The oud is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses used predominantly in the music of Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Kurdistan, Sudan, Greece, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, North African Chaabi and Andalusian classic music. The oud is similar to modern lutes, to Western lutes; the modern oud is most derived from the Persian barbat. Similar instruments have been used in the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia for thousands of years, including from Mesopotamia, North Africa, the Caucasus, the Levant; the oud, as a fundamental difference with the western lute, has a smaller neck. It is the direct ancestor of the European lute; the oldest surviving oud is thought to be at the Museum of Musical Instruments. An early description of the "modern" oud was given by 11th-century musician and author Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham in his compendium on music Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn; the first known complete description of the ‛ūd and its construction is found in the epistle Risāla fī-l-Luḥūn wa-n-Nagham by 9th-century Philosopher of the Arabs Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī.
Kindī's description stands thus: " length will be: thirty-six joint fingers – with good thick fingers – and the total will amount to three ashbār. And its width: fifteen fingers, and its depth seven and a half fingers. And the measurement of the width of the bridge with the remainder behind: six fingers. Remains the length of the strings: thirty fingers and on these strings take place the division and the partition, because it is the sounding length; this is. For the depth, seven fingers and a half and this is the half of the width and the quarter of the length, and the neck must be one third of the length and it is: ten fingers. Remains the vibrating body: twenty fingers, and that the back be well rounded and its "thinning" towards the neck, as if it had been a round body drawn with a compass, cut in two in order to extract two ‛ūds". In Pre-Islamic Arabia and Mesopotamia, the oud had only three strings, with a small musical box and a long neck without any tuning pegs, but during the Islamic era the musical box was enlarged, a fourth string was added, the base for the tuning pegs or pegbox was added.
In the first centuries of Arabian civilisation, the oud had four courses, tuned in successive fourths. Curt Sachs said they were called maṭlaṭ, maṭnā and zīr. "As early as the ninth century" a fifth string ḥād was sometimes added "to make the range of two octaves complete". It was highest in pitch, placed lowest in its positioning in relation to other strings. Modern tuning preserves the ancient succession of fourths, with adjunctions, which may be tuned differently following regional or personal preferences. Sachs gives one tuning for this arrangement of five pairs of strings, d, e, a, d', g'. Historical sources indicate, he was well-known for founding a school of music in Andalusia, one of the places where the oud or lute entered Europe. Another mention of the fifth string was made by Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham in Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn; the Arabic: العود denotes a thin piece of wood similar to the shape of a straw. It may refer to the wooden plectrum traditionally used for playing the oud, to the thin strips of wood used for the back, or to the wooden soundboard that distinguishes it from similar instruments with skin-faced bodies.
Henry George Farmer considers the similitude between al-ʿawda. Oud means "from wood" and "stick" in Arabic. Multiple theories have been proposed for the origin of the Arabic name. A music scholar by the name of Eckhard Neubauer suggested that oud may be an Arabic borrowing from the Persian word rōd or rūd, which meant string. Another researcher, archaeomusicologist Richard J. Dumbrill, suggests that rud came from the Sanskrit rudrī and transferred to Arabic through a Semitic language. However, another theory according to Semitic language scholars, is that the Arabic ʿoud is derived from Syriac ʿoud-a, meaning "wooden stick" and "burning wood"—cognate to Biblical Hebrew ’ūḏ, referring to a stick used to stir logs in a fire. Names for the instrument in different languages include Arabic: عود ʿūd or ʿoud, Armenian: ուդ, Syriac: ܥܘܕ ūd, Greek: ούτι oúti, Hebrew: עוּד ud, Persian: بربط barbat, Turkish: ud or ut, Azeri: ud, Somali: cuud or kaban; the complete history of the development of the lute family is not compiled at this date, but archaeomusicologists have worked to piece together a lute family history.
The influential organologist Curt Sachs distinguished between the "long-necked lute" and the short-necked variety. Douglas Alton Smith argues the long-necked variety should not be called lute at all because it existed for at least a millennium before the appearance of the short-necked instrument that evolved into what is now known the lute. Musicologist Richard Dumbrill today uses the word more categorically to discuss instruments that existed millennia b
The 2002 Kraft Nabisco Championship was a women's professional golf tournament, held March 28–31 at Mission Hills Country Club in Rancho Mirage, California. This was the 31st edition of the Kraft Nabisco Championship, the twentieth as a major championship. Defending champion Annika Sörenstam shot a final round 68 to win the second of her three titles at this event, one stroke ahead of runner-up and compatriot Liselotte Neumann; the co-leaders after 54 holes were Sörenstam and Karrie Webb, the 2000 champion. Through 2017, this is the sole successful title defense at this major championship. Before it became a major in 1983, Sandra Post won consecutively in 1978 and 1979. Source: Source: Sunday, March 31, 2002 Source:Amateurs: Lorena Ochoa, Aree Song, Naree Song, Meredith Duncan. Golf Observer leaderboard
Ivana Daniela Santilli is a Canadian R&B singer and multi-instrumentalist, who has recorded as a solo artist and as a member of the 1990s R&B/pop trio Bass is Base. Santilli was born to a French-Canadian mother. Santilli's earliest performances began at age 9 playing trumpet for her father’s Italian wedding band in Toronto. Ivana is fluent in both Italian and French. During her schooling, she hooked up with her first band, Bass is Base, a band which gained national attention; the trio’s funk and soul fusion garnered them a number of Juno, CMVA, MMVA awards, they released two albums with A&M/Polygram & Island Records in the U. S. Bass is Base broke up, Ivana asked to be released from her contract with A&M records, she recorded 10 new songs as a solo artist within a month of the breakup. She began working as a session musician with various bands: Soul Attorneys, Women ah Run Tings, Punjabi by Nature, Holly McNarland. Santilli began a solo career in 1999, she performed in Toronto at The Bamboo Club in March, released her album Brown in April.
That year she performed in Hamilton as part of Showcase'99. The album Brown sold well, outselling some major label releases; the album included soul and bossa nova, as well as drum'n bass, featured Santilli's vocals and trumpet. The album led to a Juno nomination in 2000 as best new solo artist, featured'"If Ever I Fall", a duet with singer Glenn Lewis during his early career. Santilli toured across North America, including a performance at the 1999 Stardust Picnic festival at Historic Fort York, Toronto, she played live with James Brown, Tito Puente, Barenaked Ladies, De La Soul, Brand New Heavies, The Fugees, Jann Arden, Maceo Parker, Sylk130, Bahamadia and The Roots. One of her three performances during the Montreal Jazz Festival was the subject of a one-hour Bravo! television special. Peer publishing signed her as a writer in the fall of 2000. In August 2004, she released her second album, Corduroy Boogie, which included the singles, "Deserve", "Superstar" and "What Matters"; the video version of "What Matters" appears on a various artists compilation entitled Required Listening.
This album featured collaborations with James Poyser, King Britt, Dego, Kaidi Tatham, soul legend Omar, Stuart Matthewman. She became involved as a keyboardist in remix collaborations for Jazzanova, King Britt, Vikter Duplaix, Steven Spacek, All Saints, Appleton: "Don't Worry", Roy Ayers, Larry Gold. After touring Japan, Europe, in New York, she appeared as an instrumentalist on various soundtrack recordings for film, her third album TO. NY was released in June, 2008 with the singles "Whateva U Want" and "Been Thru This" which reached #91 on the Canadian Hot 100. Santilli signed to CP Records and released her fourth studio album, Santilli in June, 2010; the first single is "Your Girl Tonight" and the second single is "Letting Go". Six of the songs on Santilli are new recordings, while the remainder were from TO. NY. Ivana's 5th studio album was prereleased on February 13, 2015 and released digitally worldwide on March 10, 2015. April 1999: Brown August 2004: Corduroy Boogie June 2008: TO. NY review June 2010: Santilli March 2015: Late Night Light Official website CTV eTalk interview Ivana Santilli at Jam!/Canoe