My American Cousin
My American Cousin is a Canadian drama film, released in 1985. Written and directed by Sandy Wilson based on her own childhood, the film stars Margaret Langrick as Sandy Wilcox, a preteen girl growing up on a ranch in rural Penticton, British Columbia in the late 1950s. Sandy's longing to be treated as an adult is roused further when her older American cousin Butch Walker comes for a visit; the cast includes Richard Donat, Jane Mortifee, Babz Chula and Camille Henderson. A 2006 On Screen! Documentary about the film featured interviews with director Sandy Wilson and leading actress Margaret Langrick; the sequel to this film, American Boyfriends, was released in 1989. My American Cousin won six awards at the 7th Genie Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, Best Actor, Best Actress and Best Film Editing; the film was nominated for Best Supporting Actor, Best Sound, Best Sound Editing, Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design, but did not win those awards. My American Cousin on IMDb
The Athenaeum (British magazine)
The Athenæum was a literary magazine published in London, England from 1828 to 1921. Initiated in 1828 by James Silk Buckingham, it was sold within a few weeks to Frederick Maurice and John Sterling, who failed to make it profitable. In 1829, Charles Wentworth Dilke became part editor. In 1846, he resigned the editorship and assumed that of the Daily News of London, but contributed a series of notable articles to the Athenaeum; the poet and critic Thomas Kibble Hervey succeeded Dilke as editor and served from 1846 until his resignation due to ill health in 1853. George Darley was a staff critic during the early years, Gerald Massey contributed many literary reviews – on poetry – during the period 1858 to 1868. Theodore Watts-Dunton contributed as the principal critic of poetry from 1875 until 1898. Frederic George Stephens was art editor from 1860 until 1901, when he was replaced by Roger Fry because of his unfashionable disapproval of Impressionism. Arthur Symons joined the staff in 1891. Editor from 1871 to 1900 was Norman MacColl.
During the 19th century, the Athenaeum received contributions from Lord Kelvin. During the early 20th Century, its contributors included Max Beerbohm, Edmund Blunden, T. S. Eliot, Robert Graves, Thomas Hardy, Aldous Huxley, Julian Huxley, Edith Sitwell, Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf. From 1849 to 1880 Geraldine Jewsbury contributed more than 2300 reviews, she was one of few women who reviewed for the Athenaeum and started submitting her reviews by 1854. She rated novels that showed character morality and were entertaining, she criticized the "fallen woman" theme, common in Victorian literature. During the second half of the 1850s, Jewsbury was entrusted with editing the "New Novels" section. A letter from J. S. Cotton printed during 1905, definitively tells of the first-ever reference to the playing of a match of cricket in India. In 1921, with decreasing circulation, the Athenaeum was incorporated into its younger competitor: the Nation, becoming The Nation and Athenaeum. In 1931, this successor publication merged with the New Statesman, to form the New Statesman and Nation, eliminating the name Athenaeum after 97 years.
James Gillray Demoor, Their Fair Share: Women and Criticism in the Athenaeum, from Millicent Garratt Fawcett to Katharine Mansfield, 1870–1920. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000. ISBN 978-0-7546-0118-0 Graham, Walter James,'The Athenaeum', "English Literary Periodicals". New York: T. Nelson, 1930, pp. 317–21. Hancock-Beaulieu, Micheline. "Indexing The Athenaeum: aims and difficulties". The Indexer. 17: 167–172. Marchand, Leslie A. "The Athenaeum: A Mirror of Victorian Culture". Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.'The Athenaeum', "British Literary Magazines. Volume 3". Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1983-, pp. 21–24. A selection of Gerald Massey's literary reviews for the Athenaeum The Athenaeum Projects: Centre for Interactive Systems Research, City University, London - an index of all literary reviews from 1830-1870 - and all scientific reviews from 1828-1830. Athenaeum review of George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss by Geraldine Jewsbury
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Laura Keene was a British stage actress and theatre manager. In her twenty-year career, she became known as the first powerful female manager in New York, she is most famous for being the lead actress in the play Our American Cousin, attended by President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater in Washington, D. C. on the evening of his assassination. Keene was born Mary Frances Moss in England, she was the final child of Tomas and Jane Moss. Her aunt was British actress Elizabeth Yates. At the age of 18, she married British Army officer Henry Wellington Taylor. Taylor was the nephew and godson of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington; the couple had two daughters and Clara Marie Stella. After being discharged from the army, Taylor opened his own tavern. Around 1850, Taylor was arrested. After being convicted, he was sent from England to Australia on a prison ship. Keene would travel to Australia in order to locate Taylor to divorce him but could never determine his whereabouts.. They remained married until Taylor's death in 1860.
After her husband was sent to prison, Keene was left alone with no money. On the advice of her aunt, actress Elizabeth Yates, she decided to pursue a career as an actress, would apprentice at her aunt's theatre; as it was socially unacceptable for a woman with children and no husband to act in the theatre, she changed her name to "Laura Keene". Her now widowed mother Jane took over raising her two daughters. Keene made her professional debut as Pauline in The Lady of Lyons in London in October 1851; this was followed by performances at London's Royal Olympic Theatre and Royal Lyceum Theatre, including several months working under Madame Vestris. In 1852, less than a year performing in Britain, Keene accepted an offer from James William Wallack to go to New York City, serve as the leading lady in the stock company at his successful theater, her first performance at his theatre was in The Will as Albino Mandeville. She enjoyed great popularity during her time at Wallack's Theatre. In order to have greater control over her career, she entered into theater management with the help of John Lutz, whom she married in 1860 and was with her for the rest of her career.
She moved to Baltimore. Keene leased the Charles Street Theater, in Baltimore, from 24 December 1853, to 2 March 1854, where she acted as manager and performer, she started doing touring performances in California, in Australia, again in California. During the first stint in California, she was hired by Catherine Norton Sinclair to play opposite Edwin Booth. After spending a month as the manager and lessee of the Union Theatre in San Francisco and Booth toured to Australia. Booth's drunken behavior in Australia put an end to their tour. On her return to California, she managed the American Theatre, she managed and performed there for a few years until a new law was passed in California banning any form of entertainment on the Sabbath. This decreased the attendance of theatre performances and gave Keene reason to leave and start a new project in New York. Upon returning to New York City, Keene leased the Metropolitan Theatre, remodeled it, renamed it Laura Keene's Varieties, she served as manager and star performer until 23 December when William Burton, purchased the building, moved his own operation there.
At this point, she lined up investors, along with an architect who specialized in theaters, a new theater was constructed to her specifications. Named the Laura Keene's Theatre, it opened on 18 November 1856. In November 1857 she put on The Sea of Ice to financial success. In 1858, Our American Cousin debuted in Laura Keene's Theater. On the night of 14 April 1865, Keene's company, which included John Dyott and Harry Hawk, were performing Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D. C.. In attendance that night were his wife First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln. Actor John Wilkes Booth fatally shot President Lincoln while Lincoln watched the play from the presidential box. Amid the confusion, Keene made her way to the presidential box where Lincoln lay dying and cradled the mortally wounded President's head in her lap. President Lincoln's fatal head wound bled on her dress; the cuff was donated to the National Museum of American History. Stage entertainment turned over in that era, with few productions exceeding a dozen performances, but Keene bucked those odds.
An 1857 show called. Moreover, 1860 was to prove itself an important year for American drama as well. On 29 March, she premiered Dion Boucicault's The Colleen Bawn, which ran for six weeks until the end of the season on 12 May. In November 1860, Keene premiered the musical The Seven Sisters, which feat
La Dame aux Camélias
La Dame aux Camélias is a novel by Alexandre Dumas fils, first published in 1848 and subsequently adapted by Dumas for the stage. La Dame aux Camélias premiered at the Théâtre du Vaudeville in Paris, France on February 2, 1852; the play was an instant success, Giuseppe Verdi set about putting the story to music. His work became the 1853 opera La traviata, with the female protagonist, Marguerite Gautier, renamed Violetta Valéry. In the English-speaking world, La Dame aux Camélias became known as Camille and 16 versions have been performed at Broadway theatres alone; the title character is Marguerite Gautier, based on Marie Duplessis, the real-life lover of author Dumas, fils. Written by Alexandre Dumas fils when he was 23 years old, first published in 1848, La Dame aux Camélias is a semi-autobiographical novel based on the author's brief love affair with a courtesan, Marie Duplessis. Set in mid-19th-century France, the novel tells the tragic love story between fictional characters Marguerite Gautier, a demimondaine or courtesan suffering from consumption, Armand Duval, a young bourgeois.
Marguerite is nicknamed la dame aux camélias because she wears a red camellia when she is menstruating and unavailable for making love and a white camelia when she is available to her lovers. Armand falls in love with Marguerite and becomes her lover, he convinces her to leave her life as a courtesan and to live with him in the countryside. This idyllic existence is interrupted by Armand's father, concerned with the scandal created by the illicit relationship, fearful that it will destroy Armand's sister's chances of marriage, convinces Marguerite to leave. Up until Marguerite's death, Armand believes that she left him for another man. Marguerite's death is described as an unending agony, during which Marguerite, abandoned by everyone, regrets what might have been; the story is narrated after Marguerite's death by two male narrators, Armand and an unnamed frame narrator. Some scholars believe that Marguerite's illness and Duplessis's publicized cause of death, "consumption", was a 19th-century euphemism for syphilis.
Dumas, fils, is careful to paint a favourable portrait of Marguerite, who despite her past is rendered virtuous by her love for Armand, the suffering of the two lovers, whose love is shattered by the need to conform to the morals of the times, is rendered touchingly. In contrast the Chevalier des Grieux's love for Manon in Manon Lescaut, a French novel by Abbé Prévost referenced at the beginning of La Dame aux Camélias, Armand's love is for a woman, ready to sacrifice her riches and her lifestyle for him, but, thwarted by the arrival of Armand's father; the novel is marked by the description of Parisian life during the 19th century and the fragile world of the courtesan. Dumas wrote a stage adaptation that premiered February 2, 1852, at the Théâtre du Vaudeville in Paris. Eugénie Doche created the role of Marguerite Gautier, opposite Charles Fechter as Armand Duval. "I played the role 617 times," Doche recalled not long before her death in 1900, "and I suppose I could not have played it badly, since Dumas wrote in his preface,'Mme.
Doche is not my interpreter, she is my collaborator'."In 1853, Jean Davenport starred in the first United States production of the play, a sanitized version that changed the name of the leading character to Camille—a practice adopted by most American actresses playing the role. The role of the tragic Marguerite Gautier became one of the most coveted amongst actresses and included performances by Sarah Bernhardt, Eleonora Duse, Margaret Anglin, Gabrielle Réjane, Tallulah Bankhead, Lillian Gish, Dolores del Río, Eva Le Gallienne, Isabelle Adjani, Cacilda Becker, Helena Modrzejewska. Bernhardt became associated with the role after starring in Camellias in Paris and several Broadway revivals, plus the 1911 film. Dancer/Impresario Ida Rubinstein recreated Bernhardt's interpretation of the role onstage in the mid-1920s, coached by the great actress herself before she died. Of all Dumas, fils's theatrical works, La Dame aux Camélias is the most popular around the world. In 1878 Scribner's Monthly reported that "not one other play by Dumas, fils has been received with favor out of France".
The success of the play inspired Giuseppe Verdi to put the story to music. His work became the 1853 opera La traviata, set to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave; the female protagonist, Marguerite Gautier, is renamed Violetta Valéry. La Dame aux Camélias has been adapted for some 20 different motion pictures in numerous countries and in a wide variety of languages; the role of Marguerite Gautier has been played on screen by Sarah Bernhardt, María Félix, Clara Kimball Young, Theda Bara, Yvonne Printemps, Alla Nazimova, Greta Garbo, Micheline Presle, Francesca Bertini, Isabelle Huppert, others. There have been at least nine adaptations of La Dame aux Camélias entitled Camille. Camille, an American silent film adapted by Frances Marion, directed by Albert Capellani, starring Clara Kimball Young as Camille and Paul Capellani as Armand Camille, an American silent film adapted by Adrian Johnson, directed by J. Gordon Edwards, starring Theda Bara as Camille and Alan Roscoe as Armand Camille, an American silent film starring Alla Nazimova as Camille and Rudolph Valentino as Armand Camille, an American silent film directed by Fred Niblo, starring Norma Talmadge as Camille and Gilbert Roland as Armand Camille: The Fate of a Coquette, an American short film by Ralph Barton, compiled from his home movies, loosely based on La Dame aux Camélias Camille (1
Joseph Jefferson known as Joe Jefferson, was an American actor. He was the third actor of this name in a family of actors and managers, one of the most famous of all 19th century American comedians. Jefferson was well known for his adaptation and portrayal of Rip Van Winkle on the stage, reprising the role in several silent film adaptations. After 1865, he toured with this play for decades. Jefferson was born in Pennsylvania, his father was his mother an actress. He appeared onstage early in life being used when a play called for "a babe in arms", his first recorded appearance was at the Washington Theatre in Washington, D. C. where he appeared in a benefit performance for the minstrel Thomas D. Rice. Jefferson was twice married: at the age of 21 in 1850, to actress Margaret Clements Lockyer, who died young after bearing their four children. After Jefferson returned to the United States after the end of the Civil War, he married again in 1867 to Sarah Warren, she was the niece of British-American actor William Warren.
In 1833 at the age of four years, Jefferson was carried on stage at the Washington theatre in a bag by an actor named Thomas D. Rice, he put Jefferson alongside him in black face and dress with Rice performing his well-known character "Jim Crow" and little Joseph as Little Joe. In 1837 now age eight, Joseph performed at the Franklin theatre in New York City with his parents as a pirate. After the end of the 1837-1838 season, his parents moved with Joseph, his brother Charles Burke, his sister Cornelia to Chicago. There they performed in the young city's first resident company, the Chicago Theater, at the rough-hewn Sauganash Hotel. Joseph sang comic songs, played bit parts, performed the role of the Duke of York, his father died when he was 13, young Jefferson continued acting and helping to support the family. Both Jefferson and Burke performed continuously, the entire family toured in what was considered the American West and South. Traveling theatre to theatre, Jefferson performed and worked everywhere in between Boston to Charleston as far as Chicago.
The family led the lives of "Strolling Players" itinerant actors. At one point they followed the American army from 1846-1848 during the Mexican–American War. Jefferson learned to perform in a variety of space, for instance in the dining rooms of country hotels, without any stage or scenery, he put together makeshift footlights by mounting tallow candles on a strip board nailed to the floor. It was not until after he returned to New York in 1849 that Jefferson began to earn some critical success and more financial rewards. After this experience as actor as manager, he won his first pronounced success in 1858 as Asa Trenchard in Tom Taylor's Our American Cousin at Laura Keene's theatre in New York; this play was the turning-point of his career. Jefferson revealed a new spirit in comedy, at a time when actors were long used to a more artificial convention, he portrayed pathos in the part. Other early parts included Newman Noggs in Nicholas Nickleby, Caleb Plummer in Dot, Dr. Pangloss in George Colman the Younger's The Heir at Law, Salem Scudder in The Octoroon, Bob Acres in The Rivals.
The actors created this part. In 1859, Jefferson made a dramatic adaptation of Washington Irving's story of "Rip Van Winkle", drawing from older plays, he acted it with success in Washington, D. C. with Sophie Gimber Kuhn playing the role of Lowenna. In 1861 due to his failing health and the death of his wife, he moved to San Francisco and sailed to Australia, he arrived at Sydney in the beginning of November 1861, played a successful season. He performed in and produced Rip Van Winkle, Our American Cousin, The Octoroon, other plays, he opened in Melbourne on March 31, 1862, had a most successful season extending over about six months. He continued to act there and in Tasmania. After spending four years in Australia, Jefferson sailed to London. There he met Dion Boucicault, who revised Rip Van Winkle, turning it into "a pronounced success and ran for one hundred and seventy nights." With opening night on September 5, 1865 at the Adelphi Theatre in London, Jefferson portrayed what would become one of the most celebrated characters of the 19th-century stage.
Jefferson returned to America in August 1866. He continued creating no new character except for minor ones, he was known for this single character, admired for his success in London and Australia. As John Maguire wrote in 1909, "It was that America greeted the return of the wanderer, proud of the victory of an American actor in an American play in foreign lands; this fame added to the glory of his country, both at home and abroad…" Returning to America, Jefferson made it his stock play, making annual tours of the states with it, reviving The Heir at Law in which he played Dr. Pangloss, The Cricket on the Hearth, The Rivals, he was one of the first to establish the traveling troups who superseded the old system of local stock companies. Jefferson starred in a number of films as the Van Winkle character, starting in the 1896 Awakening of Rip; this is held in the U. S. National Film Registry. Jefferson's son Thomas followed in his father's footsteps and played the character in a number of early 20th-century silent films.
Joseph Jefferson made all of material from Rip Van Winkle. Jefferson created no new character after 1865, except for minor parts, he was known as a one-part actor. The public never wear