Oude Kerk, Amsterdam

The Oude Kerk is Amsterdam’s oldest building and youngest art institutes. The building was founded circa 1213 and consecrated in 1306 by the bishop of Utrecht with Saint Nicolas as its patron saint. After the Reformation in 1578, it became a Calvinist church, it stands in De Wallen, now Amsterdam's main red-light district. The square surrounding the church is the Oudekerksplein. By around 1213, a wooden chapel had been erected at the location of today's Oude Kerk. Over time, this structure was replaced by a stone church, consecrated in 1306; the church has seen a number of renovations performed by 15 generations of Amsterdam citizens. The church stood for only a half-century. Not long after the turn of the 15th century and south transepts were added to the church creating a cross formation. Work on these renovations was completed in 1460, though it is that progress was interrupted by the great fires that besieged the city in 1421 and 1452; this delayed the building for 1 year. Before the Alteratie, or Reformation in Amsterdam of 1578, the Oude Kerk was Roman Catholic.

Following William the Silent’s defeat of the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt, the church was taken over by the Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church. Throughout the 16th-century battles, the church was looted and defaced on numerous occasions, first in the Beeldenstorm of 1566, when a mob destroyed most of the church art and fittings, including an altarpiece with a central panel by Jan van Scorel and side panels painted on both sides by Maarten van Heemskerck. Only the paintings on the ceiling, which were unreachable, were spared. Locals would gather in the church to gossip, peddlers sold their goods, beggars sought shelter; this was not tolerated by the Calvinists and the homeless were expelled. In 1681, the choir was closed-off with an oak screen. Above the screen is the text, The prolonged misuse of God's church, were here undone again in the year seventy-eight, referring to the Reformation of 1578. In that same year, the Oude Kerk became home to the registry of marriages, it was used as the city archives.

The chest was kept safe in the iron chapel. The bust of famous organist and composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck celebrates the lifetime he spent playing in the church, his early career began at the age of fifteen when he succeeded his deceased father Pieter Swybertszoon as the Oude Kerk’s organist. He went on to compose music for all 150 Psalms and secured an international reputation as a leading Dutch composer, his music would be played over the city from the church’s bell tower. He is buried in the church. Rembrandt was a frequent visitor to the Oude Kerk and his children were all christened here, it is the only building in Amsterdam that remains in its original state since Rembrandt walked its halls. In the Holy Sepulchre is a small Rembrandt exhibition, a shrine to his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh, buried here in 1642; each year on 9 March, at 8:39 am, the early morning sun illuminates her tomb. An early spring breakfast event is held annually; the church covers an area of some 3,300 m2. The foundations were set on an artificial mound, thought to be the most solid ground of the settlement in this marshy province.

The ceiling of the Oude Kerk is the largest medieval wooden vault in Europe. The Estonian oak planks date to boast some of the best acoustics in Europe; the Oude Kerk contains 12 misericords. The floor consists of gravestones; the reason for this is. Local citizens continued to be buried on the site within the confines of the church until 1865. There are 2,500 graves in the Oude Kerk, under which are buried 10,000 Amsterdam citizens, including: Jacob van Heemskerck, naval hero Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck and organist Adriaen Block and explorer Catharina Questiers and dramatist Jacob de Graeff Dircksz. Amsterdam regent Andries de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Cornelis de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Catharina Hooft, woman of the Dutch golden age Pieter Lastman, painter Willem van der Zaan, Admiral Laurens Bake, poet Abraham van der Hulst, Admiral Saskia van Uylenburgh, Wife of Rembrandt Cornelis Hooft, statesman Jan Jacobszoon Hinlopen, merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer, owner of the only successful patroonship in New Netherland, Rensselaerswyck.

Frans Banning Cocq, burgomaster of Amsterdam and central figure in Rembrandts masterpiece The Night Watch Nicasius de Sille, Ambassador Caspar Commelijn, botanist Jan van der Heyden and print maker Johannes Hudde, burgomaster of Amsterdam and mathematician Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken and poet The Oude Kerk holds four pipe organs, the old church organ built in 1658 and the cabinet organ built in 1767. The third was built by the German Christian Vater in 1724 and is regarded as one of the finest Baroque organs in Europe, it was acknowledged by the church Commissioners as "perfect". The organ was dismantled whilst renovations were made to the church tower in 1738, upon reassembling it, Casper Müller made alterations to give the organ more force, it became to acknowledge the improvement of sound. The fourth was constructed for the church by Organi Puccini of Pisa in 2010. Beginning in spring of 2019 the restored Vater-Müller organ will again be played; the Oude Kerk is now a centre for contemporary heritage.

Artists including Marinus Boezem, C


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Sakura HyperMedia Desktop

Sakura HyperMedia Desktop is an open source desktop environment and knowledge navigator for Unix. It is written in scripting languages such as Python and Tcl, therefore runs on a variety of platforms; the Sakura HyperMedia Desktop Project lists the main features as follows: Hypermedia capabilities hard-coded into the interface Knowledge Map for user interface elements for knowledge visualization Speech synthesis and speech recognition user interfaces Software agents A Tcl console for reflexive user interface usage The software from this project takes a few main forms: Sakura-OS - a UNIX distribution containing all of the project software, based upon FreeBSD Sakura - the main software suite, containing: Aoi - the graphical shell LibSakura - the core software library necessary for all programs in the Sakura HyperMedia Desktop Project, containing the following sub-libraries: Hyper - the hypermedia and networking library Haiku - the error handling library Futaba - the graphics and windowing library, containing widgets and themes.

Cognus - the remote network execution library (a Cognus server will run a Tcl program sends instructions to the client over a socket, which the client executes. Sys - a package of command line interface applications, such as a program to look up definitions to words and a reminder utility. Contains SPM, the utility used to install packages in SakuraOS. Pak - a library written in Python used for embedding hyperlinks into different types of digital media, such as video and text, it has the capability to detect links in certain byte positions and return the data, linked to. Papyrus - a rudimentary graphical text editor that can output in its own format, thus be used as a simple word processor. Fordice - an application termed by its developers as a knowledge manager. A user interface for viewing the links between data, for modifying said links and data. Uses a knowledge map as an interface, implements search and link categorization using an algorithm similar to Google's PageRank algorithm. Official site