The Ouachita River is a 605-mile-long river that runs south and east through the U. S. states of Arkansas and Louisiana, joining the Tensas River to form the Black River near Jonesville, Louisiana. It is the 25th-longest river in the United States; the Ouachita River begins in the Ouachita Mountains near Arkansas. It flows east into a reservoir created by Blakely Mountain Dam; the North Fork and South Fork of the Ouachita flow into Lake Ouachita to join the main stream. Portions of the river in this region flow through the Ouachita National Forest. From the lake, the Ouachita flows south into Lake Hamilton, a reservoir created by Carpenter Dam, named after Flavius Josephus Carpenter; the city of Hot Springs lies on the north side of Lake Hamilton. Another reservoir, Lake Catherine, impounds the Ouachita just below Lake Hamilton. Below Lake Catherine, the river flows free through most of the rest of Arkansas. Just below Lake Catherine, the river bends south near Malvern, collects the Caddo River near Arkadelphia.
Downstream, the Little Missouri River joins the Ouachita. After passing the city of Camden, shortly downstream from where dredging for navigational purposes begins, the river collects the waters of Smackover Creek and the Ouachita's main tributary, the Saline River. South of the Saline, the Ouachita flows into Lake Jack Lee, a reservoir created by the Ouachita and Black River Project, just north of the Louisiana state line; the Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge encompasses the Ouachita from the Saline River to Lake Jack Lee's mouth. Below Lake Jack Lee, the Ouachita continues south into Louisiana; the river flows south through the state, collecting the tributary waters of Bayou Bartholomew, Bayou de Loutre, Bayou d'Arbonne, the Boeuf River, the Tensas River. The Ouachita has five locks and dams along its length, located at Camden and Felsenthal, in Columbia and Jonesville, Louisiana; the river below the junction with the Tensas at 31°16′22″N 91°50′01″W is called the Black River and flows for 41.6 miles in Catahoula and Concordia parishes until it joins the Red River, which flows into both the Atchafalaya River and the Mississippi River, via the Old River Control Structure.
The river is named for one of several historic tribes who lived along it. Others included the Caddo, Osage Nation, Tensa and Choctaw; the historian Muriel Hazel Wright suggested that word Ouachita owa chito is a Choctaw phrase meaning "hunt big" or "good hunting grounds". Before the rise of the historic tribes, their indigenous ancestors lived along the river for thousands of years. In the Lower Mississippi Valley, they began building monumental earthwork mounds in the Middle Archaic period; the earliest construction was Watson Brake, an 11-mound complex built about 3500 BC by hunter gatherers in present-day Louisiana. The discovery and dating of several such early sites in northern Louisiana has changed the traditional model, which associated mound building with sedentary, agricultural societies, but these cultures did not develop for thousands of years; the largest such prehistoric mound was destroyed in the 20th century during construction of a bridge at Jonesville, Louisiana. Built by the Mississippian culture, which rose about 1000 AD on the Mississippi and its tributaries, this mound was reported in use as late as 1540 by the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto.
On his expedition through this area, he encountered Indians occupying the site. A lightning strike destroyed the temple on the mound that year, seen as a bad omen by the tribe, they never rebuilt the temple, were recorded as abandoning the site in 1736. During the late 1700s, when the area was controlled by the Spanish and French, the river served as a route for early colonists, for land speculators such as the self-styled Baron de Bastrop; the "Bastrop lands" passed into the hands of another speculator, former Vice President Aaron Burr. He saw potential for big profits in the event of a war with Spain following the Louisiana Purchase. Burr and many of his associates were arrested for treason, before their band of armed settlers reached the Ouachita. During the 1830s, the Ouachita River Valley attracted land speculators from New York and southeastern cities, its rich soil and accessibility due to the country's elaborate river steamboat network made it desirable. Developers cultivated land for large cotton plantations.
Steamboats ran scheduled trips between Camden and New Orleans, for example. A person could travel from any eastern city to the Ouachita River without touching land, except to transfer from one steamboat to another. One of the investors from the east was Meriwether Lewis Randolph, the youngest grandson of Thomas Jefferson, he was building a home on the Ouachita River in what is now Clark County, when he died of malaria in 1837. He had been appointed Secretary of the Arkansas Territory by President Andrew Jackson in 1835, had relinquished his commission when Arkansas became a state in 1836. Skirmishes took place near the Ouachita River during the American Civil War. On September 1, 1863, forces of the Seventeenth Wisconsin led by Brig. Gen. M. M. Crocker crossed from Natchez, Mississippi to Vidalia, the seat of Concordia Parish, moved toward the lower Ouachita in the section called the Black River; that night the Confederate steamer Rinaldo was captured by Union forces after a short artillery duel and was destroyed.
Crocker fought with the few troops stationed on the Black River and moved toward Harrisonburg, seat of Catahoula Parish. A 337-mile-long "Ouachita-Black Rivers Navigation Project" began
The Plaquemine culture was an archaeological culture centered on the Lower Mississippi River valley. It had a deep history in the area stretching back through the earlier Coles Creek and Troyville cultures to the Marksville culture; the Natchez and related Taensa peoples were their historic period descendants. The type site for the culture is the Medora Site in Louisiana; the Plaquemine culture was a Mississippian culture variant centered on the Mississippi River valley, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to just south of its junction with the Arkansas River, encompassing the Yazoo River basin and Natchez Bluffs in western Mississippi, the lower Ouachita and Red River valleys in southeastern Arkansas, eastern Louisiana. They were agriculturists who grew maize, squash and tobacco but they hunted and gathered wild plants; the Medora Site in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is the type site for the period, defined by Dr. James A. Ford and George I. Quimby after excavations at the site in the late 1930s and early 1940s.
The name for the culture is taken from the proximity of Medora to the nearby town of Plaquemine. It was inhabited from 1300 to 1600 CE and it consisted of two platform mounds separated by a plaza. Pottery from the site was overwhelmingly grog tempered with only a few bits of shell tempered pottery being found; these cultural hallmarks along with the implementation of intensive maize agriculture have become Plaquemine culture designators. Plaquemine was an outgrowth of the earlier Coles Creek culture, they experienced significant contact with Mississippian culture peoples to their north and east and the Terminal Coles Creek/early Plaquemine period was contemporaneous with the height of the Middle Mississippian culture at Cahokia in the American Bottom near St. Louis, Missouri. After Cahokias collapse in the mid 14th century they coexisted with Late Mississippian groups centered on eastern Arkansas near Memphis. Archaeologists debate whether Plaquemine is a local development or if the changes in their society that led from Coles Creek to Plaquemine was a result of contact with their Mississippian neighbors.
Many of these Coles Creek sites continued use by their Plaquemine descendants, Plaquemine sites were still being used in the early 1700s during the early historic period. The Plaquemine period saw the re-purposing and expansion of sites occupied during the Coles Creek period. Unlike Mississippian settlements which were large nucleated villages, Plaquemine settlements were barely populated ceremonial civic centers whose only permanent residents were the elites and their families and their attendants and servants. Everyone else lived in small hamlets and farmsteads dispersed across the landscape. Coupled with the adoption of maize agriculture during this period was a population explosion and an increase in the number and size of the sites; the ethnographic record from the historic period suggests some large sites such as Winterville or Emerald were the centers of paramount chiefdoms who exerted control over other smaller civic sites. These second tier rulers, part of a hereditary nobility, would have been related matrilineally to the ruling paramount chief.
An inherently volatile system, sometimes factions in smaller centers attained supremacy and power would shift from one civic center to another, resulting in the partial or total abandonment of the former capital. Beginning during the Terminal Coles Creek period, Mississippian cultures far upstream from the Plaquemine area began expanding their reach southward. Excavations in the Yazoo Basin area of Mississippi have shown a Cahokia Horizon as extra-regional exotic goods, such as Cahokian pottery and other artifacts, began to be deposited in Coles Creek-Plaquemine culture sites. Through repeated contacts, groups in Mississippi and Louisiana began adopting Mississippian techniques for making pottery, as well as ceremonial objects and social structuring. By the mid 15th century influences from Pensacola culture peoples had begun spreading westward across Barataria Bay and the Atchafalaya Basin and by 1700 had Mississipianized the local populations as far north as modern day Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Use of grog tempering for pottery at locations such as the Sims Site in southeastern Louisiana had been replaced by shell tempering. The Plaquemine peoples absorbed more Mississippian influence and the area of their distinct culture began to shrink after 1350 CE; the last enclave of purely Plaquemine culture was the southern Natchez Bluffs area, while the Yazoo Basin and Louisiana areas became a hybrid Plaquemine Mississippian culture. The earliest European account of the culture may be recorded in the journals of the Spanish expedition of Hernando de Soto. In 1542 de Soto's expedition encountered a powerful chiefdom located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River. Native sources called it "Quigualtam", the name of the polity, its capital, its paramount chief. By this point the expedition had been traversing the southeast for several years and accounts of their deplorable treatment of the indigenous populations would have been known by groups they had yet to contact in person, their encounter with the polity was violent.
When the remnants of de Sotos expedition made it down the river past Quigualtam they encountered below it another unnamed but powerful chiefdom. Various scholars have debated the id
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. Petroleum reservoirs are broadly classified as unconventional reservoirs. In case of conventional reservoirs, the occurring hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or natural gas, are trapped by overlying rock formations with lower permeability. While in unconventional reservoirs the rocks have high porosity and low permeability which keeps the hydrocarbons trapped in place, therefore not requiring a cap rock. Reservoirs are found using hydrocarbon exploration methods. A region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum from below ground; because the oil reservoirs extend over a large area several hundred kilometres across, full exploitation entails multiple wells scattered across the area. In addition, there may be exploratory wells probing the edges, pipelines to transport the oil elsewhere, support facilities; because an oil field may be remote from civilization, establishing a field is an complicated exercise in logistics.
This goes beyond requirements for drilling. For instance, workers require housing to allow them to work onsite for years. In turn and equipment require electricity and water. In cold regions, pipelines may need to be heated. Excess natural gas may be burned off if there is no way to make use of it—which requires a furnace and pipes to carry it from the well to the furnace. Thus, the typical oil field resembles a small, self-contained town in the midst of a landscape dotted with drilling rigs or the pump jacks, which are known as "nodding donkeys" because of their bobbing arm. Several companies, such as Hill International, Esso, Weatherford International, Schlumberger Limited, Baker Hughes and Halliburton, have organizations that specialize in the large-scale construction of the infrastructure and providing specialized services required to operate a field profitably. More than 40,000 oil fields are scattered around the globe, on land and offshore; the largest are the Ghawar Field in Saudi Arabia and the Burgan Field in Kuwait, with more than 60 billion barrels estimated in each.
Most oil fields are much smaller. According to the US Department of Energy, as of 2003 the US alone had over 30,000 oil fields. In the modern age, the location of oil fields with proven oil reserves is a key underlying factor in many geopolitical conflicts; the term "oilfield" is used as a shorthand to refer to the entire petroleum industry. However, it is more accurate to divide the oil industry into three sectors: upstream and downstream. Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum; as a consequence and natural gas are found together. In common usage, deposits rich in oil are known as oil fields, deposits rich in natural gas are called natural gas fields. In general, organic sediments buried in depths of 1,000 m to 6,000 m generate oil, while sediments buried deeper and at higher temperatures generate natural gas; the deeper the source, the "drier" the gas. Because both oil and natural gas are lighter than water, they tend to rise from their sources until they either seep to the surface or are trapped by a non-permeable stratigraphic trap.
They can be extracted from the trap by drilling. The largest natural gas field is South Pars/Asalouyeh gas field, shared between Iran and Qatar; the second largest natural gas field is the Urengoy gas field, the third largest is the Yamburg gas field, both in Russia. Like oil, natural gas is found underwater in offshore gas fields such as the North Sea, Corrib Gas Field off Ireland, near Sable Island; the technology to extract and transport offshore natural gas is different from land-based fields. It uses a few large offshore drilling rigs, due to the cost and logistical difficulties in working over water. Rising gas prices in the early 21st century encouraged drillers to revisit fields that were not considered economically viable. For example, in 2008 McMoran Exploration passed a drilling depth of over 32,000 feet at the Blackbeard site in the Gulf of Mexico. Exxon Mobil's drill rig there had reached 30,000 feet by 2006 without finding gas, before it abandoned the site. Crude oil is found in all oil reservoirs formed in the Earth's crust from the remains of once-living things.
Evidence indicates that millions of years of heat and pressure changed the remains of microscopic plant and animal into oil and natural gas. Roy Nurmi, an interpretation adviser for Schlumberger oil field services company, described the process as follows: Plankton and algae and the life that's floating in the sea, as it dies, falls to the bottom, these organisms are going to be the source of our oil and gas; when they're buried with the accumulating sediment and reach an adequate temperature, something above 50 to 70 °C they start to cook. This transformation, this change, changes them into the liquid hydrocarbons that move and migrate, will become our oil and gas reservoir. In addition to the aquatic environment, a sea, but might be a river, coral reef or algal mat, the formation of an oil or gas reservoir requires a sedimentary basin that passes through four steps: Deep burial under sand and mud. Pressure cooking. Hydrocarbon migration from the sou
The Troyville culture is an archaeological culture in areas of Louisiana and Arkansas in the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern United States. It lasted from 400 to 700 CE during the Late Woodland period, it was contemporaneous with the Coastal Troyville and Baytown cultures and was succeeded by the Coles Creek culture. Where the Baytown peoples built dispersed settlements, the Troyville people instead continued building major earthwork centers; the Troyville-Coles Creek people lived on gathered wild plants and local domesticates, maize was of only minor importance. Acorns, palmetto and squash were all more important than maize. Tobacco was cultivated as well, protein came from deer and smaller mammals, but the bounty of the region kept maize from being adopted as a staple until as late as the thirteenth century CE. Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, they are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European explorers and traders, having relationships with French and Spanish during the colonial years. The United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s. Most Chickasaw now live in Oklahoma; the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States.
Its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a system of matrilineal descent, in which children were considered to be part of the mother's clan, whence they gained their status. Some property was controlled by women, hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". A documented prior source was when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto named them as "Chicaza" when De Soto's expedition came into contact with them in 1540 as the first Europeans that explored the North American south east; the origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now Northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi, their oral history says they migrated along with the Choctaw from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi. Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.
Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.
Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. That theory does not have consensus. In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham B
West Monroe, Louisiana
West Monroe is a city in Ouachita Parish, United States. It is situated across from the neighboring city of Monroe; the two cities are referred to as the Twin Cities of northeast Louisiana. Its population was 13,065 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area; the mayor is Staci Albritton Mitchell. Laid out in 1837 as Byron by John Campbell at the foot of the ferry landing to Monroe, the town floundered and Campbell went bankrupt; the area was bought by Christopher Dabbs, a doctor from Virginia who submitted the plans for Cotton Port in 1854. It too languished until the arrival of the Vicksburg, Shreveport, & Texas Railroad and the construction of the bridge over the Ouachita. Cotton Port boomed as a river rail depot. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. West Monroe is a separate municipality from Monroe; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,250 people, 5,734 households, 3,457 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,717.2 people per square mile. There were 6,312 housing units at an average density of 818.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.9% White, 33.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. There were 5,734 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.7% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,522, the median income for a family was $35,348. Males had a median income of $28,231 versus $22,533 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,803. About 15.6% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.1% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over. The current mayor is Staci Albritton Mitchell, who has served since 2018. A 2013 "Community Impressions" report complimented the green spaces, including the Kiroli and Restoration parks, Antique Alley as important assets to the West Monroe community. According to long-term Mayor Dave Norris, the study confirms "the value of many of the projects we've focused on to enhance quality of life." The report identifies situations in need of improvement, many of which have been addressed, including insufficient or inaccurate signage to area attractions, brown water and the need to renovate certain wells, limited shopping opportunities for clothing, traffic problems on Thomas Road, the failure to promote the popular phenomenon created from the West Monroe-based A&E reality television series, Duck Dynasty.
The consultants declared West Monroe and the general area west of the Ouachita River overall as "a clean, growing friendly area... a small town atmosphere and yet... many of the amenities and features of a city." 1022nd Engineer Company of the 527th Engineer Battalion of the 225th Engineer Brigade is located in West Monroe. Charles Anding, union officer and member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from District 15 from 1988 to 1996 Evelyn Blackmon and member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from District 15 from 1984 to 1988 Milburn E. Calhoun, Pelican Books publisher Marcus R. Clark, Louisiana Supreme Court justice Donnie Copeland, former West Monroe Pentecostal assistant pastor and Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015 to 2017 Kitty DeGree, real estate developer and philanthropist, spent years in West Monroe, where she died in 2012 Chris Elrod, Christian comedian and writer Clarence Faulk, broadcaster, businessman in Ruston, born in West Monroe in 1909 William C.
Feazel, interim U. S. Senator in 1948, member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1932–1936 Bruce Fowler, opera singer Andy Griggs, country singer James D. Halsell, astronaut. Born in Monroe. William Wiley Norris, III, city and circuit court judge Webb Pierce, Country Music Hall of Fame member Cassidy Riley, professional wrestler for WWE and TNA Phil Robertson, Duck Dynasty star and founder of Duck Commander Kay Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Sadie Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Si Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Willie Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Jase Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Korie Robertson, Duck Dynasty star Bill Russell, professional basketball player, center for Boston C
The Natchez revolt, or the Natchez Massacre, was an attack by the Natchez people on French colonists near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, on November 29, 1729. The Natchez and French had lived alongside each other in the Louisiana colony for more than a decade prior to the incident conducting peaceful trade and intermarrying. After a period of deteriorating relations, Natchez leaders were provoked to revolt when the French colonial commandant, Sieur de Chépart, demanded land from a Natchez village for his own plantation near Fort Rosalie, they plotted their attack over several days and managed to conceal their plans from most of the French. In a coordinated attack on the fort and the homesteads, the Natchez killed all of the Frenchmen, while sparing most of the women and African slaves. 230 colonists were killed overall, the fort and homes were burned to the ground. When the French in New Orleans, the colonial capital, heard the news of the massacre, they feared a general Indian uprising and were concerned that the Natchez might have conspired with other tribes.
They first responded by ordering a massacre of the Chaouacha people, who had no relation to the Natchez revolt, wiping out their entire village. The French and their Choctaw allies retaliated against the Natchez villages, capturing hundreds of Natchez and selling them into slavery, although many managed to escape to the north and take refuge among the Chickasaw people; the Natchez waged low-intensity warfare against the French over the following years, but retaliatory expeditions against Natchez refugees among the Chickasaw in 1730 and 1731 forced them to move on and live as refugees among the Creek and Cherokee tribes. By 1736 the Natchez had ceased to exist as an independent people; the attack on Fort Rosalie destroyed some of the Louisiana colony's most productive farms and endangered shipments of food and trade goods on the Mississippi River. As a result, the French state returned control of Louisiana from the French West India Company to the crown in 1731, as the company had been having trouble running the colony.
Louisiana governor Étienne Périer was held responsible for the massacre and its aftermath, he was recalled to France in 1732. While descending the Mississippi River in 1682, Robert de La Salle became the first Frenchman to encounter the Natchez and declared them an ally; the Natchez lived in nine semi-autonomous villages. By 1700 the Natchez' numbers had been reduced to about 3,500 by the diseases that ravaged indigenous populations in the wake of contact with Europeans, by 1720 further epidemics had halved that population, their society was divided into a noble class called "the Suns" and a commoner class called in French "the Stinkards". Between 1699 and 1702, the Natchez received the explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in peace and allowed a French missionary to settle among them. At this time, the Natchez were at war with the Chickasaw people, who had received guns from their English allies, the Natchez expected to benefit from their relation with the French. Nonetheless, the British presence in the territory led the Natchez to split into pro-British and pro-French factions.
The central village, called Natchez or the Grand Village, was led by the paramount chief Great Sun and the war chief Tattooed Serpent, both of whom were interested in pursuing an alliance with the French. The first conflict between the French and the Natchez took place in 1716, when the Governor of Louisiana, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, passed through Natchez territory and neglected to renew the alliance with the Natchez by smoking the peace calumet; the Natchez reacted to this slight by killing four French traders. Cadillac sent his lieutenant Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville to punish the Natchez, he deceived the Natchez leaders by inviting them to attend a parley, where he ambushed and captured them, forced the Natchez to exchange their leaders for the culprits who had attacked the French. A number of random Natchez from the pro-British villages were executed; this caused French–Natchez relations to further deteriorate. As part of the terms of the peace accord following this First Natchez War, the Natchez promised to supply labor and materials for the construction of a fort for the French.
The fort was named Fort Rosalie, it was aimed at protecting the French trade monopoly in the region from British incursions. By 1717, French colonists had established the fort and a trading post in what is now Natchez, Mississippi, they granted numerous concessions for large plantations, as well as smaller farms, on land acquired from the Natchez. Relations between Natchez and colonists were friendly—some Frenchmen married and had children with Natchez women—but there were tensions. There were reports of colonists abusing Natchez, forcing them to provide labor or goods, as more colonists arrived, their concessions encroached on Natchez lands. From 1722 to 1724, brief armed conflicts between the Natchez and French were settled through negotiations between Louisiana governor Bienville and Natchez war chief Tattooed Serpent. In 1723, Bienville had been informed that some Natchez had harassed villagers, he razed the Natchez village of White Apple and enslaved several villagers, only to discover that the alleged harassment had been faked by the colonists to frame the Natchez.
One of the skirmishes in 1724 consisted of the murder of a Natchez chief's son by a colonist, to which the N