Ottoman expedition to Aceh
The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca. The expedition followed an envoy sent by the Acehnese Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahhar to Suleiman the Magnificent in 1564, as early as 1562, requesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese. An informal Ottoman-Aceh alliance had existed since at least the 1530s. Sultan Alauddin wished to develop these relations, both to attempt the expulsion of the Portuguese in Malacca, to extend his own power in Sumatra. According to accounts written by the Portuguese Admiral Fernão Mendes Pinto, the Ottoman Empire fleet that first arrived in Aceh consisted of 300 Ottomans, Somalis from Mogadishu and various city states, Sindhis from Debal and Thatta, Gujaratis from Surat, some 200 Malabar sailors of Janjira to aid the Batak region and the Maritime Southeast Asia in 1539. Following the 1562 embassy, Aceh appeared to have received Ottoman reinforcements building its capacity and allowing it to conquer the Sultanates of Aru and Johor in 1564.
The 1564 embassy to Constantinople was sent by Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahhar. In his message to the Ottoman Porte, the Sultan of Aceh referred to the Ottoman ruler as Khalifah of Islam. After the death of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566, his son Selim II ordered that ships be sent to Aceh. A number of soldiers and engineers were sent in an Ottoman fleet, together with ample supplies of weapons and ammunition. A first fleet was sent, it had to be diverted to fight an uprising in Yemen. Only two ships arrived in 1566–67, but numerous other fleets and shipments would follow; the first expedition was led by Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis. The Acehnese paid for the shipments in pearls and rubies. In 1568, the Acehnese, besieged Malacca, although the Ottomans do not seem to have participated directly, it seems however that the Ottomans were able to supply cannoneers for the campaign, but were unable to provide more due to the ongoing invasion of Cyprus and an uprising in Aden. The Ottomans taught the Acehnese how to forge their own cannon, some of which reached considerable size.
The craft of making such weapons had spread throughout the Maritime Southeast Asia. Famous cannons were made in Makassar, Java, Minangkabau and Brunei. Many of these rare artillery pieces were captured by the European colonialists; some of these bells still carry the Ottoman crest which were on the barrels. By the beginning of the 17th century, Aceh boasted about 1200 medium-sized bronze cannons, about 800 other weapons such as breech-loading swivel guns and arquebuses; the expeditions led to increased exchanges between Aceh and the Ottoman Empire in military, commercial and religious fields. Subsequent Acehnese rulers continued these exchanges with the Ottoman Empire, Acehnese ships seem to have been allowed to fly the Ottoman flag; the relationship between Aceh and the Ottoman Empire was a major threat to the Portuguese and prevented them establishing a monopolistic trade position in the Indian Ocean. Aceh was a major commercial adversary for the Portuguese during the reign of Iskandar Muda, who had a well equipped arsenal of 1200 cannons and 800 swivel-guns and muskets controlling more of the spice trade than the Portuguese.
The Portuguese tried to destroy the Aceh–Ottoman–Venetian trade axis for their own benefit. The Portuguese established plans to attack the Red Sea and Aceh, but failed due to a lack of manpower in the Indian Ocean; when Aceh was attacked by the Dutch in 1873, triggering the Aceh War, the region invoked the protection of its earlier agreement with the Ottoman Empire as one of its dependencies. The claim was rejected by Western powers. Once again Aceh requested military reinforcements from the Ottomans, but the tasked fleet designated to help was diverted to Yemen to suppress the Zaidi rebellion there. List of Ottoman sieges and landings Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean Dutch East India Company Dutch East Indies Kayadibi, Saim. “Ottoman Connections to the Malay World: Islam and Society,” ISBN 978-983-9541-77-9
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria. It is in the north centre of Austria 30 kilometres south of the Czech border, on both sides of the River Danube; the population of the city is 204,846, that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 789,811. In 2009 Linz, together with the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, was chosen as the European Capital of Culture. Since 1 December 2014 Linz is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities network as a City of Media Arts. Cities receive this title for enriching the urban lifestyle through the sponsorship and successful integration of media art and involving society in these electronic art forms. Linz is well known for the Linzer torte, said to be the oldest cake in the world, with its first recipe dating from 1653. Linz is in the centre of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö–Trieste north–south axis; the Danube is the main transport connection that runs through the city. 29.27% of the city's 96 km2 wide area are grassland.
Further 17.95% are covered with forest. All the rest areas fall on traffic areas and land. Since January 2014 the city is divided into 16 statistical districts: Before 2014 Linz was divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters, they were: Ebelsberg Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Schörgenhub Lustenau: Makartviertel, Hafenviertel Pöstlingberg: Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Elmberg St. Peter Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Hartmayrsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg Waldegg: Freinberg, Keferfeld, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia; the name Linz was first recorded in AD 799. It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the River Danube from the east to the west and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south.
Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493. One important inhabitant of the city was the age of discovery-era astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics, he discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University Linz, is named after him. Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz; the Brucknerhaus is named after him. Adolf Hitler was moved to Linz during his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna; the family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, on Humboldtstrasse in Linz.
After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann spent his youth in Linz; until the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his hometown, envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it – including a massive new Fuhrermuseum to house his collection of looted art – wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich, to eclipse Vienna, a city he hated. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, during, the Second World War. Near the end of World War II, Hitler became enamored of the musical compositions of Anton Bruckner, and, as a result, planned to convert the monastery of St. Florian in Linz – where Bruckner had played the organ, where he was buried – into a repository of Bruckner's manuscripts. Hitler evicted the monks from the building and paid for the restoration of the organ and the institution of a Bruckner study center there.
He paid for the Haas collection of Bruckner's works to be published, himself purchased material for the proposed library, Hitler caused the founding of the Bruckner Symphony Orchestra, which began presenting concerts in Fall 1943. His plan for one of the bell towers in Linz to play a theme from Bruckner's Fourth Symphony never came to pass. In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz had a benzol plant, bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km east of the city of Linz. In 1996, the city council decided to account for its Nazi past; the widespread scientific work, implemented by the municipal archives, covered the period prior to 1938 as well as the denazification after 1945. Linz became the first city in Austria to deal intensively with its own Nazi past. In May 2001, seven scientific publications, online presentations, numerous lectures were made public as a result of these efforts; the culture of remembrance extended to the construction of monuments for the victims of National Socialism.
Since 1988, numerous memorials have been created in public spaces. The city's confrontation with its Nazi past resulted in the renaming of many streets. In 1945 after the end of the Na
The Morean War is the better-known name for the Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War. The war was fought between 1684–1699, as part of the wider conflict known as the "Great Turkish War", between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Military operations ranged from Dalmatia to the Aegean Sea, but the war's major campaign was the Venetian conquest of the Morea peninsula in southern Greece. On the Venetian side, the war was fought to avenge the loss of Crete in the Cretan War, while the Ottomans were entangled in their northern frontier against the Habsburgs and were unable to concentrate their forces against the Republic; as such, the Morean War holds the distinction of being the only Ottoman–Venetian conflict from which Venice emerged victorious, gaining significant territory. Venice's expansionist revival would be short-lived however, as its gains would be reversed by the Ottomans in 1718. Venice had held several islands in the Aegean and the Ionian seas, together with strategically positioned forts along the coast of the Greek mainland since the carving up of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade.
However, with the rise of the Ottomans, during the 16th and early 17th centuries, the Venetians lost most of these, including Cyprus and Euboea to the Turks. Between 1645 and 1669, the Venetians and the Ottomans fought a long and costly war over the last major Venetian possession in the Aegean, Crete. During this war, the Venetian commander, Francesco Morosini, made contact with the rebellious Maniots, they agreed to conduct a joint campaign in the Morea. In 1659, Morosini landed in the Morea, together with the Maniots, he took Kalamata. However, he was soon after forced to return to Crete, the Peloponnesian venture failed. During the 17th century, the Ottomans remained the premier political and military power in Europe, but signs of decline were evident: the Ottoman economy suffered from the influx of gold and silver from the Americas, an unbalanced budget and repeated devaluations of the currency, while the traditional timariot cavalry system and the Janissaries, who formed the core of the Ottoman armies, declined in quality and were replaced by irregular forces that were inferior to the regular European armies.
The reform efforts of Sultan Murad IV, the able administration of the Köprülü dynasty of Grand Viziers, whose members governed the Empire from 1656 to 1683, managed to sustain Ottoman power and enabled it to conquer Crete, but the long and drawn-out war there exhausted Ottoman resources. As a result of the Polish–Ottoman War, the Ottomans secured their last territorial expansion in Europe with the conquest of Podolia, tried to expand into Ukrainian territory on the right bank of the Dnieper River, but were held back by the Russians; the Treaty of Bakhchisarai made the river Dnieper the boundary between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. In 1683, a new war broke out between Austria and the Ottomans, with a large Ottoman army advancing towards Vienna; the Ottoman siege was broken in the Battle of Vienna by the King of Jan Sobieski. As a result, an anti-Ottoman Holy League was formed at Linz on 5 March 1684 between Emperor Leopold I, the Doge of Venice, Marcantonio Guistinian. Over the next few years, the Austrians recovered Hungary from Ottoman control, captured Belgrade in 1688 and reached as far as Niš and Vidin in the next year.
However, the Austrians were now overextended, as well as being embroiled in the Nine Years' War against France. The Ottomans, under another Köprülü Grand Vizier, Fazıl Mustafa Pasha, regained the initiative and pushed the Austrians back, recovering Niš and Vidin in 1690 and launching raids across the Danube. After 1696, the tide turned again, with the capture of Azov by the Russians in 1696 followed by a disastrous defeat at the hands of Eugene of Savoy at the battle of Zenta in September 1697. In its aftermath, negotiations began between the warring parties, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699; the Austrians and Poles considered Venetian participation in the war as a useful adjunct to the main operations in Central Europe, as its navy could impede the Ottomans from concentrating their forces by sea and force them to divert forces away from their own fronts. On the Venetian side, the debate in the Senate about joining the war was heated, but in the end the war party prevailed, judging the moment as an excellent and unique opportunity for a revanche.
As a result, when news arrived in Venice on 25 April 1684 of the signing of the Holy League, for the first and only time in the Ottoman–Venetian Wars, the Most Serene Republic declared war on the Ottomans, rather than the other way around. At the outbreak of the war, the military forces of the Republic were meagre; the long Cretan War had exhausted Venetian resources, Venetian power was in decline in Italy as well as the Adriatic Sea. While the Venetian navy was a well-maintained force, comprising ten galleasses, thirty men-of-war, thirty galleys, as well as auxiliary vessels, the army comprised 8,000 not disciplined regular troops, they were complemented by a numerous and well-equipped militia, but the latter could not be used outside Italy. Revenue was scarce, at little more than two million sequins a year. However, according to the reports of the English ambassador to the Porte, Lord Chandos, the Ottomans' position was worse: on land they were reeling from a succession of defeats, so that the Sultan had to double the pay of his troops and resort to forcible conscription.
At the same time, the Ottoman navy was described by Chandos as being in a sore state, scarcely able to outfit ten men-of-war for operations. This left the Venetians with an uncontested supremacy
Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg
Marshal Johann Matthias Reichsgraf von der Schulenburg was a German aristocrat and general of Brandenburg-Prussian background who served in the Saxon and Venetian armies in the early 18th century and found a second career in retirement in Venice, as a grand collector and patron. His sister was Duchess of Kendal, his father was Baron von der Schulenburg. Schulenburg was born in Emden near Magdeburg. Between 1687 and 1688 Schulenburg fought with the Imperial troops against the Turks in Hungary. On his return he rose in the ranks of the army of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1699 he became a Colonel in the German regiment in the service of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, was wounded in 1701. In 1702 he joined the Saxon Army and fought in the Great Northern War against Charles XII of Sweden and suffered defeats in the Battle of Klissow and the Battle of Fraustadt. In 1707 he returned to Western Europe and fought under Prince Eugene of Savoy at the Battle of Oudenaarde and the Battle of Malplaquet in the wars of Spanish Succession.
The latter service brought him to the attention of Venice. He was recruited by Venice into the successful defence of Ulcinj in 1711 and five years Corfu during the 1716 siege against the same invading Ottoman Turks. A Vivaldi opera, Juditha triumphans, was commissioned in celebration of the victory. In his retirement in Venice from 1718, the Reichsgraf von der Schulenburg proved a remarkable collector of art while residing in the Palazzo Loredan on the Grand Canal of Venice; the Reichsgraf began as a serious collector in 1724, at the age of sixty-three, with a purchase of eighty-eight paintings and a bas-relief by Pierre Puget from a Venetian picture-dealer, Santi Rota, who had obtained them from the collection of Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga, the last ruler of the Duchy of Mantua, deposed by Habsburg Austrian empire. In addition Schulenburg had access to many royal families, including the Hanoverians and Habsburgs, his portrait was painted by Bartolomeo Nazari, Giuseppe Nogari, Giacomo Ceruti, Gian Antonio Guardi, Francesco Simonini, Piazzetta, he was sculpted by Antonio Corradini and Gian Maria Morlaiter.
Schulenburg supported Gian Antonio Guardi with a monthly salary, 1730–36, on a commission basis thereafter. In general, Guardi worked at making portraits of foreign aristocracy and royalty to impressively adorn the walls at Ca' Loredan, at copying masterpieces of the Venetian past including works of Paolo Veronese and Tintoretto. Francesco Simonini was commissioned to produce a series of paintings commemorating Schulenburg's battles. Canaletto painted the site of his victories, he employed Giambattista Pittoni, 1733–38, for history paintings, as advisor and restorer. Giovanni Battista Piazzetta had a close relationship with the Marshal, both as painter as an agent for buying both Flemish and genre paintings, two types of works popular with Schulenburg. Schulenburg's paintings were Italian works of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with some Flemish and Dutch paintings, he owned six paintings by Giacomo Ceruti. He owned vedute by Michele Marieschi, Luca Carlevaris, Giovanni Battista Cimaroli, Antonio Joli, Marco Ricci, Francesco Zuccarelli.
Many of his works were transferred to his estates in Germany, like Emden and Beetzendorf. Schulenburg did not have children and, though he willed his collection en bloc to his nephew Count Adolf Friedrich von der Schulenburg-Beetzendorf with the stipulation that they be kept together, in the Palais Schulenburg in Berlin, his will was not honoured, after his death his collection was dispersed. A distinguished customer was Frederick II of Prussia. A group of 150 pieces were sold at auction in London in April 1775. Fr. Albr. v. d. Schulenburg: Leben und Denkwürdigkeiten des Johann Matthias v. d. Schulenburg. Werner v. d. Schulenburg: Der König von Korfu 1950. A novelistic account of the siege of Corfu. Roman über die Verteidigung Korfus gegen die Türken). Haskell, Francis. "Chapter 11". Patrons and Painters: Art and Society in Baroque Italy. 1980. Yale University Press. Pp. 311–13. Media related to Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg at Wikimedia Commons Paul Zimmermann, "Schulenburg, Matthias Johann von der", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 32, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 667–674
Podolia or Podilia is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova. The name derives from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along" and dol, "valley"; the area is part of the vast East European Plain, confined by the Dniester River and the Carpathian arc in the southwest. It comprises an area of about 40,000 km2, extending for 320 km from northwest to southeast on the left bank of the Dniester. In the same direction run two ranges of low hills separated by the Southern Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights; the Podolian Upland, an elongated, up to 472 ft high plateau stretches from the Western and Southern Bug rivers to the Dniester, includes hill countries and mountainous regions with canyon-like fluvial valleys. Podolia lies east of historic Red Ruthenia, i.e. the eastern half of Galicia, beyond the Seret River, a tributary of the Dniester. In the northwest it borders on Volhynia, it is made up of the present-day Ukrainian Vinnytsia Oblast and southern and central Khmelnytskyi Oblast.
The Podolian lands further include parts of adjacent Ternopil Oblast in the west and Kiev Oblast in the northeast. In the east it consists of the neighbouring parts of Cherkasy and Odessa Oblasts, as well as the northern half of Transnistria. Two large rivers, with numerous tributaries, drain the region: the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Moldova and is navigable throughout its length, the Southern Bug, which flows parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, interrupted in several places by rapids; the Dniester forms an important channel for trade in the areas of Mohyliv-Podilskyi and other Podolian river-ports. In Podolia, "black earth" soil predominates, making it a fertile agricultural area. Marshes occur only beside the Bug. A moderate climate predominates, with average temperatures at Kamianets-Podilskyi of 9 °C. Russian-ruled Podolia in 1906 had an estimated population of 3,543,700, consisting chiefly of Ukrainians. Significant minorities included Poles and Jews, as well as 50,000 Romanians, some Germans, some Armenians.
The chief towns include Kamianets-Podilskyi, the traditional capital, Bar, Haisyn, Letychiv, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia, Skala-Podilska and Yampil. In Moldova, the major Podolian cities are Rîbniţa. Podolia is known for its cherries, melons and cucumbers; the country has had human inhabitants since at least the beginning of the Neolithic period. Herodotus mentions it as the seat of the Graeco-Scythian Alazones and Scythian Neuri. Subsequently, the Dacians and the Getae arrived; the Romans left traces of their rule in Trajan's Wall, which stretches through the modern districts of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia and Khmelnytskyi. During the Great Migration Period, many nationalities passed through this territory or settled within it for some time, leaving numerous traces in archaeological remains. Nestor in the Primary Chronicle mentions four Slavic tribes: the Buzhans and Dulebes along the Southern Bug River, the Tivertsi and Ulichs along the Dniester; the Avars invaded in the 7th century.
Prince Oleg of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory known as the Ponizie, or "lowlands." These lowlands became a part of the Rus' principalities of Volhynia and Galicia. In the 13th century, Bakota served as its administrative centre. During that time, the Mongols plundered Ponizie. Polish colonisation began in the 14th century. After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas in 1430, Podolia was incorporated into Podolian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown, with the exception of its eastern part, the Province of Bratslav, which remained with Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569. From 1672, Podolia became part of the Ottoman Empire and where it was known as Podolia Eyalet. During this time, it was a province, with its center being Kamaniçe, was divided into sanjaks of Kamaniçe, Bar and Yazlovets, it remained with the Ottoman Empire for a substantial period of time, only returning to the Polish regime in 1699. The Poles retained Podolia until the partitions of their country in 1772 and 1793, when the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia annexed the western and eastern parts respectively.
From 1793–1917, part of the region was the Podolia Governorate in southwestern Russia bordering with Austria across the Zbruch River and with Bessarabia across the Dniester. Its area was 36,910 km2. In the 1772 First Partition of Poland, the Austrian Habsburgs had taken control of a small part of Podolia west of the Zbruch River around Borschiv, in what is today Ternopil Oblast. At this time, Emperor Joseph II toured the area, was impressed by the fertility of the soil, was optimistic about its future prospects. Poland disappeared as a state in a third partition in 1795 but the Polish gentry continued to maintain local control in both eastern and western Podolia over a peasant population, ethnically Ukrainian whose
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta and known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military and noble nature. It is the continuation of the medieval Order of Saint John known as the Knights Hospitaller, under international law; as a chivalric order, it was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in medieval Jerusalem. As a subject of international law, it is an establishment of the 19th century, recognized at the Congress of Verona of 1822, since 1834 headquartered in Palazzo Malta in Rome; the order is led by Grand Master. Its motto is obsequium pauperum; the order venerates the Virgin Mary as its patroness, under the title of Our Lady of Mount Philermos. The headquarters of the Order of Saint John had been located in Malta from 1530 until 1798, it was technically a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily, holding Malta in exchange for a nominal fee, but declared independence in 1753.
It was expelled from Malta under the French occupation in 1798 and, from 1805 to 1812, much of its possessions in Protestant Europe were confiscated, resulting in the fragmentation of the order into a number of Protestant branches, since 1961 united under the umbrella of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 confirmed the loss of Malta, but the Congress of Verona in 1822 guaranteed the continued existence of the Catholic order as a sovereign entity; the seat of the order was moved to Ferrara in 1826 and to Rome in 1834, the interior of Palazzo Malta being considered extraterritorial sovereign territory of the order. The grand priories of Lombardy-Venetia and of Sicily were restored from 1839 to 1841; the office of Grand Master was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1879, after a vacancy of 75 years, confirming Giovanni Battista Ceschi a Santa Croce as the first Grand Master of the restored Order of Malta. The Holy See was established as a subject of international law in the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
In the following decades, the connection between the Holy See and the Order of Malta was seen as so close as to call into question the actual sovereignty of the order as a separate entity. This has prompted constitutional changes on the part of the Order, which were implemented in 1997. Since the Order has been recognized as a sovereign subject of international law in its own right, it maintains diplomatic relations with 107 states, has permanent observer status at the United Nations, enters into treaties and issues its own passports and postage stamps. Its two headquarters buildings in Rome enjoy extraterritoriality, similar to embassies, it maintains embassies in other countries; the three principal officers are counted as citizens. The Order has 13,500 Knights and auxiliary members. A few dozen of these are professed religious; until the 1990s, the highest classes of membership, including officers, required proof of noble lineage. More a path was created for Knights and Dames of the lowest class to be specially elevated to the highest class, making them eligible for office in the order.
The order employs about 42,000 doctors, nurses and paramedics assisted by 80,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries, assisting children, handicapped and terminally ill people and lepers around the world without distinction of ethnicity or religion. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of natural disasters and war. In several countries, including France and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of medical emergency services and training, its annual budget is on the order of 1.5 billion euros funded by European governments, the United Nations and the European Union and public donors. The order has a large number of local priories and associations around the world, but there exist a number of organizations with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent orders seeking to capitalize on the name. In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of only two orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms.
The shield is surrounded with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Members may display the Maltese cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon. In order to protect its heritage against frauds, the order has registered 16 versions of its names and emblems in some 100 countries; the birth of the order dates back to around 1048. Merchants from the ancient Marine Republic of Amalfi obtained from the Caliph of Egypt the authorisation to build a church and hospital in Jerusalem, to care for pilgrims of any religious faith or race; the Order of St. John of Jerusalem–the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land–became independent under the guidance of its founder, the religious brother Gerard. With the Papal bull Pie postulatio voluntatis dated 15 February 1113, Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to elect its superiors without interference from other secular or religious authorities.
By virtue of the Papal Bull