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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains. Ottoman Syria became organized by the Ottomans upon conquest from the Mamluks in the early 16th century as a single eyalets of Damascus Eyalet. In 1534, the Aleppo Eyalet was split into a separate administration; the Tripoli Eyalet was formed out of Damascus province in 1579 and the Adana Eyalet was split from Aleppo. In 1660, the Eyalet of Safed was established and shortly afterwards renamed Sidon Eyalet; the Syrian eyalets were transformed into the Syria Vilayet, the Aleppo Vilayet and the Beirut Vilayet, following the 1864 Tanzimat reforms. In 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was split from the Syria Vilayet into an autonomous administration with special status. Before 1516, Syria was part of the Mamluk Empire centered in Lower Egypt; the Ottoman Sultan Selim I conquered Syria in 1516 after defeating the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo in northern Syria.

Selim carried on his victorious campaign against the Mamlukes and conquered Egypt in 1517 following the Battle of Ridanieh, bringing an end to the Mamluk Sultanate. When he first seized Syria in 1516, Selim I kept the administrative subdivisions of the Mamluk period unchanged. After he came back from Egypt in July 1517, he reorganized Syria into one large province or eyalet named Şam; the eyalet was subdivided into several sanjaks. In 1549, Syria was reorganized into two eyalets; the northern Sanjak of Aleppo became the center of the new Eyalet of Aleppo. At this time, the two Syrian Eyalets were subdivided as follows: The Eyalet of Aleppo The Sanjak of Aleppo The Sanjak of Adana The Sanjak of Ablistan The Sanjak of Aintab The Sanjak of Birejik The Sanjak of Kilis The Sanjak of Ma'arra The Sanjak of Hama The Sanjak of Salamiyah The Sanjak of Homs The Eyalet of Damascus The Sanjak of Damascus The Sanjak of Tripoli The Sanjak of Acre The Sanjak of Safad The Sanjak of Nablus The Sanjak of Jerusalem The Sanjak of Lajjun The Sanjak of Salt The Sanjak of Gaza In 1579, the Eyalet of Tripoli was established under the name of Tripoli of Syria.

At this time, the eyalets became as follows: The Eyalet of Aleppo included the Sanjaks of Aleppo, Marash and Urfa. The Eyalet of Tripoli included the Sanjaks of Tripoli, Latakia and Homs; the Eyalet of Damascus included the Sanjaks of Damascus, Sidon, Safad, Jerusalem, Hauran and Ma'an In 1660 the Eyalet of Safad was established. It was renamed the Eyalet of Sidon, the Eyalet of Beirut. In 1833, the Syrian provinces were ceded to Muhammed Ali of Egypt in the Convention of Kutahya; the firman stated that "The governments of Egypt are continued to Mahomet Ali. And in reference to his special claim, I have granted him the provinces of Damascus, Tripoli-in-Syria, Saphet, the districts of Jerusalem and Nablous, with the conduct of pilgrims and the commandment of the Tcherde, his son, Ibrahim Pacha, has again the title of Sheikh and Harem of Mekka, the district of Jedda. The former resented the implied loss of superiority and recurrently assaulted and massacred Christian communities – in Aleppo in 1850, in Nablus in 1856, in Damascus and Lebanon in 1860.

Among the long-term consequences of these bitter internecine conflicts were the emergence of a Christian-dominated Lebanon in the 1920s – 40s and the deep fissure between Christian and Muslim Palestinian Arabs as they confronted the Zionist influx after World War I. " Following the massacre of thousands of Christian civilians during the 1860 Lebanon conflict, under a growing European pressure from France, an Ottoman edict issued in 1861 transformed "Al Kaimaqumyateen", the former regime based on religious rule that led to civil war, into the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, governed by a mutasarrıf who, according to law, had to be a non-Lebanese Christian. As part of the Tanzimat reforms, an Ottoman law passed in 1864 provided for a standard provincial administration throughout the empire with the eyalets becoming smaller vilayets, governed by a vali still appointed by the imperial Porte but with new provincial assemblies participating in administration. In 1872 Jerusalem and the surrounding towns became the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, gaining a special administrative status.

From 1872 until World War I subdivisions of Ottoman Syria were: Aleppo Vilayet Sanjak of Zor Beirut Vilayet Syria Vilayet Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem Mutasarrifate of Karak The sanjak Zor and the major part of the vilayet Aleppo may or may not be included in Ottoman Syria. The Geographical Dictionary of

Yossi Harel

Yossi Harel was the commander of the Exodus 1947 operation and a leading member of the Israeli intelligence community. Yossi Hamburger and a twin brother were born in Jerusalem to Batya Hamburger, he was a sixth generation Jerusalemite. He attended Tachkemoni School and as a teenager, worked in a quarry and laid telegraph cables for the post office. At the age of 15, he joined the Haganah. Harel had three children, his daughter, Sharon Harel, is the third wife of Sir Ronald Cohen. Harel died of a heart attack in Tel Aviv on April 26, 2008, at the age of 90, he is buried at Kibbutz Sdot Yam, near Cesarea. He fought under Orde Wingate. Between 1945 and 1948, he played a leading role in the clandestine immigration enterprise in Palestine, commanding four Aliyah Bet ships: Knesset Israel, the Exodus 1947, Atzma'ut and Kibbutz Galuyot. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Harel studied mechanical engineering at MIT in the United States. Just before he finished his studies, Moshe Dayan, as Chief of Staff, called him back to Israel to investigate the Lavon Affair and made him head of Unit 131, an Israel Defense Forces intelligence unit.

Harel is the subject of a biography in Hebrew by Yoram Kaniuk, Exodus: The Odyssey of a Commander, translated into many languages. He rose to fame after the release of the 1960 Otto Preminger film Exodus, based on the 1958 Leon Uris novel of the same name, his character in the novel, Ari Ben Canaan, was portrayed by Paul Newman. In 2007 the government of Italy awarded the Exodus prize to Harel; the prize is given annually to individuals who promote peace and humanitarianism at La Spezia in Italy, where the ship Exodus 1947 was renovated. Yossi Harel Hungarian Tribute Obituary: Times

Rachel Honderich

Rachel Honderich is a Canadian badminton player from Toronto, Ontario. She has been one of the top ranked women's individual and doubles player on the continent and a contender in major international competitions, she is a vice-national champion in women's singles and has won several international titles since 2010. She won her first senior international title at the 2014 Czech International tournament in the women's doubles partnered with Michelle Li. Honderich clinched the silver and bronze medals at the 2015 Pan American Games in the women's singles and doubles respectively. At the 2017 Pan American Championships, she crowned double titles, won the women's singles and mixed doubles event, she competed at 2018 Commonwealth Games. Honderich won her first gold medal at the Pan American Games in the women's doubles partnered with Kristen Tsai in 2019 Lima. Women's singles Women's doubles Women's singles Women's doubles Mixed doubles The BWF Grand Prix has two levels, the Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold.

It is a series of badminton tournaments sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation since 2007. Women's singles Mixed doubles BWF Grand Prix Gold tournament BWF Grand Prix tournament Women's singles Women's doubles Mixed doubles BWF International Challenge tournament BWF International Series tournament BWF Future Series tournament Rachel Honderich at the Canadian Olympic Committee Rachel Honderich at Rachel Honderich at

The Dragon Murder Case

The Dragon Murder Case is a novel in a series by S. S. Van Dine about fictional detective Philo Vance, it was adapted to a film version in 1934, starring Warren William as Vance. A guest at an estate in northern Manhattan disappears, his murder brings up references to a mythological dragon, said to prey on the imprudent, but Philo Vance uses his knowledge of both dragons and criminals to demonstrate whodunit. The estate in the novel was based on Tryon Hall, built in 1907 by C. K. G. Billings, a retired president of the Chicago Coke and Gas Company. In 1917 he sold the mansion to John D. Rockefeller Jr.. The mansion burned down in 1926, Rockefeller developed the property, others, into Fort Tryon Park, which he donated to New York City; the Dragon Murder Case is the seventh novel featuring Van Dine's Philo Vance character. Some critics saw this as marking a significant change in the series, including crime novelist Julian Symons who wrote, "The decline in the last six Vance books is so steep that the critic who called the ninth of them'one more stitch in his literary shroud' was not overstating the case."

Further unfavorable critiques from culture historian Jacques Barzun noted, "The estate and its denizens are meant to be as picturesque as the persons and the plot, but all succeed only in being as egregious and improbable as Philo Vance and his antics. This tale is one of the author's worst..." The Dragon Murder Case at Faded Page The text of the novel is available from Project Gutenberg, Australia

1838 and 1839 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1838 and 1839 were elections which had the Democratic Party lose seven seats in the United States Senate, but still retain a majority. As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures. Senate Party Division, 26th Congress Majority Party: Democratic Minority Party: Whig Total Seats: 52 After the January 4, 1838 special election in Maryland. In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1838 or before March 4, 1839. In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1839. All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats. In this special election, the winner was seated in 1839 after March 4; the New York election was held February 1839 by the New York State Legislature. Nathaniel P. Tallmadge had been elected as a Jacksonian Democratic in 1833 to this seat, his term would expire on March 3, 1839. On February 4, 1839, the State Legislature elected on joint ballot Spencer, Cooke and Haight to the offices they were nominated for, but on the next day they could not agree on a U.

S. Senator; the Assembly nominated Nathaniel P. Tallmadge "by the votes of all the Whig members." Although the Democratic State Senate majority did not object to be outvoted on joint ballot for the election of Whigs to State offices, they rejected the idea of electing a renegade Democratic to the U. S. Senate, took refuge to the only means to defeat Tallmadge: They did not nominate anybody, following the precedents of 1819–1820 and 1825–1826, so that a joint ballot could not be held. On the first ballot, Tallmadge received 13 votes out of all Whigs; the Democratic vote was scattered among many men, nobody receiving more than 2. Four more ballots were held with a similar result. On the sixth ballot, all Whigs and two Democrats voted for Samuel Beardsley, who received 16 votes, one short of the necessary number for a nomination; the Democrats abandoned further balloting, fearing that the Whigs would vote for anybody who received by chance three Democratic votes, just to force any nomination, thus enabling the Legislature to proceed to the joint ballot.

No further action was taken by this Legislature, the seat became vacant on March 4, 1839. Tallmadge would be elected in 1840. United States elections, 1838 1838 and 1839 United States House of Representatives elections 25th United States Congress 26th United States Congress Party Division in the Senate, 1789–Present, via

Suwannee Valley culture

The Suwannee Valley culture is defined as a Late Woodland Southeast period archaeological culture in north Florida, dating from around 750 to European contact. The core area of the culture was found in an area corresponding to present-day Suwannee and southern and central Columbia counties, it was preceded by the McKeithen Weeden Island culture and followed by the Spanish mission period Leon-Jefferson culture. The Suwannee Valley culture was defined in the 1990s, as excavations revealed a unique ceramic assemblage; the core area of the Suwannee Valley culture was bounded on the north and southwest by a great bend in the Suwannee River, on the south by the Santa Fe River. The Suwannee Valley culture included the south bank of the Santa Fe River, in northern Alachua County, where it bordered the similar Alachua culture, it extended westwards towards the Aucilla River, beyond which lay the Wakulla and Fort Walton cultures and eastwards towards the St. Johns culture. To the north, in southern Georgia, was an otherwise undefined culture area characterized by the Carter Complicated Stamped ceramic series.

The Suwannee Valley ceramic assemblage has some elements from the adjacent Wakulla and Alachua cultures, but is distinct from both. The Suwannee Valley culture developed out of the McKeithen culture. While Wakulla ceramics have been found at early Suwannee Valley sites, no evidence has been found of contact between the Fort Walton culture and the Suwannee Valley culture. In the early part of the Suwannee Valley culture, settlement patterns became more scattered, with smaller sites, than in the preceding McKeithen Weeden Island culture. A similar pattern occurred in the adjacent Wakulla culture; this change in settlement pattern may be associated with increased cultivation of crops. In the Suwannee Valley culture period, in the Island Pond phase, larger settlements, associated with burial mounds, developed. Only four Suwannee Valley culture sites have been well described: Fig Springs, Indian Pond, Parnell Mound and Suwannee Sinks; the Fig Springs South End Village has yielded four radiocarbon dates from the 10th century to the 16th century.

This sub-site is devoid of McKeithen Weeden Island and Leon Jeffereson ceramics, of Spanish artifacts, appears to have been occupied for some six centuries within the Suwannee Valley period. Suwannee Valley ceramics more resemble the ceramics of the Alachua culture than of the other neighboring cultures, Fort Walton and St. Johns. Suwannee Valley ceramics are of a "rough" utilitarian form, as contrasted with the range of elaborately decorated and complex Mississippian ceramics of the Fort Walton culture and of the succeeding Leon Jefferson culture. Suwannee Valley sites lack platform mounds characteristic of Mississippian cultures such as Fort Walton and St. Johns. In historical times, after contact with Europeans, the core area of the Suwannee Valley culture was occupied by the Timucua proper, now known as the Northern Utina; the area west of the Suwannee River to the Aucilla River, which may have been part of the Suwannee Valley culture, was occupied by the Yustaga. After the establishment of Spanish missions in the Timucua and Yustaga provinces, Suwannee Valley ceramics were displaced by Leon-Jefferson ceramics.

Despite the absence of archaeological evidence for Mississippian influence in the Suwannee Valley culture, the political organization of the Timucua/Northern Utina and Yustaga people at the time of European contact, for more than a century afterwards, was Mississippian. The provinces were organized in a hierarchy of chiefdoms. Primary chiefdoms consisted of some 750 to 1,500 people living in a cluster of communities, were under regional chiefdoms and councils. Chiefly and noble ranks were inherited. Warriers and ball players could achieve elevated status. Hall, Kristen C. D. Reexamining Suwannee Valley Pottery: a Typological and Formal Analysis of Pottery in Feature I at Parnell Mound, University of Florida, retrieved 20 January 2015 Milanich, Jerald T.. Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1273-2. Worth, John E.. "An Overview of the Suwannee Valley Culture". In Ashley, Keith. Late Prehistoric Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Pp. 149–171. ISBN 978-0-8130-4014-1