click links in text for more info

Outback Communities Authority

The Outback Communities Authority is a statutory authority in South Australia created under the Outback Communities Act 2009. It has been established to "manage the provision of public services and facilities to outback communities" which are dispersed across the Pastoral Unincorporated Area which covers 60% of South Australia's land area; the authority has its seat at both Port Augusta, located outside the unincorporated area and at Andamooka. The authority serves an area of 624,339 square kilometres smaller than France; the area has a population of 3,750, of whom 639 are Indigenous Australians, includes several large pastoral leases and mining operations. The authority's area of responsibility does not include Aboriginal Local Government Areas, the largest of which are Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara in the northwest of SA and Maralinga Tjarutja in the west of SA. Wangkangurru is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken on Wangkangurru country, it is related to Arabana language of South Australia.

The Wangkangurru language region was traditionally in the South Australian-Queensland border region taking in Birdsville and extending south towards Innamincka and Lake Eyre, including the local government areas of the Shire of Diamantina as well as the Outback Communities Authority of South Australia. Yawarrawarrka is an Australian Aboriginal language of Far Western Queensland; the traditional language region includes the local government area of the Shire of Diamantina extending into the Outback Communities Authority of South Australia towards Innamincka. The Outback Communities Act 2009 established the Outback Communities Authority as the legal successor to the Outback Areas Community Development Trust, established in 1978 under the Outback Areas Community Development Trust Act 1978; the authority consists of a board of seven members of which four must be residents of client communities. The board oversees a small team of support staff led by a general manager; as of 2012, support staff consisted of six persons employed full-time with one additional person employed part-time.

As of 2014, the authority provided services to the following communities: Andamooka, Blinman, Border Village, Coorabie, Fowlers Bay, Innamincka, Iron Knob, Leigh Creek, Marla, Marree, Parachilna, Pimba, William Creek and Yunta. Because of the size of the Pastoral Unincorporated Area of South Australia, the authority provides services in an area bounded by a large number of local government areas, 29 in total, both in South Australia and in the adjoining jurisdictions of New South Wales, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, its service area completely surrounds the Municipal Council of Roxby Downs and the District Council of Coober Pedy. The following LGAs, which border the unincorporated area, total 27 with 17 being in South Australia: Outback Communities Authority Annual Report 2011 - 12. Government of South Australia. 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2014. Outback Communities Authority map of communities 32°29′25″S 137°45′46″E

Chad Kackert

Charles "Chad" Kackert is a former Canadian football running back who played for the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. He played college football at New Hampshire, he was a member of the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League. Kackert played for Grace Brethren High School in Simi Valley, California where his 3,437 yards rushing as a senior in 2004 rank #5 all-time in California high school football history, he was recruited by offensive coordinator Chip Kelly to play for the University of New Hampshire. While at UNH, he rushed for 2,587 career yards on 462 carries; as a senior in 2009, Kackert was All-CAA Second Team and earned the University's Bob Demers 12th Player Award after gaining 780 rushing yards and scoring 10 rushing TDs. Kackert didn't perform at the NFL Combine but his performance at Jimmy Kibble's combine allowed him to get a tryout with the Jacksonville Jaguars which signed him to their practice squad. Kackert signed with the Jacksonville Jaguars as an undrafted rookie following the 2010 NFL Draft and participated in training camp, but was released prior to the start of the season.

Kackert signed with the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League on February 14, 2011. Partway through the 2012 CFL season the Argonauts released Cory Boyd, making Kackert the starting tailback, he would finish the season with 638 yards, 5 touchdowns and a rushing average of 6.3 yards per carry. On November 25, 2012, Kackert was named the Most Valuable Player of the 100th Grey Cup, where he helped the Argonauts defeat the Calgary Stampeders 35–22, rushing 20 times for 133 yards and adding 62 yards on 8 pass receptions. Despite rumours that he might try and sign with a NFL team, Kackert re-signed with the Argonauts at the start of free agency. During the 2013 season, Kackert suffered an ankle injury which led to his retirement from football just prior to the start of the 2014 season. On the same date that he announced his retirement, Kackert was named the strength and conditioning coach for the Argonauts On September 27, 2014, Kackert came out of retirement, was added to the Argonauts' practice roster.

On Wednesday, October 15, 2014, the Toronto Argonauts released Kackert from the practice roster. He was released one week after suffering a right hamstring injury and was expected to miss the next 4–6 weeks. Upon his release, he re-assumed the role of Strength and Conditioning coach of the Toronto Argonauts. On June 21, 2015, Kackert was added to their practice roster, he would play in 7 games, recording 235 rushing yards on 39 carries with no touchdowns, while recording 10 catches for 76 receiving yards & no touchdowns. In 2016, Kackert spent the entire season on the Argonauts' practice roster. On May 26, 2017, Kackert announced his permanent retirement over Twitter. Chad Kackert at Chad Kackert at

Charles Heath Wilson

Charles Heath Wilson was an Anglo-Scottish art teacher and author, The eldest son of Andrew Wilson, the landscape-painter, he was born in London in September 1809. He studied art under his father, in 1826 accompanied him to Italy. After seven years, Wilson returned to Edinburgh, where he practised as an architect, was for some time teacher of ornament and design in the school of art. In 1835 he was elected Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, resigning in 1858. In 1840 he visited the continent to make a report to government on fresco painting; when William Dyce and secretary of the established schools of art at Somerset House, resigned in 1843, director of the Edinburgh school, was appointed his successor. His position there was not much more comfortable than Dyce's had been, in 1848 he resigned. In 1849 Wilson became headmaster of the new Glasgow School of Design. In 1864 the Board of Trade masterships were suppressed and Wilson was pensioned, but continued to live in Glasgow for some years longer, doing architectural work.

In 1869 Wilson and his family left Scotland and settled at Florence, where he was involved with a large literary and artistic circle. For services to art, the cross of the Corona d'Italia was conferred upon him by Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, he died at Florence on 3 July 1882. His pictorial work was principally landscape in watercolour, he etched a number of book illustrations, including for Paolo Pifferi's Viaggio Antiquario, James Wilson's Voyage round the Coasts of Scotland. While in Edinburgh Wilson wrote with William Dyce, a pamphlet addressed to Lord Meadowbank, The Best Means of ameliorating the Arts and Manufactures of Scotland. In Glasgow he was occupied for nearly 10 years under the Board of Trade in superintending the filling of the windows of Glasgow Cathedral with Munich pictures in coloured glass, he wrote a description of the work, which went through numerous editions. Wilson was interested in Italian art, on which he wrote, in Michelangelo Buonarroti, on whom he published a biography.

It began as a compilation from Aurelio Gotti, developed into an independent work of criticism. Wilson was twice married: first, on 3 October 1838, in Edinburgh, to Louisa Orr, daughter of Surgeon John Orr, E. I. C. with issue one son and two daughters. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Wilson, Charles Heath". Dictionary of National Biography. 62. London: Smith, Elder & Co

The Shunned House

"The Shunned House" is a horror fiction novelette by American author H. P. Lovecraft, written on October 16–19, 1924, it was first published in the October 1937 issue of Weird Tales. The Shunned House of the title is based on an actual house in Providence, Rhode Island, built around 1763 and still standing at 135 Benefit Street. Lovecraft was familiar with the house because his aunt Lillian Clark lived there in 1919/20 as a companion to Mrs. H. C. Babbit. However, it was another house in Elizabeth, New Jersey that compelled Lovecraft to write the story; as he wrote in a letter: On the northeast corner of Bridge Street and Elizabeth Avenue is a terrible old house—a hellish place where night-black deeds must have been done in the early seventeen-hundreds—with a blackish unpainted surface, unnaturally steep roof, an outside flight of stairs leading to the second story, suffocatingly embowered in a tangle of ivy so dense that one cannot but imagine it accursed or corpse-fed. It reminded me of the Babbit House in Benefit Street….

Its image came up again with renewed vividness causing me to write a new horror story with its scene in Providence and with the Babbit House as its basis. For many years, the narrator and his uncle, Dr. Elihu Whipple, have nurtured a fascination with an old abandoned house on Benefit Street. Dr. Whipple has made extensive records tracking the mysterious, yet coincidental and death of many who have lived in the house for over one hundred years, they are puzzled by the strange weeds growing in the yard, as well as an unexplained foul smell and whitish phosphorescent fungi growing in the cellar. There, the narrator discovers a strange, yellowish vapour in the basement, which seems to be coupled with a moldy outline of a huddled human form on the floor; the narrator and his uncle decide to spend the night in the house, investigating the possibility of some supernatural force. They set up both cots and chairs in the cellar, arm themselves with military flamethrowers, outfit a modified Crookes tube in the hopes of destroying any supernatural presence they might find.

When Dr. Whipple naps, he tosses and turns and starts babbling in French until he awakes, he tells the narrator that he had strange visions of lying in an open pit, inside a house with shifting features, while faces stared down at him. Many of the faces were those of the Harris family; when the narrator sleeps, he is awakened by a horrific scream. He sees a revolting yellowish "corpse-light" bubbling up from the floor, which stares at him with many eyes before vanishing in a wisp through the chimney, he finds his uncle transformed into a monster with "blackened, decaying features" and dripping claws. He turns on the Crookes tube, but seeing that it has no effect, escapes the house through the cellar door as his uncle's body dissolves, transforming into a multitude of faces of those who died in the house as it melts; the narrator returns the next day to no body. The narrator hatches a plan, he orders a military gas mask, digging tools, six carboys of sulfuric acid to be delivered to the cellar door of the house.

He digs into the earthen floor of the cellar, turning up fungous yellow ooze, arranges the barrels of acid around the hole in the belief that he will happen upon some kind of monstrous creature. He uncovers a soft, blue-white, translucent tube, bent in half and two feet in diameter at its widest point, he frantically climbs out of the neck-deep hole, dumps in four barrels of acid, realizing that he had found the elbow of a gigantic monster. The narrator faints after emptying the fourth barrel; when he awakens, the narrator empties the two remaining barrels, to no effect, replaces the dirt, finds that the strange fungus has turned to harmless ash. He mourns his uncle, but is relieved to be sure that the horrible creature is dead; the narrator records that the house has subsequently been rented to another family, that the house now appears normal. Elihu Whipple: Described as "a sane, conservative physician of the old school...a bachelor. Peter Cannon writes that Whipple "is a composite portrait of Lovecraft's two learned uncles-in-law and maternal grandfather".

Etienne Roulet: A Huguenot from Caude, near Angers, who settled in East Greenwich, Rhode Island in 1686 and moved to Providence in 1696. According to the story, "The family of Roulet had possessed an abnormal affinity for outer circles of entity — dark spheres which for normal folk hold only repulsion and terror." Etienne is said to have been " reading queer books and drawing queer diagrams." His son, Paul Roulet, is described as a "surly fellow" of "erratic conduct". The story's narrator suspects that the family is connected to Jacques Roulet of Caude, condemned to death for lycanthropy in 1598 before being confined to an asylum. Jacques Roulet was a real person, whom Lovecraft had read about in John Fiske's Myths and Myth-Makers. "The Shunned House", with an introduction by Frank Belknap Long, was to have been Lovecraft's first published book. 250 copies were printed in 1928 by W. Paul Cook for Recluse Press. However, the sheets were not bound at that time. 150 sets of unbound sheets found their way into the possession of Arkham House in 1959, where they were offered for sale in an unbound state.

About 50 copies were sold in that state folded and with no cover. Derlet

Loss of the Kink Salient

The Loss of the Kink Salient occurred during a local attack on 11 May 1916, by the 3rd Bavarian Division on the positions of the 15th Division. The attack took place at the west end of the Hohenzollern Redoubt on the Western Front. An unprecedented bombardment demolished the British front line and specially trained German assault units rushed the survivors and captured the British front line and the second line of defence British tunnellers were trapped in their galleries and taken prisoner. Hasty counter-attacks by the British were repulsed amidst the darkness and dust, which left British artillery observers unable to see the front line; the British guns continued to fire on the German front line long after the German raiders had crossed no man's land but an organised counter-attack at 9:30 p.m. was conducted with artillery support. The counter-attack was abandoned. A final attempt to recapture the lost ground on 14 May was defeated and the British consolidated a new line further back, on ground less exposed than the Kink.

The Battle of Loos took place in support of the French autumn offensive by the Tenth Army, which fought the Third Battle of Artois and the Second and Fourth armies in the Second Battle of Champagne. The British attack began on 25 September, when the infantry advanced behind a cloud gas discharge, intended to make up for a lack of guns and ammunition; the Hohenzollern Redoubt and Fosse 8 were captured by the 9th Division. On the night of 25/26 September, German counter-attacks retook ground but were repulsed at Fosse 8 until another attack on 27 September, when the Fosse was recaptured. British attacks to regain Fosse 8 began on 28 September but the Hohenzollern Redoubt was lost on 3 October; the British front was reorganised for another attempt, which due to delays and bad weather, was forestalled by a German surprise attack on 8 October, from Loos to La Bassée Canal. The delayed British attack went ahead on 13 October, in the Action of the Hohenzollern Redoubt, during which the 46th Division overran the redoubt but was forced to retire after nightfall as the salient, created was untenable.

The British retreated to The Chord, a trench behind the east face of the redoubt and the west face was fortified as a reserve line. The attack had been a costly failure, in which the 46th Division lost 3,583 men, most in the first ten minutes of the attack. After the Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt in 1915, the British had retained the west end of the redoubt, with The Chord as the new front line. Artillery bombardments and tunnelling were conducted by the Germans during the winter of 1915–1916. Observation increased the accuracy of German bombardments and The Chord was re-captured, leaving the British on lower ground in the west side of the redoubt; the British 170th Tunnelling Company, dug deep galleries over four months during the winter and in late February, three mines were placed underneath the shallower galleries dug by the Germans. An attack was prepared by the 12th Division for 2 March; the mines were sprung at 5:45 p.m. and formed craters 30 ft west of The Chord, giving observation over the objective.

The new craters, A, B and C, older craters 1–5 and Triangle Crater were occupied and the 170th Tunnelling Company destroyed German mine entrances found in the Triangle Crater. German counter-attacks retook Triangle Crater on 4 March and from 7–14 March, skirmishing took place during heavy snowstorms and bitter cold. German attacks diminished until 18 March, when five mines were blown, the captured portions of The Chord were re-taken and the British were driven back to the old front line; the Germans found the area untenable and retired to the eastern side of the crater lips. The British had found the craters to be poor protection against bombardment and the morass of liquefied chalk and mud at the crater bottoms was not suitable material for protection. Reveting dug into the crater lips was soon blown up by German shells or slipped down the crater sides. After the fighting in March 1916, the British front line near Fosse 8 had become a blunt salient known as the Kink, between the Hohenzollern Redoubt and the Cité St. Elie quarries.

The salient was about 400 yd wide and lay on a slight slope down to Fosse 8 and had two outcrops, the Kink on the right and Hussar Horn on the left. The area was overlooked from the Hohenzollern Redoubt, by Fosse 8 and from several mine craters in no man's land; the area was bombarded with great accuracy by German artillery and trench mortars. German mining had left no man's land, only 100 yd wide, a crater field occupied by both sides. Many British troops considered; the 170th Tunnelling Company RE had managed to gain dominance over the German miners and by the end of April all of the craters except for one just north of the Kink had been re-captured. As a precaution, the old front line was maintained and further back, Hussar Horn and Anchor trenches crossed, making switch lines. A reserve line ran along Hulluch Alley and Sackville Street 250 yd further back and the Village Line lay another 1.25 mi beyond. Bavarian Infantry Regiment 18 of the 3rd Bavarian Division, took over the area from the quarries to the Hohenzollern Redoubt on 1 April and found that the ground opposite the Kink was a narrow crater field, with no view of the British lines.

The British held all but one crater, could creep up on the German lines and begin new mine galleries from the craters. The German de


Cladorhizidae is a family of demosponges which are carnivorous and prey on crustaceans and other small animals. They are deep sea sponges found on oceanic ridges and seamount systems; as of 2017, nine new species have been discovered in the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge including: Abyssocladia boletiphora, Ab. corniculiphora, Ab. hemiradiata, Asbestopluma unguiferata, As. jamescooki, As. laminachela, As. pseudoisochela, As. ramuscula and Chondrocladia rogersi. These discoveries have proven to show that this family of unique sponges is much more diverse than known; the World Register of Marine Species includes the following genera: Abyssocladia Lévi, 1964 Asbestopluma Topsent, 1901 Cercicladia Rios, Kelly & Vacelet, 2011 Chondrocladia Thomson, 1873 Cladorhiza Sars, 1872 Euchelipluma Topsent, 1909 Koltunicladia Hestetun, Boury-Esnault, Kelly, Cristobo & Rapp, 2016 Lollipocladia Vacelet, 2008 Lycopodina Lundbeck, 1905