certain countries may prohibit keeping any human remains in a private residence, it is in some places, possible to place the ashes of two people in so-called companion urns. Cremation or funeral urns are made from a variety of materials such as wood, nature stone, glass, or steel. Scattering of ashes has become popular over recent decades; as a result, urns designed to scatter the ashes from have been developed. Some are biodegradable, some recyclable after being used.
Some cremation urns have been made out of wood. A Figural urn is a style of vase or larger container where the basic urn shape, of either a classic amphora or a crucible style, is ornamented with figures; these may be attached to the main body, forming handles or extraneous decorations, or may be shown in relief on the body itself. The Ashes, the prize in the biennial Test cricket competition between England and Australia, are contained in a miniature urn. Urns are a common form of architectural garden ornament. Well-known ornamental urns include the Waterloo Vase. In mathematics, an urn problem is a thought experiment in probability theory. A tea urn is a heated metal container traditionally used to brew tea or boil water in large quantities in factories, canteens or churches, they are not found in domestic use. Like a samovar it has a small tap near the base for extracting hot water. Unlike an electric water boiler, tea may be brewed in the vessel itself, although they are likely to be used to fill a large teapot.
In Neoclassical furniture, it was a large wooden vase-like container, set on a pedestal on either side of a side table. This was the characteristic of Adam designs and of Hepplewhite's work. Sometimes they were "knife urns", where the top lifted off, cutlery was stored inside. Urns were used as decorative turnings at the cross points of stretchers in 16th and 17th century furniture designs; the urn and the vase were set on the central pedestal in a "broken" or "swan's" neck pediment. "Knife urns" placed on pedestals flanking a dining-room sideboard were an English innovation for high-style dining rooms of the late 1760s. They went out of fashion in the following decade, in favour of knife boxes that were placed on the sideboard. Bridge spouted vessel Crematory Pithos Urn problem Viewlogy Daily Mail article on a Roman cinerary urn Getty. Art & Architecture Thesaurus. Urns
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known from archeological research. Early Bronze Age cultures in Poland begun around 2300–2400 BCE, while the Iron Age commenced in 700–750 BCE; the Iron Age archeological cultures no longer existed by the start of the Common Era. The subject of the ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of the groups living in Central Europe at that time is, given the absence of written records and accordingly there is considerable disagreement. In Poland the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archeological finding from that period is the Biskupin fortified settlement on the lake from which it takes its name, representing the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age. The Bronze Age in Poland consisted of Period I, 2300 to 1600 BC; the Early Iron Age included Hallstatt Period C, 700 to 600 BC, Hallstatt Period D, 600 to 450 BC. Bronze items present in Poland around 2300 BC were brought through the Carpathian Basin.
The native Early Bronze Age that followed was dominated by the innovative Unetice culture in western Poland, by the conservative Mierzanowice culture in the east. Those were replaced in their respective territories, for the duration of the second, the Older Bronze Period, by the Tumulus culture and the Trzciniec culture. Characteristic of the remaining bronze periods were the Urnfield cultures. In Poland the Lusatian culture settlements dominated the landscape for nearly a thousand years, continuing into and including the Early Iron Age. A series of Scythian invasions, beginning in the 6th century BC, precipitated the demise of the Lusatian culture; the Hallstatt Period D was the time of expansion of the Pomeranian culture, while the Western Baltic Kurgans culture occupied the Masuria-Warmia region of contemporary Poland. The Bronze Age in Poland, as well as elsewhere in central Europe, begins with the innovative Unetice culture, in existence in Silesia and a part of Greater Poland during the first period of this era, from before 2200 to 1600 BC.
This settled agricultural society's origins consisted of the conservative traditions inherited from the Corded Ware populations and dynamic elements of the Bell-Beaker people. The Unetice people cultivated contacts with the developed cultures of the Carpathian Basin, through whom they had trade links with the cultures of early Greece, their culture echoed inspiring influence coming all the way from the most developed at that time civilizations of the Middle East. Characteristic of the Unetice societies was greater general affluence and developed social stratification, compared with Late Neolithic cultures. Objects made of bronze of luxurious or prestigious nature, were in high demand as symbols of power and importance and are found in the graves of "princes". Fourteen such burial sites, circular mounds of earth heaped up on top of wooden and stone structures, some as large as 30 meters in diameter, were found in Łęki Małe near Grodzisk Wielkopolski, erected 2000–1800 BC, suggesting the existence of a local dynasty.
Proliferation of locally-made bronze items far from the centers of ore mining or bronze craftsmanship shows that the elites were able to control the trade routes, which involved the transportation of amber from the Baltic Sea shores to Aegean Sea area artisans. Many concealed bronze treasures have been found, including a fine one from Pilszcz near Głubczyce. Stylistically refined Uneticean ceramics show inspiration from the Achaean vessels obtained through trade. Fortified settlements were built. Remains of settlements and cemeteries were discovered around Wrocław and elsewhere in Lower Silesia, including an amber processing workshop in Nowa Wieś, Bolesławiec County; the nature of the weapons and other items found at Unetice sites suggests a chronic state of warfare and the emergence of a warrior class. At the forefront of civilization in its time and place, the Unetice culture succumbed to social and economic deterioration; the Iwno culture, named after Iwno near Szubin, was a contemporary of the Unetice culture.
Located in Kujawy, eastern Pomerania and northeastern Greater Poland, it was influenced by the Unetice culture, from where their bronze items were imported, had many common traits with the Mierzanowice culture. Iwno thin-walled clay vessels were finished and domestic animal rising was important for the economy; the Płonia group of a comparable period, named after a neighborhood of Szczecin, extended over central and western Polish Pomerania. East of the Unetice culture, in Lesser Poland and further north to the Masovia region, during the same span of time, lay the territory of the Mierzanowice culture, named after the type-site village near Opatów; these people, culturally descendants of the Corded Ware culture, at first lived as mobile cattle breeders, but around 2200 BC started building permanent settlements and engaged in agriculture as well. Mierzanowice culture was a conservative society still using stone tools and reserving copper for decorati
A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together, can have three sorts of body: a shaft of a rigid inflexible material meant to be inserted in a slot, groove, or hole. According to their function, pins can be made of wood, or plastic; the development of the pin paralleled that of its perforated counterpart, the needle. Archaeological evidence suggests that curved sewing pins have been used for over four thousand years; these were fashioned out of iron and bone by the Sumerians and were used to hold clothes together. Pins were used to hold pages of books together by threading the needle through their top corner. Many pins were made of brass, a hard and ductile metal that became available during the Bronze Age; this development was followed by the use of steel, much stronger but tended to rust when exposed to humid air. The development of inexpensive electroplating techniques allowed the steel to be plated with nickel. Nickel tended to flake off the steel in humid weather, again allowing it to rust.
However, this took many months or years to happen, as nickel plated steel pins were used only temporarily to hold fabric in place prior to sewing, no further refinement has been considered necessary. Note, that some modern specialty pins are made out of rust-proof and strong titanium. Adam Smith described the manufacture of pins using extensive division of labor in his Wealth of Nations. John Ireland Howe invented a pin-making machine in 1832, an improved machine in 1841. Walter Hunt invented the safety pin by forming an eight-inch brass pin into a bent pin with a spring and guard, he sold the rights to his invention to pay a debt to a friend, not knowing that he could have made millions of dollars. The push pin was invented in 1900 by Edwin Moore and became a success; these pins are called "thumbtacks". There is a new push pin called a "paper cricket". Thin, hardened pins can be driven into wood with a hammer with the goal of not being seen. In engineering and machine design, a pin is a machine element that secures the position of two or more parts of a machine relative to each other.
A large variety of types has been known for a long time. Clevis pin Cotter pin Spring pin Split pin Slotted pin Spiral pin Solid pin Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things, Chapter 4. ISBN 0-679-74039-2. Robert Parmley, Standard handbook of fastening and joining. 1st edition. Chapter 2. McGraw-Hill. 1977. ISBN 0-07-048511-9 McMaster-Carr Supply Company Gardette
An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period. Amphorae were used in vast numbers for the transport and storage of various products, both liquid and dry, but for wine, they are most ceramic, but examples in metals and other materials have been found. Versions of the amphorae were one of many shapes used in Ancient Greek vase painting; the amphora complements the large storage container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons. In contrast, the amphora holds under a half-ton less than 50 kilograms; the bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Where the pithos may have multiple small loops or lugs for fastening a rope harness, the amphora has two expansive handles joining the shoulder of the body and a long neck; the necks of pithoi are wide for bucket access. The necks of amphorae are narrow for pouring by a person holding it by a handle; some variants exist. The handles might not be present.
The size may require three handlers to lift. For the most part, however, an amphora was tableware, or sat close to the table, was intended to be seen, was finely decorated as such by master painters. Stoppers of perishable materials, which have survived, were used to seal the contents. Two principal types of amphorae existed: the neck amphora, in which the neck and body meet at a sharp angle. Neck amphorae were used in the early history of ancient Greece, but were replaced by the one-piece type from around the 7th century BC onward. Most were produced with a pointed base to allow upright storage by embedding in soft ground, such as sand; the base facilitated transport by ship, where the amphorae were packed upright or on their sides in as many as five staggered layers. If upright, the bases were held by some sort of rack, ropes passed through their handles to prevent shifting or toppling during rough seas. Heather and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. Racks could be used in shops.
The base concentrated deposits from liquids with suspended solid particles, such as olive oil and wines. Amphorae are of great use to maritime archaeologists, as they indicate the age of a shipwreck and the geographic origin of the cargo, they are so well preserved that the original content is still present, providing information on foodstuffs and mercantile systems. Amphorae were too cheap and plentiful to return to their origin-point and so, when empty, they were broken up at their destination. At a breakage site in Rome, close to the Tiber, the fragments wetted with Calcium hydroxide, remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference. Amphora is a Greco-Roman word developed in ancient Greek during the Bronze Age; the Romans acquired it during the Hellenization. Cato is the first known literary person to use it; the Romans turned the Greek form into a standard -a declension noun, amphora, pl. amphorae. Undoubtedly, the word and the vase were introduced to Italy through the Greek settlements there, which traded extensively in Greek pottery.
It is remarkable that though the Etruscans imported and exported amphorae extensively in their wine industry, other Greek vase names were Etruscanized, no Etruscan form of the word exists. There was an as yet unidentified native Etruscan word for the vase that pre-empted the adoption of amphora; the Latin word derived from the Greek amphoreus, a shortened form of amphiphoreus, a compound word combining amphi- and phoreus, from pherein, referring to the vessel's two carrying handles on opposite sides. The amphora appears as, a-pi-po-re-we, in the Linear B Bronze Age records of Knossos, a-po-re-we, at Mycenae, the fragmentary ]-re-we at Pylos, designated by Ideogram 209, Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants; the two spellings are transcriptions of amphiphorēwes and amphorēwe in Mycenaean Greek from which it may be seen that the short form prevailed on the mainland. Homer uses the long form for metrical reasons, Herodotus has the short form. Ventris and Chadwick's translation is "carried on both sides."
Amphorae varied in height. The largest stands as tall as 1.5 metres high, while some were less than 30 centimetres high - the smallest were called amphoriskoi. Most were around 45 centimetres high. There was a significant degree of standardisation in some variants. In all 66 distinct types of amphora have been identified. Further, the term stands for an ancient Roman unit of measurement for liquids; the volume of a Roman amphora was one cubic foot, c. 26.026 L. Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. During the production process the body was made first and left to dry partially. Coils of clay were added to form the neck, the rim, the handles. Once the amphora was complete, the maker treated the interior with resin that would prevent permeation of stored liquids; the reconstruction of these stages of production is based on the study of modern amphora production in some areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Amphorae were marked with a variety of stamps and inscript
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, iron, steel or bronze; the most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears feature barbs or serrated edges; the word spear comes from the Old English spere, from the Proto-Germanic speri, from a Proto-Indo-European root *sper- "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing; the spear has been used throughout human history both as a weapon. Along with the axe and club, it is one of the earliest and most important tools developed by early humans; as a weapon, it may be wielded with two. It was used in every conflict up until the modern era, where then it continues on in the form of the bayonet, is the most used weapon in history.
Spear manufacture and use is not confined to humans. It is practiced by the western chimpanzee. Chimpanzees near Kédougou, Senegal have been observed to create spears by breaking straight limbs off trees, stripping them of their bark and side branches, sharpening one end with their teeth, they used the weapons to hunt galagos sleeping in hollows. Archaeological evidence found in present-day Germany documents that wooden spears have been used for hunting since at least 400,000 years ago, a 2012 study suggests that Homo heidelbergensis may have developed the technology about 500,000 years ago. Wood does not preserve well and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees means that early humans used wooden spears as well five million years ago. Neanderthals were constructing stone spear heads from as early as 300,000 BP and by 250,000 years ago, wooden spears were made with fire-hardened points.
From circa 200,000 BC onwards, Middle Paleolithic humans began to make complex stone blades with flaked edges which were used as spear heads. These stone heads could be fixed to the spear shaft by gum or resin or by bindings made of animal sinew, leather strips or vegetable matter. During this period, a clear difference remained between spears designed to be thrown and those designed to be used in hand-to-hand combat. By the Magdalenian period, spear-throwers similar to the atlatl were in use; the spear is the main weapon of the warriors of Homer's Iliad. The use of both a single thrusting spear and two throwing spears are mentioned, it has been suggested. In the 7th century BC, the Greeks evolved the phalanx; the key to this formation was the hoplite, equipped with a large, bronze-faced shield and a 7–9 ft spear with an iron head and bronze butt-spike. The hoplite phalanx dominated warfare among the Greek City States from the 7th into the 4th century BC; the 4th century saw major changes. One was the greater use of light infantry armed with spear and javelins.
The other was the development of the sarissa, a two-handed pike 18 ft in length, by the Macedonians under Phillip of Macedon and Alexander the Great. The pike phalanx, supported by peltasts and cavalry, became the dominant mode of warfare among the Greeks from the late 4th century onward until Greek military systems were supplanted by the Roman legions. In the pre-Marian Roman armies, the first two lines of battle, the hastati and principes fought with a sword called a gladius and pila, heavy javelins that were designed to be thrown at an enemy to pierce and foul a target's shield; the principes were armed with a short spear called a hasta, but these fell out of use being replaced by the gladius. The third line, the triarii, continued to use the hasta. From the late 2nd century BC, all legionaries were equipped with the pilum; the pilum continued to be the standard legionary spear until the end of the 2nd century AD. Auxilia, were equipped with a simple hasta and throwing spears. During the 3rd century AD, although the pilum continued to be used, legionaries were equipped with other forms of throwing and thrusting spear, similar to auxilia of the previous century.
By the 4th century, the pilum had disappeared from common use. In the late period of the Roman Empire, the spear became more used because of its anti-cavalry capacities as the barbarian invasions were conducted by people with a developed culture of cavalry in warfare. Muslim warriors used a spear, called an az-zaġāyah. Berbers pronounced it zaġāya, but the English term, derived from the Old French via Berber, is "assegai", it is a pole weapon used for throwing or hurling a light spear or javelin made of hard wood and pointed with a forged iron tip. The az-zaġāyah played an important role during the Islamic conquest as well as during periods, well into the 20th century. A longer pole az-zaġāyah was being used as a hunting weapon from horseback; the az-zaġāyah was used. It existed in various forms in areas stretching from Southern Africa to the Indian subcontinent, although these place
Amber is fossilized tree resin, appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used in jewelry, it has been used as a healing agent in folk medicine. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents; because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is called resinite, the term ambrite is applied to that found within New Zealand coal seams; the English word amber derives from Arabic ʿanbar عنبر via Middle Latin ambar and Middle French ambre. The word was adopted in Middle English in the 14th century as referring to what is now known as ambergris, a solid waxy substance derived from the sperm whale. In the Romance languages, the sense of the word had come to be extended to Baltic amber from as early as the late 13th century. At first called white or yellow amber, this meaning was adopted in English by the early 15th century.
As the use of ambergris waned, this became the main sense of the word. The two substances conceivably became associated or confused because they both were found washed up on beaches. Ambergris is less dense than water and floats, whereas amber is too dense to float, though less dense than stone; the classical names for amber, Latin electrum and Ancient Greek ἤλεκτρον, are connected to a term ἠλέκτωρ meaning "beaming Sun". According to myth, when Phaëton son of Helios was killed, his mourning sisters became poplar trees, their tears became elektron, amber; the word elektron gave rise to the words electric and their relatives because of amber's ability to bear a static electricity charge. Theophrastus discussed amber in the 4th century BC, as did Pytheas, whose work "On the Ocean" is lost, but was referenced by Pliny the Elder, according to whose The Natural History: Pytheas says that the Gutones, a people of Germany, inhabit the shores of an estuary of the Ocean called Mentonomon, their territory extending a distance of six thousand stadia.
Earlier Pliny says that Pytheas refers to a large island - three days' sail from the Scythian coast and called Balcia by Xenophon of Lampsacus - as Basilia - a name equated with Abalus. Given the presence of amber, the island could have been Heligoland, the shores of Bay of Gdansk, the Sambia Peninsula or the Curonian Lagoon, which were the richest sources of amber in northern Europe, it is assumed that there were well-established trade routes for amber connecting the Baltic with the Mediterranean. Pliny states explicitly that the Germans exported amber to Pannonia, from where the Veneti distributed it onwards; the ancient Italic peoples of southern Italy used to work amber. Amber used in antiquity as at Mycenae and in the prehistory of the Mediterranean comes from deposits of Sicily. Pliny cites the opinion of Nicias, according to whom amberis a liquid produced by the rays of the sun. Besides the fanciful explanations according to which amber is "produced by the Sun", Pliny cites opinions that are well aware of its origin in tree resin, citing the native Latin name of succinum.
In Book 37, section XI of Natural History, Pliny wrote: Amber is produced from a marrow discharged by trees belonging to the pine genus, like gum from the cherry, resin from the ordinary pine. It is a liquid at first, which issues forth in considerable quantities, is hardened Our forefathers, were of opinion that it is the juice of a tree, for this reason gave it the name of "succinum" and one great proof that it is the produce of a tree of the pine genus, is the fact that it emits a pine-like smell when rubbed, that it burns, when ignited, with the odour and appearance of torch-pine wood, he states that amber is found in Egypt and in India, he refers to the electrostatic properties of amber, by saying that "in Syria the women make the whorls of their spindles of this substance, give it the name of harpax from the circumstance that it attracts leaves towards it, the light fringe of tissues". Pliny says that the German name of amber was glæsum, "for which reason the Romans, when Germanicus Caesar commanded the fleet in those parts, gave to one of these islands the name of Glæsaria, which by the barbarians was known as Austeravia".
This is confirmed by the recorded Old High German word glas and by the Old English word glær for "amber". In Middle Low German, amber was known as berne-, barn-, börnstēn; the Low German term became dominant in High Germ