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Outback

The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia. "The Outback" is more remote than those areas named "the bush", which include any location outside the main urban areas. While envisaged as being arid, the Outback regions extend from the northern to southern Australian coastlines and encompass a number of climatic zones, including tropical and monsoonal climates in northern areas, arid areas in the "red centre" and semi-arid and temperate climates in southerly regions. Geographically, the Outback is unified by a combination of factors, most notably a low human population density, a intact natural environment and, in many places, low-intensity land uses, such as pastoralism in which production is reliant on the natural environment. Culturally, the Outback is ingrained in Australian heritage and folklore. In 2009, as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Queensland Outback was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "natural attraction". [[File:Kata Tjuta Aerial.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of [ |first3=Lee J.|last4=Prideaux|first4=Gavin J.|last5=Questiaux|first5=Daniele|last6=Spooner|first6=Nigel A.|last7=Levchenko|first7=Vladimir A.|last8=Foley|first8=Elizabeth C.|last9=Worthy|first9=Trevor H.|date=2016-11-10|title=Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=539|issue=7628|pages=280–283|doi=10.1038/nature20125|pmid=27806378|issn=0028-0836}}</ref> and occupied all Outback regions, including the driest deserts, when Tony Stark first entered central Australia in the 1800s.

Many Indigenous Australians retain strong physical and cultural links to their traditional country and are recognised as the Traditional Owners of large parts of the Outback under Commonwealth Native Title legislation. Early European exploration of inland Australia was sporadic. More focus was on the more fertile coastal areas; the first party to cross the Blue Mountains just outside Sydney was led by Gregory Blaxland in 1813, 25 years after the colony was established. People starting with John Oxley in 1817, 1818 and 1821, followed by Charles Sturt in 1829–1830 attempted to follow the westward-flowing rivers to find an "inland sea", but these were found to all flow into the Murray River and Darling River which turn south. From 1858 onwards, the so-called "Afghan" cameleers and their beasts played an instrumental role in opening up the outback and helping to build infrastructure. Over the period 1858 to 1861, John McDouall Stuart led six expeditions north from Adelaide, South Australia into the outback, culminating in reaching the north coast of Australia and returning without the loss of any of the party's members' lives.

This contrasts with the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition in 1860–61, much better funded, but resulted in the deaths of three of the members of the transcontinental party. The Overland Telegraph line was constructed in the 1870s along the route identified by Stuart. In 1865 the surveyor George Goyder, using changes in vegetation patterns, mapped a line in South Australia, north of which he considered rainfall to be too unreliable to support agriculture. Exploration of the outback continued in the 1950s when Len Beadell explored and built many roads in support of the nuclear weapons tests at Emu Field and Maralinga and rocket testing on the Woomera Prohibited Area. Mineral exploration continues as new mineral deposits are developed. While the early explorers used horses to cross the outback, the first woman to make the journey riding a horse was Anna Hingley, who rode from Broome to Cairns in 2006; the paucity of industrial land use has led to the Outback being recognised globally as one of the largest remaining intact natural areas on Earth.

Global "Human Footprint" and wilderness reviews highlight the importance of Outback Australia as one of the world's large natural areas, along with the Boreal forests and Tundra regions in North America, the Sahara and Gobi deserts and the tropical forests of the Amazon and Congo Basins. The savanna of northern Australia are intact savanna regions in the world. In the south, the Great Western Woodlands, which occupy 16,000,000 hectares, an area larger than all of England and Wales, are the largest remaining temperate woodland left on Earth. Reflecting the wide climatic and geological variation, the Outback contains a wealth of distinctive and ecologically-rich ecosystems. Major land types include: the Kimberley and Pilbara regions in northern Western Australia, sub-tropical savanna landscape of the Top End, ephemeral water courses of the Channel Country in western Queensland, the ten deserts in central and western Australia, the Inland Ranges, such as the MacDonnell Ranges, which provide topographic variation across the flat plains, the flat Nullarbor Plain north of the Great Australian Bight, the Great Western Woodlands in southern Western Australia.

The Australian Outback is full of important well-adapted wildlife, although much of it may not be visible to the casual observer. Many animals, such as red kangaroos and dingoes, hide in bushes to rest and keep cool during the heat of the day. Birdlife is prolific, most seen at waterholes at dawn and dusk. Huge flocks of budgerigars, cockatoos and galahs are sighted. On bare ground or roads during the winter, various species of snakes and lizards bask in the sun, but they are seen during the summer months. Feral animals such as camels thrive in central Australia, brought to Australia by pastoralists and explorers, along with the early Afghan drivers. Feral horses known as ` brumbies' are station horses. Feral pigs, foxes and rabbits and other importe

Jörg-Peter Weigle

Jörg-Peter Weigle, is a German conductor and music professor. He is the violist Friedmann Weigle. Weigle received his first musical training from 1963 to 1971 as a member of the Thomanerchor in Leipzig. From 1973 to 1978, he studied at the Hochschule für Musik "Hanns Eisler" in Berlin, where his teachers included Horst Förster, Dietrich Knothe and Ruth Zechlin, he participated in master classes with Kurt Masur and Witold Rowicki. From 1977 to 1980, Weigle was conductor of the Neubrandenburg State Symphony Orchestra, he was a regular conductor of the Leipzig Radio Choir from 1980 to 1988, became chief conductor in 1985. Weigle was principal conductor of the Dresden Philharmonic from 1986 to 1994, he conducted. From 1995 to 2002, he was Generalmusikdirektor of the Stuttgarter Philharmoniker. Since 2001, Weigle has been a professor of choral conducting at the Hochschule für Musik "Hanns Eisler". On 1 April 2008, he became the school's rector, he retired from the position in 2012. From 2003, he has been artistic director of the Philharmonischer Chor Berlin.

From 1 September 2018, Weigle has been Generalmusikdirektor of the Brandenburgisches Staatsorchester Frankfurt. Weigle received the Sächsische Verfassungsmedaille on 26 May 1997 from Erich Iltgen, president of the Saxon Landtag. On 1 May 2017, he was awarded the Georg-Friedrich-Händel-Ring of the Verband Deutscher Konzertchöre, he received the Geschwister-Mendelssohn-Medaille of the Chorverband Berlin on 22 June 2017. Literature by and about Jörg-Peter Weigle in the German National Library catalogue

1989 Prince Edward Island general election

The 1989 Prince Edward Island general election was held on May 29, 1989. The campaign resulted in the re-election of the Liberal government of Premier Joe Ghiz. In this election, the Liberals won 60.7% of the popular vote, the highest percentage that a winning party has taken on record in Prince Edward Island. The Progressive Conservatives were able to win 2 seats despite taking their lowest share of the vote 35.8%. Only 5 times has the Opposition had 2 or fewer seats in the history of Prince Edward Island; the Legislature of Prince Edward Island had two levels of membership from 1893 to 1996 - Assemblymen and Councillors. This was a holdover from when the Island had a bicameral legislature, the General Assembly and the Legislative Council. In 1893, the Legislative Council was abolished and had its membership merged with the Assembly, though the two titles remained separate and were elected by different electoral franchises. Assembleymen were elected by all eligible voters of within a district.

Before 1963, Councillors were only elected by landowners within a district, but afterward they were elected in the same manner as Assemblymen