The Ottonian Renaissance was a renaissance of Byzantine and Late Antique art in Central and Southern Europe that accompanied the reigns of the first three Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian dynasty: Otto I, Otto II, Otto III, which in large part depended upon their patronage. The concept of a renaissance was first applied to the Ottonian period by the German historian Hans Naumann - more his work published in 1927 grouped the Carolingian and Ottonian periods together under the title Karolingische und ottonische Renaissance; this was only two years after Erna Patzelt's coining of the term'Carolingian Renaissance', the same year as Charles H. Haskins published The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century One of three medieval renaissances, the Ottonian Renaissance began after King Otto's marriage to Adelaide of Italy united the Italian and German kingdoms, thus brought the West closer to Byzantium, he furthered the cause of Christian unity with his Imperial coronation in 962 by the Pope at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
The period is sometimes extended to cover the reign of Emperor Henry II as well, his Salian successors. The term is confined to Imperial court culture conducted in Latin in Germany. - it is sometimes known as the Renaissance of the 10th Century, or 10th Century Renaissance, so as to include developments outside Germania, or as the Year 1000 Renewal, due to coming right at the end of the 10th century. It was shorter than the preceding Carolingian Renaissance and to a large extent a continuation of it - this has led historians such as Pierre Riché to prefer evoking it as a'third Carolingian renaissance', covering the 10th century and running over into the 11th century, with the'first Carolingian renaissance' occurring during Charlemagne's own reign and the'second Carolingian renaissance' happening under his successors; the Logica vetus remained the basis of dialectic education. Abbo of Fleury wrote commentaries on these works through two treatises. An anthology of dialectical works dating from Fulbert of Chartres from his library, contains the Isagoge of Porphyry, the Categories of Aristotle, the distinction between rhetoric and dialectic of Fulbert himself, the Topica of Cicero, the De Interpretatione of Aristotle, Boethius three comments and de Ratione written by Gerbert in 997.
The development of dialectics was furthered by Majolus of Cluny. The growing interest in the disciplines of the quadrivium was translated to the teachings of the leading scholars of their time, such as Abbo of Fleury who wrote many treatises on the calculation of the computus, astronomical subjects such as the trajectories of the sun and planets, a star catalogue; the future Pope Sylvester II, introduced the use of wooden terrestrial spheres for the astronomical study of the movement of the earth and constellations, the use of the monochord for musical study, construction of the abacus for arithmetic studies. Fulbert of Chartres introduced the use of Arabic numerals; the Ottonian Renaissance is recognized in the arts and architecture, invigorated by renewed contact with Constantinople, in some revived cathedral schools, such as that of Archbishop Bruno of Cologne, in the production of illuminated manuscripts from a handful of elite scriptoria, such as Quedlinburg Abbey, founded by Otto in 936, in political ideology.
The Imperial court became the center of religious and spiritual life, led by the example of women of the royal family: Matilda the literate mother of Otto I, his sister Gerberga of Saxony, or his consort Adelaide. The Byzantine influence further increased with the marriage of Otto II with Princess Theophanu, who upon her husband's death in 983 ruled as Empress dowager for her minor son Otto III until 991. After Otto I's Imperial coronation, there emerged a renewed faith in the idea of Empire in Otto's immediate circle and a reformed church, creating a period of heightened cultural and artistic fervor. Ottonian art was a court art, created to confirm a direct Holy and Imperial lineage as a source of legitimized power linked from Constantine and Justinian. In this atmosphere the masterpieces that were created fused the traditions which the new art was based on: paintings from Late Antiquity, the Carolingian period, Byzantium. In this way, the term is used as an analogue to the Carolingian Renaissance which accompanied Charlemagne's coronation in 800.
A small group of Ottonian monasteries received direct sponsorship from the Emperor and bishops and produced some magnificent medieval illuminated manuscripts, the premier art form of the time. Corvey produced some of the first manuscripts, followed by the scriptorium at Hildesheim after 1000; the most famous Ottonian scriptorium was at the island monastery of Reichenau on Lake Constance: hardly any other works have formed the image of Ottonian art as much as the miniatures which originated there. One of the greatest Reichenau works was the Codex Egberti, containing narrative miniatures of the life of Christ, the earliest such cycle, in a fusion of styles including Carolingian traditions as well as traces of insular and Byzantine influences. Other well k
Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude, Nivelles
The Collegiate Church of St. Gertrude is a historical building in Nivelles, Walloon Brabant, Belgium, built in the 11th century; the church was built to serve the Abbey of Nivelles a monastery of Benedictine nuns founded by Itta of Metz, the widow of Pepin of Landen, mother of Gertrude of Nivelles, the first abbess, in the 7th century. Her remains are buried in a chapel of the church; this structure was built in the early 11th century and consecrated in 1046 by Wazo, Bishop of Liège, in the presence of the Emperor Henry III. It is an example both of Ottonian architecture. With the growing membership of members of the nobility among the nuns starting in the 12th century, the community changed its character from its monastic one until it had become a community of canonesses regular by the 15th century, at the latest. At that point, the church acquired its status of collegiate church. Claudine Donnay-Rocmans writes in the Patrimoine majeur de Wallonie that the interior dimensions recall: "the splendour of the Ottonian liturgy, as people are able to know it from the Abbey of Essen".
The westwork has been reconstructed. Its current appearance is the result of a long reconstruction finished in 1984, following severe damage from bombing by the German Luftwaffe in May 1940, in the course of the Battle of Belgium; the noble Chapter of the canonesses regular became known and had important privileges, Most of the Noble canonesses were daughters of important families. Ursule, Countess of Berlo: Abesse. Marie Magdeleine de Montmorency, daughter of John II de Montmorency, prince of Robecque. Marie Anne of Grave, granddaughter of Gilles van der Noot, Baron of Carloo. Barbe Josephine of Grave, idem. Marie Philippe of Grave, idem. Marie Albertine de Berghes-Saint-Winoc Marie d'Oyenbrugghe de Duras Marie Isabella de la Tour et Taxis, daughter of Eugene Alexandre, married to Guillaume Alexandre de Wignacourt, Count of Lannoy. Maria Clara de't Serclaes, daughet of Count John t Serclaes. Antoinette Francoise of Arberg, daughter of Nicolas, count of Arberg. Marie Josepha Taye, daughter of the Marquess of Wemmel, married to the Marquess of Assche.
Isabeau-Angélique Van Zuylen, dite d'Erpe Helen de Lannoy, daughter of Valentin. Anna Maria de Robles, daughter of Jean de Roblès, 1st Count of Annappes, married to Conrad d'Ursel. Marie-Francoise d'Estourmel, married to Jean-Francois de Jauche. Itta of Metz, foundress of the abbey Gertrude of Nivelles, first abbess of the monastery which this church served Ermentrude, daughter of Reginar IV, Count of Mons and Hedwig of France
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Matilda. Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936, he continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies; this reduced the various dukes, co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen royal authority and subjected its clergy to his personal control. After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe; the victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto a reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom.
By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. The patronage of Otto and his immediate successors facilitated a so-called "Ottonian Renaissance" of arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome. Otto's years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son Otto II in April 972. Otto returned to Germany in August 972 and died at Memleben in May 973. Otto II succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda, the daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, a Saxon count in Westphalia. Henry had married Hatheburg of Merseburg a daughter of a Saxon count, in 906, but this marriage was annulled in 909 after she had given birth to Henry's first son and Otto's half-brother Thankmar.
Otto had four full siblings: Hedwig, Gerberga and Bruno. On 23 December 918, King of East Francia and Duke of Franconia, died. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia, the presumptive heir, to offer the crown of East Francia to Otto's father Henry. Although Conrad and Henry had been at odds with one another since 912, Henry had not opposed the king since 915. Furthermore, Conrad's repeated battles with German dukes, most with Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, had weakened the position and resources of the Conradines. After several months of hesitation and the other Frankish and Saxon nobles elected Henry as king at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in May 919. For the first time, a Saxon instead of a Frank reigned over the kingdom. Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new king, but Arnulf of Bavaria did not recognize Henry's position. According to the Annales iuvavenses, Arnulf was elected king by the Bavarians in opposition to Henry, but his "reign" was short-lived.
In 921, Henry forced him into submission. Arnulf had to accept Henry's sovereignty. Otto first gained experience as a military commander when the German kingdom fought against Wendish tribes on its eastern border. While campaigning against the Wends/West Slavs in 929, Otto's illegitimate son William, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was born to a captive Wendish noblewoman. With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, the king began to prepare his succession over the kingdom. No written evidence for his arrangements is extant, but during this time Otto is first called king in a document of the Abbey of Reichenau. While Henry consolidated power within Germany, he prepared for an alliance with Anglo-Saxon England by finding a bride for Otto. Association with another royal house would give Henry additional legitimacy and strengthen the bonds between the two Saxon kingdoms. To seal the alliance, King Æthelstan of England sent Henry two of his half-sisters, so he could choose the one which best pleased him.
Henry selected Eadgyth as Otto's bride and the two were married in 930. Several years shortly before Henry's death, an Imperial Diet at Erfurt formally ratified the king's succession arrangements; some of his estates and treasures were to be distributed among Thankmar and Bruno. But departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the king designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes. Henry died from the effects of a cerebral stroke on 2 July 936 at his palace, the Kaiserpfalz in Memleben, was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey. At the time of his death, all of the various German tribes were united in a single realm. At the age of 24, Otto assumed his father's position as Duke of Saxony and King of Germany, his coronation was held on 7 August 936 in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, where Otto was anointed and crowned by Hildebert, the Archbishop of Mainz. Though he was a Saxon by birth, Otto appeared at the coronation in Frankish dress in an attempt to demonstrate his sovereignty over the Duchy of Lotharingia and his role as true successor to Charlemagne
Ottonian art is a style in pre-romanesque German art, covering some works from the Low Countries, northern Italy and eastern France. It was named by the art historian Hubert Janitschek after the Ottonian dynasty which ruled Germany and northern Italy between 919 and 1024 under the kings Henry I, Otto I, Otto II, Otto III and Henry II. With Ottonian architecture, it is a key component of the Ottonian Renaissance. However, the style neither ended to neatly coincide with the rule of the dynasty, it emerged some decades into their rule and persisted past the Ottonian emperors into the reigns of the early Salian dynasty, which lacks an artistic "style label" of its own. In the traditional scheme of art history, Ottonian art follows Carolingian art and precedes Romanesque art, though the transitions at both ends of the period are gradual rather than sudden. Like the former and unlike the latter, it was largely a style restricted to a few of the small cities of the period, important monasteries, as well as the court circles of the emperor and his leading vassals.
After the decline of the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire was re-established under the Saxon Ottonian dynasty. From this emerged a renewed faith in the idea of Empire and a reformed Church, creating a period of heightened cultural and artistic fervour, it was in this atmosphere that masterpieces were created that fused the traditions from which Ottonian artists derived their inspiration: models of Late Antique and Byzantine origin. Surviving Ottonian art is largely religious, in the form of illuminated manuscripts and metalwork, was produced in a small number of centres for a narrow range of patrons in the circle of the Imperial court, as well as important figures in the church; however much of it was designed for display to a wider public of pilgrims. The style is grand and heavy, sometimes to excess, less sophisticated than the Carolingian equivalents, with less direct influence from Byzantine art and less understanding of its classical models, but around 1000 a striking intensity and expressiveness emerge in many works, as "a solemn monumentality is combined with a vibrant inwardness, an unworldly, visionary quality with sharp attention to actuality, surface patterns of flowing lines and rich bright colours with passionate emotionalism".
Following late Carolingian styles, "presentation portraits" of the patrons of manuscripts are prominent in Ottonian art, much Ottonian art reflected the dynasty's desire to establish visually a link to the Christian rulers of Late Antiquity, such as Constantine and Justinian as well as to their Carolingian predecessors Charlemagne. This goal was accomplished in various ways. For example, the many Ottonian ruler portraits include elements, such as province personifications, or representatives of the military and the Church flanking the emperor, with a lengthy imperial iconographical history; as well as the reuse of motifs from older imperial art, the removal of spolia from Late Antique structures in Rome and Ravenna and their incorporation into Ottonian buildings was a device intended to suggest imperial continuity. This was the intention of Otto I when he removed columns, some of porphyry, other building materials from the Palace of Theoderic in Ravenna and reused them in his new cathedral at Magdeburg.
The one thing the ruler portraits attempt is a close likeness of the individual features of a ruler. In a continuation and intensification of late Carolingian trends, many miniatures contain presentation miniatures depicting the donors of the manuscripts to a church, including bishops and abbesses, the emperor. In some cases successive miniatures show a kind of relay: in the Hornbach Sacramentary the scribe presents the book to his abbot, who presents it to St Pirmin, founder of Hornbach Abbey, who presents it to St Peter, who presents it to Christ, altogether taking up eight pages to stress the unity and importance of the "command structure" binding church and state, on earth and in heaven. Byzantine art remained an influence with the marriage of the Greek princess Theophanu to Otto II, imported Byzantine elements enamels and ivories, are incorporated into Ottonian metalwork such as book covers. However, if there were actual Greek artists working in Germany in the period, they have left less trace than their predessors in Carolingian times.
The manuscripts were both scribed and illuminated by monks with specialized skills, some of whose names are preserved, but there is no evidence as to the artists who worked in metal and ivory, who are assumed to have been laymen, though there were some monastic goldsmiths in the Early Medieval period, some lay brothers and lay assistants employed by monasteries. While secular jewellery supplied a steady stream of work for goldsmiths, ivory carving at this period was for the church, may have been centred in monasteries, although wall-paintings seems to have been done by laymen. Ottonian monasteries produced most if not all of the most magnificent medieval illuminated manuscripts, they were a major art form of the time, monasteries received direct sponsorship from emperors and bishops, having the best in equipment and talent available. The range of illuminated texts was largely restricted to the main liturgical books, with few secular works being so treated. In contrast to manuscripts of other periods, it is often possible to say with
Tribune is an ambiguous — and misused — architectural term which can have several meanings. Today it most refers to a dais or stage-like platform, or — in a vaguer sense — any place from which a speech can be prominently made; the English word "tribune" was derived as early as 1762 from Italian words. These in turn stemmed from Medieval Latin tribuna and from Classical Latin tribunal, the elevated placing of a tribune's seat for official functions in the manner of a throne. In ancient Rome, the term was used of a semicircular apse in a Roman basilica, with a raised platform, where a presiding magistrate sat in an official chair. Subsequently, it applied to any raised structure from which speeches were delivered, including makeshift wooden structures in the Roman Forum and the private box of the emperor at the Circus Maximus. In Medieval, ecclesiastical architecture, the term applies to an area within a vaulted or semi-domed apse in a room or church. In this sense a tribune may contain bishop's seat.
These features were common in Roman and Byzantine church architecture. In these Christian basilicas the term is retained for the semicircular recess behind the choir, as at San Clemente in Rome, Sant'Apollinare in Classe in Ravenna, San Zeno at Verona, or San Miniato near Florence. A secular example is its use for the celebrated octagon room of the Uffizi Palace at Florence; the sense of the term is sometimes extended to balcony, or triforium. In a church, it may refer to an open arcade overlooking the nave of a church — or indeed any large hall — situated below a clerestory; the term is loosely applied to various other raised spaces in secular or ecclesiastical buildings — in the latter sometimes in the place of pulpit, as in the Priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs at Paris. Thus, "tribune" can refer to a dais or stage-like platform, or in a vaguer sense any place in a building from which a speech can be prominently made, which seems a return to the original function of the early Roman tribunal.
This is the origin of the common metaphorical use of "tribune" in the names of newspapers and broadcast news programs. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tribune". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 265
Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew
The Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew is an historical building in Liège, Belgium. Founded outside the city walls, it was built in coal sandstone, starting in the late 11th century and lasting until the late 12th century, it underwent, like most ancient religious buildings, modifications through the centuries. The Meuse Romanesque—Ottonian architecture character of its architecture remained rooted; the 18th century saw the addition of two more aisles, the opening of a neoclassical portal in the walls of the westwork, the French Baroque redecoration of the interior. The interior of the western section has been restored back to the original style; the Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew was one of the original seven collegiate churches of Liège, which included the Churches of St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John, St. Denis, St. Martin, the Holy Cross, until the Liège Revolution of 1789 collectively comprised the "secondary clergy" in the First Estate of the Prince-bishopric of Liège. In 2006, the church emerged from heavy restoration work lasting seven years and involving 10,000 replaced stones and the restoration of the polychromy of the walls).
The church contains numerous works of art, among which may be mentioned The Glorification of the Holy Cross, a tableau of the local painter Bertholet Flemalle. St. Bartholomew is the site of one of the most known examples of ecclesiastical Mosan art, a baptismal font attributed to the goldsmith Renier de Huy, it was commissioned at the beginning of the 12th century by the Abbot Hellin for the Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Fonts, now destroyed, where local baptisms traditionally were administered. The font was installed in St. Bartholomew Church in 1804, after having been spared from the occupying forces of the French Revolutionary Army; this work heralds a resurgence of Greek influences on Western art. The brass tank, resting on ten ox figures, presents five scenes: the Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan, the preaching of St. John the Baptist, the baptism of the catechumens, the baptism of the Centurion Cornelius, the baptism of the philosopher Craton
Nivelles is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. The Nivelles municipality includes the old communes of Baulers, Bornival and Monstreux; the Nivelles district includes all the municipalities in Walloon Brabant. The Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude has been classified as a heritage site of Wallonia. Starting in 4000 BC, the Nivelles region was turned into agricultural land by the Danubian settlers. Most of their ancestral Rubanean civilization was destroyed by the Roman invaders during the first century AD. In turn, most of the Roman constructions, including villas, were destroyed during the Germanic invasions of the 3rd century. In the 7th century, the territory was part of the Austrasian Frankish kingdom, the Mayor of the Palace, Pippin of Landen, rebuilt a villa there that covered more than 78 km². After Pippin's death in 640, the bishop of Maastricht, the future Saint Amand, urged Pippin's widow, Itta, to found an abbey in their villa. Itta's daughter, became the monastery's first abbess and was venerated as a saint upon her death.
The growing influx of pilgrims necessitated the construction of ever-bigger churches, which culminated in the huge Romanesque structure that still stands today. The dedication of the church took place in 1046 in the presence of Wazo, Prince-Bishop of Liège, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor; this was the golden age of the Nivelles monastery, which now owned territories as far as Friesland, the Moselle and the Rhine. In the 13th century, the city that grew around the church became part of the Duchy of Brabant; the population was artisans and guild members, who did not hesitate to fight the abbesses and the dukes to obtain their rights. These rights were granted by Joanna, Duchess of Brabant in the 14th century. In 1647, an important uprising by the thread manufacturers resulted in many of the city's entrepreneurs leaving for France, leading to the city's economic decline; the wars of the 17th century between France and the Spanish Netherlands made the situation worse as Nivelles went through successive sieges and military occupations.
The Austrian and French regimes of the 18th century brought religious and administrative reforms to the city. In 1830, Nivelles was one of the first cities to send patriotic troops to Brussels to fight in the Belgian Revolution; the following years were marked by the growth of heavy industry, including metallurgy and railway construction. Bombing of the city during World War I brought some damage to buildings, but greater devastation occurred during World War II on May 14, 1940, when the entire city centre was destroyed, leaving only the walls of the collegiate church standing; the rebuilding of the church was completed in 1984, but remains can be seen of wall fragments on the south side of the collegiate. The collegiate church of Gertrude of Nivelles, patron saint of the city, dates from the 11th to the 13th century and is one of the best examples of Romanesque style in Belgium, it has been classified as one of Europe's major heritage sites. Tombs from the Merovingian and Carolingian periods have been found under the church.
The Romanesque crypt is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. The two-meter-tall statue that strikes the hours in one of the towers is affectionately known as "Jean de Nivelles". Jean dates from around 1400; the Recollets convent and its church date from the 16th century. Nivelles has an archaeological museum, which complements the visit at Saint Gertrude; the "Dodaine" park provides a welcome green space on the southern side of the town. Like Ath, Nivelles boasts a collection of giant puppets, one of which, dates from 1365; the Goliath family is accompanied by an odd collection of giant animals, including a lion, a camel, a unicorn, a dragon. Originating from the 13th century, the well-attended Saint-Gertrude religious procession takes place annually. Nivelles carnival takes place on the first weekend of Lent. Like the Binche carnival, that of Nivelles includes the famous Gilles; the city's gastronomic specialty is the tarte al d'jote, a kind of quiche that includes lots of local cheese, greens and butter.
Nivelles is known for its 49-bell carillon and its four named canons. In 1972 and 1974, the Belgian Grand Prix was hosted at the Nivelles-Baulers circuit. Emerson Fittipaldi won the race both times; the circuit proved unpopular and has since been demolished. In September 2007, Nivelles jointly hosted the VII European Handball Championship of Ballpelote, International fronton and International game with Buizingen. St Gertrude of Nivelles – Convent cfounder St Wilfretrudis of Nivelles – Abbess and niece of Gertrude Pippin of Landen, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian Kings Gertrude of Nivelles, Pippin's daughter and abbess of the Nivelles monastery Johann Tserclaes, Holy Roman Empire general in the Thirty Years' War Louis-Joseph Seutin and surgeon Jules Louis Guillery and politician Henri Delmotte, novelist Didier Theys, car racer France: Saintes Brabant killers Official town website, in French, Dutch and English