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Oudh State

The Oudh State was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until annexation by the British in 1856. Oudh, the now obsolete but once official English-language name of the state written as Oude, derived from the name of Ayodhya, its first capital; as the Mughal Empire declined and decentralized, local governors in Oudh began asserting greater autonomy, Oudh matured into an independent polity governing the fertile lands of the Central and Lower Doab. With the British East India Company entering Bengal and decisively defeating Oudh at the Battle of Buxar in 1764, Oudh fell into the British orbit; the capital of Oudh was in Faizabad, but the British Agents known as "residents", had their seat in Lucknow. The Nawab of Oudh, one of the richest princes, paid for and erected a Residency in Lucknow as a part of a wider programme of civic improvements. Oudh joined other Indian states in an upheaval against British rule in 1858 during one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857.

In the course of this uprising detachments of the British Indian Army from the Bombay Presidency overcame the disunited collection of Indian states in a single rapid campaign. Determined rebels continued to wage sporadic guerrilla clashes until the spring of 1859; this rebellion is historically known as the Oudh campaign. After the British annexation of Oudh by the Doctrine of Lapse, the North Western Provinces became the North Western Provinces and Oudh. Saadat Ali Khan I was appointed Nawab of Oudh on 9 September 1722, he subdued the autonomous Shaikhzadas of Lucknow and Raja Mohan Singh of Tiloi, consolidating Oudh as a state. In 1728, Oudh further acquired Varanasi and surrounding lands from the Mughal noble Rustam Ali Khan and established stable revenue collection in that province after quelling the chief of Azamgarh, Mahabat Khan. In 1739 Saadat Khan mobilized Oudh to defend against Nader Shah's invasion of India being captured in the battle of Karnal, he died at Delhi. In 1740, his successor Safdar Jang moved the capital of the state from Ayodhya to Faizabad.

Safdar Jang gained recognition from Persia after paying tribute. He continued Saadat Khan's expansionist policy, promising military protection to Bengal in exchange for the forts at Rohtasgarh and Chunar, annexing portions of Farrukhabad with Mughal military aid, ruled by Muhammad Khan Bangash; as regional officials asserted their autonomy in Bengal and the Deccan as well as with the rise of the Maratha Empire, the rulers of Oudh affirmed their own sovereignty. Safdar Jang went as far as to control the ruler of Delhi, putting Ahmad Shah Bahadur on the Mughal throne with the cooperation of other Mughal nobility. In 1748 he gained the subah of Allahabad with Ahmad Shah's official support; this was arguably the zenith of Oudh's territorial span. The next nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, further extended Oudh's control of the Mughal emperor, he was appointed vazir to Shah Alam II in 1762 and offered him asylum after his failed campaigns against the British in the Bengal War. Since Oudh was located in a prosperous region, the British East India Company soon took notice of the affluence in which the Nawabs of Oudh lived.

The British sought to protect the frontiers of Bengal and their lucrative trade there. British dominance was established at the Battle of Buxar of 1764, when the East India Company defeated the alliance between the nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud-Daula and the deposed nawab of Bengal Mir Kasim; the battle was a turning point for the once rising star of Oudh. The immediate effect was British occupation of the fort at Chunar and the cession of the provinces of Kora and Allahabad to Mughal ruler Shah Alam II under the Treaty of Benares. Shaja-ud-Daula further had to pay 5 million rupees as an indemnity, paid off in one year; the long-term result would be direct British interference in the internal state matters of Oudh, useful as a buffer state against the Marathas. The treaty granted British traders special privileges and exemptions from many customs duties, which led to tensions as British monopolies were established. Shuja-ud-Daula bought the Mughal provinces of Kora and Allahabad in Treaty of Benares with the British for 50 lakh rupees, increased cost of Company mercenaries, military aid in the First Rohilla War to expand Oudh as a buffer state against Maratha interests.

Done by Warren Hastings, this move was unpopular among the rest of Company leadership, but Hastings continued a harsh policy on Oudh, justifying the military aid as a bid to strengthen Oudh's status as a buffer state against the Marathas. To shape the policy of Oudh and direct its internal affairs Hastings appointed the resident Nathaniel Middleton in Lucknow that year as well. At the conclusion of the First Rohilla War in 1774, Oudh gained the entirety of Rohilkhand and the Middle Doab region, only leaving the independent Rampur State as a Rohilla enclave. Asaf-ud-Daula acceded to the nawabship of Oudh with British aid in exchange for the Treaty of Benares which further increased the cost of mercenaries and ceded the sarkars of Benares, Ghazipur and Jaunpur. From this time onwards Oudh was compliant with the Company's demands, which continued to demand more land and economic control over the state; the Treaty of Chunar sought to reduce the number of British troops in Oudh's service to cut costs, but failed in this measure due to the instability of Asaf-ud-Daula's rule and thus his reliance on British aid as a puppet regime.

Saadat Ali Khan II acceded to throne of Oudh in 1798, owing his

Raymond Leppard

Raymond John Leppard was a British-American conductor, harpsichordist and editor. In the 1960s, he played a prime role in the rebirth of interest in Baroque music, he conducted operas at major international opera houses and festivals, including the Glyndebourne Festival where he led the world premiere of Nicholas Maw's The Rising of the Moon, the Metropolitan Opera and the Royal Opera House. He composed film scores such as Lord of the Flies and Alfred the Great. Leppard was born in London and grew up in Bath, where he was educated at the City of Bath Boys' School, now known as the Beechen Cliff School, he studied harpsichord and viola at Trinity College and became interested in choral conducting. In 1952, he made his London debut at Wigmore Hall in London, conducted his own Leppard Ensemble, he became associated with the Goldsbrough Orchestra, which became the English Chamber Orchestra in 1960. He gave recitals as harpsichordist, was a fellow of Trinity College and a lecturer in music from 1958 to 1968.

He retired from his post as Director of Music at Trinity College in 1968. His interest in early music prompted him to prepare several realisations of scores from the period. While musicologists considered his editions controversial, his performances were important for introducing early operatic masterpieces to the general public. In 1962, he prepared a performing score of Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea for a production at the Glyndebourne Festival, he subsequently edited Monteverdi's other surviving stage works, L'Orfeo and Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, as well as operas by Francesco Cavalli and Jean-Philippe Rameau. He conducted several of his realisations both in the recording studio. In 1963, he composed the original film score for Peter Brook's Lord of the Flies, the adaptation of William Golding's novel, his other film work included composing the score to Alfred the Great, arranging the music for Laughter in the Dark and The Hotel New Hampshire. In November 1969, he made his American debut conducting the Westminster Choir and the New York Philharmonic, at which occasion he appeared as soloist in Joseph Haydn's Harpsichord Concerto in D major.

In 1973 he became principal conductor of the BBC Northern Symphony Orchestra in Manchester, a position he retained until 1980. Leppard conducted Britten's Billy Budd at the Metropolitan Opera and the San Francisco Opera, as well as Gluck's Alceste and Handel's Alcina at the New York City Opera, he conducted at the Royal Opera House in London, in Paris, at the Hamburg State Opera, the Santa Fe Opera, in Stockholm and Geneva. In September 1986 Raymond Leppard conducted the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Chorus at the Last Night of the Proms in the Royal Albert Hall, London. At Glyndebourne, he conducted. From 1987 to 2001, Leppard was the music director of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, where he collaborated with concertmaster Hidetaro Suzuki. From 2004 to 2006, he served as music advisor to the Louisville Orchestra. In 1973, the Republic of Italy conferred upon him the title of Commendatore della Republica Italiana for services to Italian music, he received an Honorary Degree of a Doctor of Letters by the University of Bath in 1973.

He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1983. Leppard became an American citizen in 2003, he died in Indianapolis on 22 October 2019. Monteverdi: Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria Rameau: Dardanus Frederica von Stade: Monteverdi & Cavalli Arias Raymond Leppard on Music: An Anthology of Critical and Personal Writings Pro/Am Music Resources, 1993, ISBN 978-0-91-248396-2 Raymond Leppard interview, 8 January 1986 Raymond Leppard Schmidt Artists International An interview with Raymond Leppard British Library 1992 Raymond Leppard on IMDb Raymond Leppard Bach Cantatas Website 2006

Richard Reid

Richard Colvin Reid known as the "Shoe Bomber", is a British terrorist who attempted to detonate a shoe bomb while on American Airlines Flight 63 from Paris to Miami in 2001. Born to a father, a career criminal, Reid converted to Islam as a young man in prison after years as a petty criminal, he became radicalized and went to Pakistan and Afghanistan, where he trained and became a member of al-Qaeda. On 22 December 2001, he boarded American Airlines Flight 63 between Paris and Miami, wearing shoes packed with explosives, which he unsuccessfully tried to detonate. Passengers subdued him on the plane, which landed at Logan International Airport in Boston, the closest US airport, he was arrested and indicted. In 2002, Reid pleaded guilty in U. S. federal court to eight federal criminal counts of terrorism, based on his attempt to destroy a commercial aircraft in flight. He was sentenced to three life terms plus 110 years in prison without parole and was transferred to ADX Florence, a super maximum security prison in Colorado, United States.

Reid was born in Bromley, London, to Lesley Hughes, of native English descent, Colvin Robin Reid, a man of mixed race whose father was a Jamaican immigrant. When Reid was born, his father, a career criminal, was in prison for stealing a car. Reid attended Thomas Tallis School in Kidbrooke, leaving at age 16 and becoming a graffiti writer, in and out detention, he began writing graffiti under the name "Enrol" as part of a gang, accumulated more than 10 convictions for crimes against persons and property. He served sentences at Maidstone Prison; the next time Reid was imprisoned, in 1992 for three years, for various street robberies, he converted to Islam. Upon his release from prison in 1995, he joined the Brixton Mosque, he began attending the Finsbury Park Mosque in North London, headed at that time by the anti-American cleric Abu Hamza al-Masri, described as "the heart of the extremist Islamic culture" in Britain. By 1998 Reid was voicing extremist views. At the Finsbury Park Mosque he fell under the sway of "terrorist talent spotters and handlers" allied with al-Qaeda, including Djamal Beghal, one of the leaders of the foiled plan for a 2001 suicide bombing of the American Embassy in Paris.

He spent 1999 and 2000 in Pakistan and trained at a terrorist camp in Afghanistan, according to several informants. He may have attended an anti-American religious training centre in Lahore as a follower of Mubarak Ali Gilani. After his return to Britain, Reid worked to obtain duplicate passports from British government consulates abroad, he lived and travelled in several places in Europe, communicating using an address in Peshawar, Pakistan. In July 2001, Reid flew to Israel. Reid and Saajid Badat, another British man preparing as a terrorist, returned to Pakistan in November 2001, travelled overland to Afghanistan, they were given "shoe bombs", casual footwear adapted to be covertly smuggled onto aircraft before being used to destroy them. Forensic analysis of both bombs showed that they contained the same plastic explosive and that the respective lengths of detonator cord had come from the same batch: the cut mark on Badat's cord matched that on Reid's; the pair returned separately to the United Kingdom in early December 2001.

Reid went to Belgium for 10 days before catching a train to Paris on 16 December. On 21 December 2001, Reid attempted to board a flight from Paris to Florida, his boarding was delayed because his dishevelled physical appearance aroused the suspicions of the airline passenger screeners. In addition, Reid did not answer all of their questions, had not checked any luggage for the transatlantic flight. Additional screening by the French National Police resulted in Reid's being re-issued a ticket for a flight on the following day, he returned to the Paris airport on 22 December 2001, boarded American Airlines Flight 63 from Paris to Miami, wearing his special shoes packed with plastic explosives in their hollowed-out bottoms. On 22 December 2001, a passenger on Flight 63 from Paris to Miami complained of a smoke smell in the cabin shortly after a meal service. One flight attendant, Hermis Moutardier, thinking she smelled a burnt match, walked along the aisles of the plane, trying to assess the source.

A passenger pointed to Reid, sitting alone near a window and attempting to light a match. Moutardier warned him. Reid promised to stop. A few minutes Moutardier found Reid leaned over in his seat. After she asked him what he was doing, Reid grabbed at her, revealing one shoe in his lap, a fuse leading into the shoe, a lit match. Several passengers worked together to subdue the 6 foot 4 inch tall Reid weighting more than 200 pounds, they restrained him using plastic handcuffs, seatbelt extensions, leather waist belts and headphone cords. A doctor on board administered a tranquilizer to him which he found in the emergency medical kit of the airliner; the flight was diverted to Logan International Airport in Boston, the closest US airport. The explosive did not detonate due to the delay in the take-off of Reid's flight; the rainy weather along with Reid's foot perspiration, caused the fuse to be too damp to ignite. Reid was arrested at Logan International Airport after the incident. Two days he was charged before a federal court in Boston with "interfering with the performance of duties of flight crew members by assault or intimidation", a crime which carries a penalty of up to 20 years in prison and a $250,000 fine.

Additional charges were added. The judge ordere

The hospital building of Kamensk plant

The hospital building of Kamensk Ironworks is a mansion in the historical center of Kamensk-Uralsky, Sverdlovsk oblast. The building was granted the status of regional significance on December 31, 1987; the object number of cultural heritage of regional significance is 661710794150005. The hospital building of Kamensk Ironworks was not the first medical institution of the town. Earlier there were hospital wards for workers, but they were dotted around the town and were not well-coordinated. Before the beginning of the construction there was a realigning of street network. A modern view of Krasnykh Orlov Street was being formed, it was decided to build the hospital close to pinewood because of health logistics. The hospital was located straight to road from Razgulyaevsky mine to the Kamensk Ironworks; the order for construction was from the Kamensk Ironworks. The author of the project was a Urals architector; the project was prepared in 1817. The works began in 1826; the provincial сlassicism building was a one-story stone building with straight lines and minimum elements of decor in the original plan.

The composition was symmetrical. In 1847-1849, the second floor was reconstructed and built up, it increased the space for more hospital beds. The hospital building was electrified in 1906. Nowadays the house is residential; the building is L-shaped complicated by a wooden extension at the southern facade, wind porches and stairs inside the courtyard. The main western facade faces Krasnykh Orlov Street, its composition is symmetrical. The central part is distinguished by a protruding rizalit completed by a triangular front with a stepped parapet. Large-sized window openings are grouped in pairs; the cornice with a simple profile is continued along the entire belt of the building. On the other facades the original decor was lost; the building with a corridor-type arrangement is based on quarried stone foundation. The original inner decor was lost; the walls are made of solid bricks and painted. The floors are wooden, the roof is pitched slate on wooden rafters. Свод памятников истории и культуры Свердловской области.

2. Екатеринбург: Сократ. Ред. В.Е.Звагельская. 2008. P. 648. ISBN 978-5-88664-323-7. Памятники архитектуры Каменска-Уральского / С. И. Гаврилова, Л. В. Зенкова, А. В. Кузнецова, А. Ю. Лесунова — Екатеринбург: Банк культурной информации, 2008. — 92 с. Неизвестный Каменск, серия 8 on YouTube

2015 Copa del Rey Juvenil

The 2015 Copa del Rey Juvenil was the 65th staging of the Copa del Rey Juvenil de Fútbol. The competition began on May 17, 2015 and ended on the week of June 27 with the final at the Estadio Alfonso Murube in Ceuta; the top two teams from each group and the two best third-placed teams are drawn into a two-game best aggregate score series. The first leg was played on May 17 and the return leg on May 24; the eight winners from the first round advance to quarterfinal for a two-game series best aggregate score with the first leg will be played on May 31 and the return leg on June 7. The four winners play a two-game series best aggregate score beginning the week of June 14 and returning the week of June 21; the semifinal winners play a one-game final at the Estadio Alfonso Murube in Ceuta beginning the week of June 28. 2014–15 División de Honor Juvenil de Fútbol

Between Dangers

Between Dangers is a 1927 American silent film western. Directed by Richard Thorpe, the film stars Buddy Roosevelt, Alma Rayford, Rennie Young, it was released on February 13, 1927. When Tom Rawlins inherits a ranch, he heads out to take possession. On the way he is waylaid by three crooks in a saloon who knock him out and take the ownership papers to the ranch; when he wakes up, he hitches a ride on a freight train which drops him off in Cactus City, the nearest town to his ranch. Shortly after his arrival, the local bank is robbed and one of the citizens is killed. Santine, the foreman at the Cross P Ranch, Rawlins' inheritance, incites the citizenry to believe that Rawlins is the culprit in the bank robbery, he is arrested. However, while in jail he convinces the sheriff and the sheriff's daughter, Sue Conway, that he is innocent. Meanwhile Santine gets one of his henchmen, Charlie, to pose as Rawlins in order to claim possession of the ranch. Santine has been working with the attorney who drew up the will of the ranch owner to cheat Rawlins out of his inheritance.

When Sue overhears that Santine murdered the former ranch owner, she is captured by Santine and the attorney. Rawlins escapes from the jail, rescues Sue. During the rescue, Santine falls off a cliff to his death. Rawlins recovers his ownership papers and takes possession of his ranch, as well as getting the girl. Buddy Roosevelt as Tom Rawlins Alma Rayford as Sue Conway Rennie Young as Santine Al Taylor as Charlie Charles Thurston as Sheriff Allen Sewall Edward W. Borman Hank Bell In early February 1927, Pathe announced the film was to be released on February 13; the producer was announced as Lester F. Scott Jr. with a screenplay by Richard Thorp, adapted from a short story by Walter J. Coburn, which had appeared in Action Stories Magazine; the Film Daily gave the film a good review, saying it "... strikes a happy medium" providing "... action, thrills." While they thought the plot was not original, they felt the pacing was lively and Ray Ries' cinematography was good. Motion Picture News enjoyed the film, while it was melodramatic, they called it a "good, plausible melodrama", which gives "...thrills galore and many exciting, hectic situations."

The felt the plot was "intricate and interesting", praised the direction and the acting. "Magazine Story Provides Buddy Roosevelt With Exceptionally Fast Vehicle – One Of His Best" was the subtitle of the review in The Moving Picture World. They did not find much originality in the plot, they felt the individual plot lines merged well, the pace was done at a quick enough pace to sustain suspense, they highlighted the direction of Thorpe and the acting of Roosevelt. Between Dangers on IMDb Between Dangers at the TCM Movie Database