Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church; the Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. In religious Catholic imagery, the Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with one or seven long knives or daggers piercing her heart bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady and the Seven Joys of Mary and more "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary"; the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows is liturgically celebrated every September 15, while a feast of Friday of Sorrows is observed in some Catholic countries.
The Seven Sorrows are events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary that are a popular devotion and are depicted in art. These Seven Sorrows should not be confused with the five Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary; the prophecy of Simeon. The flight into Egypt; the loss of the Child Jesus in the Temple of Jerusalem. Mary's meeting Jesus on the Via Dolorosa; the Crucifixion of Jesus on Mount Calvary. The Piercing of the Side of Jesus with a spear, his descent from the Cross; the burial of Jesus by Joseph of Arimathea. It is a common practice for Catholics to say daily one Our Father and seven Hail Marys for each mystery. Earlier, in 1232, seven youths in Tuscany founded the Servite Order. Five years they took up the sorrows of Mary, standing under the Cross, as the principal devotion of their order. Over the centuries several devotions, orders, arose around meditation on Mary's Sorrows in particular; the Servites developed the three most common devotions to Our Lady's Sorrows, namely the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows, the Black Scapular of the Seven Dolours of Mary and the Novena to Our Sorrowful Mother.
The Black Scapular is a symbol of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows, associated with the Servite Order. Most devotional scapulars have requirements regarding design; the devotion of the Black Scapular requires. From the National Shrine of Saint Peregrine spread the Sorrowful Mother Novena, the core of, the Via Matris. On February 2, the same day as the Great Feast of the Meeting of the Lord, Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholics commemorate a wonder-working icon of the Theotokos known as "the Softening of Evil Hearts" or "Simeon's Prophecy", it depicts the Virgin Mary at the moment that Simeon the Righteous says, "Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also....". She stands with her hands upraised in prayer, seven swords pierce her heart, indicative of the seven sorrows; this is one of the few Orthodox icons of the Theotokos. The refrain "Rejoice, much-sorrowing Mother of God, turn our sorrows into joy and soften the hearts of evil men!" is used. The Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows grew in popularity in the 12th century, although under various titles.
Some writings would place its roots in the eleventh century among the Benedictine monks. The first altar to the Mater Dolorosa was set up in 1221 at the Cistercian monastery of Schönau; the formal feast of the Our Lady of Sorrows was originated by a provincial synod of Cologne in 1423. It was designated for the Friday after the third Sunday after Easter and had the title: Commemoratio angustiae et doloris B. Mariae V, its object was the sorrow of Mary during the Death of Christ. Before the sixteenth century this feast was limited to the dioceses of North Germany and Scotland. According to Fr. William Saunders, "... in 1482, the feast was placed in the Roman Missal under the title of Our Lady of Compassion, highlighting the great love our Blessed Mother displayed in suffering with her Son. The word compassion derives from the Latin roots cum and patior which means "to suffer with". After 1600 it was set for the Friday before Palm Sunday. By a Decree of 22 April 1727, Pope Benedict XIII extended it to the entire Latin Church, under the title "Septem dolorum B.
M. V.". In 1954, it still held the rank of major double in the General Roman Calendar. Pope John XXIII's 1960 Code of Rubrics reduced it to the level of a commemoration. In 1668, a separate feast of the Seven Sorrows of Mary, celebrated on the third Sunday in September, was granted to the Servites. Pope Pius VII introduced it into the General Roman Calendar in 1814. In 1913, Pope Pius X, in view of his reform giving precedence to Sundays over ordinary feasts, moved this feast to September 15, the day after the Feast of the Cross, it is still observed on that date. Since there were thus two feasts with the same title, on each of which the Stabat Mater sequence was recited, the Passion Week celebration was removed from the General Roman Calendar in 1969 as a duplicate of the September feast; each of the two celebrations had been called a feast of "The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary". Recitation of the Stabat Mater was mad
Attila Ambrus, alias The Whiskey Robber is a Hungarian bank robber and professional ice hockey player. He became notorious during the 1990s for committing a string of undercover "gentleman robberies" in and around Budapest, while working a day job as a goaltender, he became infamous in Hungary as a folk hero symbolic of the times in the decade after the introduction of capitalism to the former Communist state. Ambrus was caught and imprisoned for about 12 years, released in 2012, his story was made into a book, Ballad of the Whiskey Robber, by author Julian Rubinstein, optioned by Johnny Depp for a possible film adaptation. Ambrus was born in a Székely Hungarian family in Fitod, a small village in eastern Transylvania, right outside Miercurea Ciuc. Ambrus had trouble with the law from a young age for committing petty thefts. In 1988, Ambrus illegally crossed Romania's borders by riding underneath a freight train and applied for political asylum and citizenship in Hungary, the latter of which he obtained in 1994.
Ambrus made a living through a variety of odd jobs, including being a gravedigger and a pelt smuggler, after which he tried out for the professional hockey team Újpesti TE. Despite his abysmal performance, he was admitted to the roster as goaltender while doubling as the team's janitor. Ambrus' hockey teammates gave him the nickname "The Panther from Csík." Ambrus's income continued to be insecure as he worked a variety of side jobs, he committed his first robbery of a post office in 1993. After this success, Ambrus continued a string of 27 robberies of banks, post offices, travel agents that ended with his arrest in 1999, stealing in all about 100 million forints, he became known as "The Whiskey Robber", because he was seen drinking whiskey at a nearby pub prior to the robbery. While he carried a gun, Ambrus never harmed anyone in his robberies, was famous for his outlandish disguises, for presenting female tellers with flowers prior to robberies, for sending the police bottles of wine. Immensely popular at the time of his arrest on January 15, 1999, a flag honoring the Whiskey Robber was flown at the UTE stadium for years afterwards.
Ambrus escaped from prison on July 10, 1999 using a rope made of shredded sheets, electric cords, shoe laces. Nobody had escaped from that prison before, he evaded police custody for three months while living in a downtown Budapest apartment and was caught again after another robbery when police located his hideout after Ambrus accidentally left a piece of evidence behind at the crime scene. Ambrus was sentenced to 17 years in a maximum security prison, he was released early on parole because of good behavior on January 31, 2012. His accomplice on one of his earlier heists, Károly Antal, was caught at the Romanian-Hungarian border in 2004 and was sentenced to two and a half years of prison, his accomplice on most of his latter heists, Gábor Orbán, served an eight-year sentence in a medium security prison. Being released from jail, in 2012 he continued pottery production in his native country, Romania, in Csíkszereda. Attila has been the subject of six songs. Ambrus was the subject of Ballad of the Whiskey Robber by Julian Rubinstein.
Rubinstein's book was adapted to audiobook with a full cast starring Eric Bogosian, Demetri Martin, novelist Gary Shteyngart, HBO Bored to Death's Jonathan Ames, novelist Arthur Phillips, singer Tommy Ramone and others. There have been German theater productions of scenes from the book; the book was optioned for film by Johnny Depp and Warner Bros. of which a screenplay was written, named to Hollywood's 2008 Black List of best unproduced scripts of the year. His story was adapted to film by Nimród Antal; the Great Escape - article in the Central Europe Review Worst Pro Goalie Ever Still in Jail--For Robbing Banks - Article in USA Today, Oct. 4, 2007
The Communist Party of Australia is an Australian communist organisation which describes its ideology as being influenced by the works of Marx, Lenin, Stalin and Ted Hill. The theory of the party is unique among Australian Marxist-Leninists due to its belief that a revolution to achieve national independence from United States imperialism is an essential step in the struggle to achieve socialism in Australia; the party has a strong focus on applying Marxism-Leninism to Australian conditions. The CPA was formed in 1964 as the manifestation of a split within the Communist Party of Australia which occurred as a result of the Sino-Soviet split; the leading figure in the breakaway group was Ted Hill, a Melbourne barrister, Victorian State Secretary of the CPA. Other noted figures were Paddy Malone and Norm Gallagher of the Builders Labourers Federation, Clarrie O'Shea of the Tramways Union and Ted Bull of the Waterside Workers Federation; the party exerted sizeable influence on the militant student movement in Australia during the late 1960s and early 1970s on campuses such as Monash University and LaTrobe University in Melbourne as well as Flinders University in Adelaide through their front group, the'Worker-Student Alliance'.
A notable leader of the Worker-Student Alliance at this time was veteran political activist Albert Langer. The party held considerable sway within the Australian trade union movement from inception through to the 1980s. Clarrie O'Shea was party Vice-President at the time of his gaoling in 1969, which led to an unprecedented general strike across Australia until his release was secured. Norm Gallagher led the Builders Labourers Federation for over a decade, a time during which he was a nationally known and controversial figure. Other party members, such as John Cummins and Jim Bacon were prominent BLF figures throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the years following the de-registration of the BLF in 1986, CPA influence within the union movement began to decline. During the 1980s and 1990s the majority of the founding members of the CPA retired. Ted Hill's retirement in 1986 and death in 1988 left the party without its most recognised public figure; the party ceased publishing a hard copy version of its newspaper Vanguard on a regular basis at the end of 2014.
However, it continues to publish a special May Day edition of the paper each year, as well as releases various publications periodically. It is unknown how many members the party has as it maintains strict adherence to its founding policy of the vast majority of members keeping their party membership secret, they have had a new website since 25 October 2014. Socialism in Australia Vanguard expresses the viewpoint of the Communist Party of Australia