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Outline of space science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology. The following outline is an overview of and topical guide to space science: Astronomy Outline of astronomy Fields of astronomy defined by approach Observational astronomy – Observatories on the ground as well as space observatories take measurements of celestial entities and phenomena Astrometry – studies the position and movements of celestial objects Amateur astronomy Theoretical astronomy – mathematical modelling of celestial entities and phenomena Fields of astronomy defined by scope Astrophysics – study of the physics of the universe. See Earth's location in the universe for an orientation. See Outline of space exploration Astronautics – science and engineering of spacefaring and spaceflight, a subset of Aerospace engineering Life in space Living organisms in space Humans in space Women in space Animals in space Cat in space Félicette Dogs in space Soviet space dogs Mice in space Fe, Fi, Fo, Phooey Monkeys and apes in space Tortoises in space Zond 5 Microorganisms tested in outer space Plants in space Space habitation Architecture in space Space station Space Habitation Module Food in space Medicine in space Neuroscience in space Religion in space Christmas on the International Space Station Sex in space Survival in space Writing in space Human spaceflight Outline of aerospace Space Sciences LaboratoryUniversity of California, Berkeley Space exploration – includes scientific investigations through human spaceflight and space probes Space colonization Commercial use of space Space manufacturing Space tourism Space warfare Alien invasion Asteroid-impact avoidance Space law Remote sensing Planetarium – A synthetic observatory, used for education and presentations Centennial Challenges NASA prize contests Exploration of Mars Human spaceflight Space exploration Space architecture Space colonization Space industry Space industry of Russia Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Batteries in space Control engineering Corrosion in space Industry in space Nuclear power in space Observatories in space Orbital mechanics Robotics Space environment – study of conditions that affect the operation of spacecraft Space logistics Space technology Space-based radar Space-based solar power Spacecraft design for launch vehicles and satellites Spacecraft propulsion Institute of Space Technology, PakistAn Space Sciences @ NASA Space Sciences @ ESA INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Space Sciences Institute Space Science & Technology, an Iranian nongovernmental group who writes scientific articles about Space Science & Technology

Junkers G.38

The Junkers G.38 was a large German four-engined transport aircraft which first flew in 1929. Two examples were constructed in Germany. Both aircraft flew as a commercial transport within Europe in the years leading up to World War II. During the 1930s, the design was licensed to Mitsubishi, which constructed and flew a total of six aircraft, in a military bomber/transport configuration, designated Ki-20; the G.38 carried a crew of seven. Onboard mechanics were able to service the engines in flight due to the G.38's blended wing design, which provided access to all four power plants. During the 1920s, Hugo Junkers made several attempts to produce a large scale commercial transport, his initial attempt, the four-engined JG1, was developed during 1921-1922. In the decade, in 1925, he published design specifications for a proposed eighty passenger trans-Atlantic aircraft - the J.1000 project. Again, towards the end of the decade, the G.40 project was started by the Junkers design team as a trans-Atlantic mail plane.

From the G.40 design, a seaplane configuration, Junkers developed a land plane design, designated the G.38. Despite interest from the German armed forces in the G.40 variant, Junkers pushed forward with the land plane design which, having received financing from the Reich Air Ministry, was taken forward to the construction stage. The first Junkers prototype—3301 and marked as D-2000—first flew on 6 November 1929 with four diesel engines: two Junkers L55 V-12 engines and two 294 kW L8 inline-6 engines, with a total power rating of 1470 kW; the Reich Air Ministry purchased the D-2000 for demonstration flights, took delivery on 27 March 1930. In flight tests, the G.38 set four world records including speed and duration for airplanes lifting a 5000 kg payload. On 2 May 1930 Luft Hansa put the D-2000 into commercial service for both scheduled and chartered flights. Structurally the G.38 conformed to standard Junkers' practice, with a multi-tubular spar cantilever wing covered, like the rest of the aircraft in stressed, corrugated duraluminium.

The biplane tail, found in other large aircraft of the time, was intended to reduce rudder forces. The undercarriage was fixed, with double tandem main wheels that were enclosed in large spats; the wing had the usual Junkers "double wing" form, the name referring to the full span movable flaps which served as ailerons in the outer part. On 2 February 1931 the Leipzig-based Junkers' yard re-engined the D-2000 with two Junkers L8 and two L88 motors giving a total power rating of 1764 kW and increasing passenger capacity from 13 to 19; the G.38, during its early life, was the largest land plane in the world. Passenger accommodation was sumptuous by today's standards and was meant to rival that found on the competing Zeppelin service offered by DELAG; the plane was unique in that passengers were seated in the wings, which were 1.7 m thick at the root. There were two seats in the extreme nose; the leading edge of each wing was fitted with sloping windscreens giving these passengers the forward-facing view available only to pilots.

There were smoking cabins and wash rooms. In design terms the G-38 followed the Blended Wing Body design pioneered by Louis de Monge and by Vincent Burnelli in his UB14 and CBY-3 designs, considered by both NASA and Boeing as an alternative to traditional tube and wing aircraft configurations. On 1 July 1931 Luft Hansa initiated scheduled service between Berlin and London on flights carrying up to 13 passengers; this London-Berlin service was halted in October 1931 to retrofit the aircraft and expand the passenger cabin of the D-2000. Construction lasted from this time until mid-1932, during which a second deck was built within the D-2000's fuselage—enabling an increased cargo capacity and seating for up to 30 passengers. Additionally the D-2000's engines were again upgraded to four L88s, giving a total power of 2352 kW. At this time the D-2000's registration was changed to D-AZUR. Meanwhile, a second G.38—factory number 3302 and c/n D-2500 changed to D-APIS—was, built with a double deck fuselage and capacity for 34 passengers.

Six passengers were carried three per wing in each leading edge, the remaining 22 on two levels in the fuselage. Luft Hansa used D-APIS on a scheduled service covering the cities Berlin, Hanover and London; this aircraft was named General Feldmarschall von Hindenburg. In 1934 D-2000/D-AZUR had its engines upgraded, this time with Jumo 4 engines, giving a total power rating of 3000 kW. Both planes were in service until 1936, when D-AZUR crashed in Dessau during a post-maintenance test flight. Luft Hansa had to write off this aircraft due to the extensive damage, but test pilot Wilhelm Zimmermann survived the crash, there were no other casualties; the second G.38—marked D-2500 and D-APIS—flew within the Deutsche Luft Hansa fleet for nearly a decade. With the outbreak of World War II the D-2500/D-APIS was pressed into military service as a transport craft by the Luftwaffe, it was destroyed on the ground during an RAF air raid on Athens on 17 May 1941. General characteristics Crew: 7 Capacity: 30 and 34 passengers Length: 23.21 m Wingspan: 44 m Height: 7.2 m Wing area: 290 m2 Empty weight: 14,920 kg Gross weight: 24,000 kg Max takeoff weight: 21,240 kg Powerplant: 2 × Junkers L88 V-12 water-cooled piston engines inboard

EP1 (Pixies EP)

EP1 is a 2013 EP by American alternative rock band Pixies. Apart from the 2004 single "Bam Thwok" and a cover of Warren Zevon's "Ain't That Pretty At All", this EP, along with the 2013 single "Bagboy", is the first new material from the band in more than 20 years; this is the first album they have released without founding member Kim Deal, who quit earlier in the year. It is the first in a series of releases planned through the band's web site and designed by Vaughan Oliver; the Pixies were aware of how their legacy, as well as the departure of their longtime bassist Kim Deal, strengthened the weight surrounding a new release. Santiago said the band decided to continue without Deal; the track "Indie Cindy" is about the band's hope that audiences will accept their new work after such a long hiatus. The song, according to Black Francis, says to the audience, but we have this memory. Can we do it again?”The E. P. is intended to be one of several released through the band's website rather than full albums on labels.

EP1 received mixed reviews from music critics. Jayson Greene of Pitchfork Media castigated the extended play, arguing there is "no Pixies in this Pixies" and giving it a rare score of 1.0. Ben Sisario of The New York Times called it "less screamy and uptight" but noted the overall dynamics of the band were still present; the track "Indie Cindy" in particular was praised for sounding reminiscent of the Pixies' earlier work. Buchanan praised "Bag Boy" and argued the band could survive without Kim Deal. On October 7, the official video of "Andro Queen" was released. On November 19, the official video for "What Goes Boom" was released and on December 9, the official video for "Another Toe in the Ocean" was released on the group's new VEVO site. "Andro Queen" – 3:24 "Another Toe in the Ocean" – 3:46 "Indie Cindy" – 4:41 "What Goes Boom" – 3:32 PixiesBlack Francis – vocals, guitar David Loveringdrums Joey Santiago – guitarAdditional personnel Ding – bass guitar Jeremy Dubs – backing vocals Gil Norton – production Official music videos: Andro Queen Another Toe In The Ocean Indie Cindy What Goes Boom

The Master of Ballantrae (1953 film)

The Master of Ballantrae is a 1953 British Technicolor adventure film starring Errol Flynn and Roger Livesey. It is a loose and truncated adaptation of the Robert Louis Stevenson novel of the same name. In eighteenth century Scotland, two sons of a laird clash over a lady, it was the last film from director William Keighley. At the Durrisdeer estate in Scotland in 1745, Jamie Durie, his younger brother Henry and their father Lord Durrisdeer receive news of the Jacobite rising, their retainer, MacKellar, recommends that one brother join the uprising while the other remains loyal to King George II, so that whichever side wins, the family's status and estate will be preserved. Both brothers want to go. Jamie insists on tossing a coin for the privilege and wins, despite the opposition of his fiancée, Lady Alison; the rising is crushed at the Battle of Culloden. Evading British soldiers, Jamie falls in with Colonel Francis Burke, they return secretly to Durrisdeer to obtain money for passage to France.

When Jamie's commoner mistress, Jessie Brown, sees him kissing Lady Alison, she betrays him to the English. Jamie falls into the sea. Henry becomes the heir to the estate on the presumption. Believing his brother betrayed him, a wounded Jamie and Burke take ship with smugglers to the West Indies, where they are betrayed by their captain McCauley and captured by pirates led by French dandy Captain Arnaud. Jamie goes into partnership with Arnaud; when they reach the port of Tortugas Bay, they see a rich Spanish galleon captured by fellow buccaneer Captain Mendoza. Arnaud agrees to Jamie's proposal. However, once they have seized the galleon, Arnaud turns on Jamie. Jamie takes command, they sail for Scotland. Jamie returns to the family estate, rich with pirate treasure, to find a celebration in progress for Henry's betrothal to Alison. Unable to contain himself, Jamie confronts his brother, despite the presence of British officers. A fight breaks out; the unequal fight ends with Burke condemned to death.

Jessie helps them escape, at the cost of her own life. Henry assists them. Jamie tells his brother of the location of some treasure which Henry can use to pay off Jamie's gambling debts. Alison elects to go with Jamie to an uncertain future and she and Jamie all ride off together. Errol Flynn as Jamie Durie Roger Livesey as Colonel Francis Burke Anthony Steel as Henry Durie Beatrice Campbell as Lady Alison Yvonne Furneaux as Jessie Brown Felix Aylmer as Lord Durrisdeer Mervyn Johns as MacKellar Charles Goldner as Captain Mendoza Ralph Truman as Major Clarendon Francis de Wolff as Matthew Bull, Arnaud's Quarter Master Jacques Berthier as Captain Arnaud Gillian Lynne as Marianne, a dancer favored by Mendoza Walter Whiteside toured the US with a play version of the novel in 1935. Warner Bros purchased the screen rights to the novel in 1950; the novel was in the public domain in the US but still in copyright in certain European countries. The purchase was made with funds "frozen" by the British government i.e. money earned by Warners in Britain which they could not take out of the country.

Warner Bros announced on 7 September 1950 that they would make the film, with shooting to take place in England. The following year it was announced that Joe Gottesman would be producer and Herb Meadow was doing the adaptation. In 1952 it was announced that Errol Flynn would star and the film would be known as The Sea Rogue. Anthony Steel, who had impressed in some British films, was signed to play his brother; the film was shot in Great Britain in 1952 from June 25 through to August, with location work in Cornwall and the Scottish Highlands with the pirate sequences done in Palermo in Sicily. Shooting took place six days a week. Fencing champion Sgt Robert Anderson from the Royal marines went on leave to participate in the film. Filming went smoothly, in contrast to many Errol Flynn movies around this time; the star was co-operative and well behaved and enjoyed the experience."Playing in that period piece made me realise how that must have been the heyday of great lovers," Flynn said. "In the 18th century men treated their women either angels or scullery maids.

You were either gallantly or romantic, the women expected it one way or the other." The New York Times called it Flynn's best swashbuckler since The Sea Hawk. "Flynn himself hasn't been served better in years," wrote the Los Angeles Times. The Washington Post called the film "a chaotic tale deserving of his undisputed prowess."Filmink magazine wrote that "the story has no real villain and is robbed of its point." It was the last film Flynn made under contract to Warner Bros. ending an association that had lasted for 18 years and 35 films. The Master of Ballantrae at the TCM Movie Database The Master of Ballantrae on IMDb The Master of Ballantrae at AllMovie The Master of Ballantrae at the American Film Institute Catalog Review at Variety

Semyon Budyonny

Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny was a Russian cavalryman, military commander during the Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War and World War II, a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Budyonny was the founder of the Red Cavalry, which played an important role in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War; as a political ally of Josif Stalin, he was one of the two most senior army commanders still alive and in post at the time of German invasion of the USSR in 1941, but had to be removed from active service because of his unfitness to command a modern army. Budyonny was born into a poor peasant family on the Kozyurin farmstead near the town of Salsk in the Don Cossack region of the southern Russian Empire. Although he grew up in a Cossack region, Budyonny was not a Cossack—his family came from Voronezh province, he was of Russian ethnicity. He worked as a farm labourer, shop errand boy, blacksmith's apprentice, driver of a steam-driven threshing machine, until the autumn of 1903, when he was drafted into the Imperial Russian Army.

He became a cavalryman reinforcing the 46th Cossack Regiment during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. After the war, he was transferred to the Primorsk Dragoon Regiment. In 1907, he was sent to the Academy for Cavalry Officers in the St. Petersburg Riding School, he graduated first in his class after a year, becoming an instructor with the rank of junior non-commissioned officer. He returned to his regiment as a riding instructor with a rank of senior non-commissioned officer. At the start of World War I, he joined a reserve dragoon cavalry battalion. During World War I, Budyonny was the 5th Squadron's non-commissioned troop officer in the Christian IX of Denmark 18th Seversky Dragoon Regiment, Caucasian Cavalry Division on the Western Front, he became famous for his attack on a German supply column near Brzezina, was awarded the St. George Cross, 4th Class. However, there was a general ineptitude of the officers. In November 1916, the Caucasian Cavalry Division was transferred to the Caucasus Front, to fight against the Ottoman Turks.

He was involved in a heated confrontation with the squadron sergeant major regarding the officers' poor treatment of the soldiers and the continual lack of food. The sergeant major struck out at Budyonny, who retaliated by punching the ranking officer, knocking him down; the soldiers backed Budyonny during questioning, claiming that the sergeant major was kicked by a horse. Budyonny was stripped of his St. George Cross, though he could have faced death. Budyonny would go on to be awarded the St. George Cross, 4th class, a second time, during the Battle of Van, he received the St. George Cross, 3rd class, fighting the Turks near Mendelij, on the way to Baghdad, he received the St. George Cross, 2nd class, for operating behind Turkish lines for 22 days, he received the St. George Cross, 1st class, for capturing a senior non-commissioned officer and six men. After the Russian Revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime in 1917, Budyonny was elected chairman of the squadron committee and a member of the regimental committee.

When the Caucasian Cavalry Division was moved to Minsk, he was elected chairman of the regimental committee and deputy chairman of the divisional committee. Returning to Platovskaya, Budyonny was elected deputy chairman of the Stanista Soviet of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks' and Soldiers' Deputies on 12 January 1918. On 18 February, he was elected to be a member of the Salsk District Presidium and head of the District Land Department. On the night of 23 February, Budyonny organized a force of 24 men to retake Platovskaya from the white guards, but Budyonny was soon joined by a large number of new recruits. By morning, they had killed 350 White Russian soldiers, his force now consisted of 520 men, from whom, on 27 February, he formed what was recognised as the first 120-strong squadron of red cavalry. He was elected battalion commander. Budyonny met Stalin and Voroshilov in July 1918. Both supported the idea of creating a cavalry corps to fight on the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, but Leon Trotsky, the People's Commissar for War, visited south Russia soon afterwards, he told Budyonny that cavalry was "a aristocratic family of troops, commanded by princes and counts."

Despite Trotsky, the 1st Socialist Cavalry Regiment was formed in Tsaritsyn in October 1918, commanded by Boris Dumenko, with Budyonny as deputy commander. Budyonny joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1919. During the summer of 1919, while the Red Cavalry were in action against the White General Anton Denikin, Trotsky described them contempuously as "Budyonny's corps - a horde, Budyonny - their Ataman ring leader... He is today's Stenka Razin, where he leads his gang, there will they go: for the Reds today, tomorrow for the Whites."However, in October 1919, Budyonny pulled off a spectacular victory when, in the greatest cavalry battle of the civil war, he attacked and defeated the White army corps commanded by Konstantin Mamontov. On 25 October, Trotsky sent a dispatch forecasting that the White army in the south would never recover form this defeat, hailing Budyonny as "a true warrior of the workers and peasants" When Poland declared independence, there was no agreement between its government and the Soviet authorities over where the border would be.

In April 1920, Budyonny's cavalry was assigned to driving the Polish army out of what is now Ukraine. On 5 June, he took part in recapturing Kyev, over the next few days succe

The Caine Mutiny

The Caine Mutiny is the 1951 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Herman Wouk. The novel grew out of Wouk's personal experiences aboard a destroyer-minesweeper in the Pacific Theater in World War II. Among its themes, it deals with the ethical decisions made at sea by ship captains; the mutiny of the title is legalistic, not violent, takes place during Typhoon Cobra, in December 1944. The court-martial that results provides the dramatic climax to the plot; the story is told through the eyes of Willis Seward "Willie" Keith, an affluent, callow young graduate of Princeton University. Following a mediocre living as a nightclub piano player, he signs up for midshipman school with the United States Navy to avoid being drafted into the United States Army during World War II, he endures inner conflicts over his relationship with his domineering mother and with May Wynn, a beautiful red-haired nightclub singer, the daughter of Italian immigrants. After surviving a series of misadventures that earn him the highest number of demerits in his class, he is commissioned as an ensign and assigned to the destroyer minesweeper U.

S. S. Caine, an obsolete warship converted from a World War I-era destroyer. Willie, with a low opinion of the Navy, misses his ship. Rather than catch up with it, he plays piano for an admiral, he has second thoughts after reading a last letter from his father. But he soon forgets his guilt in the round of parties at the admiral's house, he reports aboard the Caine. The ensign disapproves of the ship's decaying condition and slovenly crew, he attributes these conditions to a slackness of discipline by the ship's longtime captain, Lieutenant Commander William De Vriess. Willie's lackadaisical attitude toward what he considers menial duties brings about a humiliating clash with De Vriess when Willie forgets to decode a communique announcing that De Vriess will soon be relieved. De Vriess is relieved by Lieutenant Commander Philip Francis Queeg, a strong, by-the-book figure, whom Willie at first believes to be just what the rusty Caine and its rough-necked crew needs, but Queeg has never handled a ship like this before, he soon makes errors that he is unwilling to admit.

Caine is sent to San Francisco for an overhaul, in an admiral's hope that the captain will make further mistakes someplace else. Before the ship departs, Queeg browbeats his officers into selling their liquor rations to him. In a breach of regulations, Queeg smuggles the liquor off the ship, when it is lost, blackmails Willie into paying for it. Willie sees May on leave, after unsuccessfully attempting to seduce her, decides he has no future with a woman of a lower social class, he resolves to let the relationship die by not replying to her letters. As the Caine begins its missions under his command, Queeg loses the respect of the crew and loyalty of the wardroom through a series of incidents. Tensions aboard the ship cause Queeg to isolate himself from the other officers, who snub him as unworthy, believing him an oppressive coward. At one point, during the invasion of Kwajalein, Queeg is ordered to escort low-lying landing craft to their line of departure. Instead, the Caine hastily leaves the battle area.

The officers dub Queeg "Old Yellowstain." The dynamic, intellectual communications officer Lieutenant Thomas Keefer suggests to the Caine's executive officer, the dutiful Lieutenant Stephen Maryk, that Queeg might be mentally ill. Keefer directs Maryk to "Section 184" of the Navy Regulations, under which a subordinate can relieve a commanding officer in extraordinary circumstances. Maryk keeps a secret log of Queeg's eccentric behavior and decides to bring it to the attention of Admiral Halsey, commanding the Third Fleet. Keefer reluctantly supports Maryk gets cold feet and backs out, warning Maryk that his actions will be seen as mutiny. Soon afterward, the Caine is caught in an ordeal that sinks three destroyers. At the height of the storm, Queeg's paralysis of action convinces Maryk that he must relieve the captain of command to prevent the loss of the ship. Willie, as Officer of the Deck, supports the decision. Maryk turns Caine into rides out the storm. Maryk is tried by court-martial for "conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline" instead of "making a mutiny".

Willie and Stilwell, the enlisted helmsman during the typhoon, are to be tried depending on the outcome of Maryk's trial. In the courtroom, Keefer distances himself from any responsibility for the relief. Lieutenant Barney Greenwald, a naval aviator, an attorney in civilian life, represents Maryk, his opinion, after the captain was found sane by three Navy psychiatrists, is that Maryk was unjustified in relieving Queeg. Despite his own disgust with Maryk's and Willie's actions, Greenwald decides to take the case after deducing Keefer's role. During the trial, Greenwald unrelentingly cross-examines Queeg. Greenwald's attacks on Queeg result in the dropping of charges against Willie. Maryk, who had aspired to a career in the regular navy, is sent to command a Landing Craft Infantry, a humiliation that ends his naval career ambitions. Queeg is transferred to a naval supply depot in Iowa. At a party celebrating both the acquittal and Keefer's success at selling his novel to a publisher, an intoxicated Greenwald calls Keefer a coward.

He tells the gathering that he feels ashamed of having destroyed Queeg on the stand because Queeg did the necessary duty of guarding America in the peacetime Navy, which people like Keefer saw as beneath them. Greenwald asserts that men like Queeg kept Greenwald's Jewish mother from being "melted down into a bar of soap" b