A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled or by sails smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by maritime culture. Although sailboat terminology has varied across history, many terms have specific meanings in the context of modern yachting. A great number of sailboat-types may be distinguished by size, hull configuration, keel type, purpose and configuration of masts, sail plan. Popular monohull designs include: The cutter is similar to a sloop with a single mast and mainsail, but carries the mast further aft to allow for a jib and staysail to be attached to the head stay and inner forestay, respectively. Once a common racing configuration, today it gives versatility to cruising boats in allowing a small staysail to be flown from the inner stay in high winds. A catboat does not carry a jib. Most modern designs have the mainsail. A dinghy is a type of small open sailboat used for recreation, sail training, tending a larger vessel, they are popular in youth sailing programs for their short LOA, simple operation and minimal maintenance.
They have three sails: the mainsail and spinnaker. Ketches are similar to a sloop, but there is a second shorter mast astern of the mainmast, but forward of the rudder post; the second mast is called the mizzen mast and the sail is called the mizzen sail. A ketch can be Cutter-rigged with two head sails. A schooner has a mainmast taller than its foremast, distinguishing it from a yawl. A schooner can have more than two masts, with the foremast always lower than the foremost main. Traditional topsail schooners have topmasts allowing triangular topsails sails to be flown above their gaff sails; the most common modern sailboat is the sloop, which features one mast and two sails a Bermuda rigged main, a headsail. This simple configuration is efficient for sailing into the wind. A fractional rigged sloop has its forestay attached at a point below the top of the mast, allowing the mainsail to be flattened to improve performance by raking the upper part of the mast aft by tensioning the backstay. A smaller headsail is easier for a short-handed crew to manage.
A yawl is similar to a ketch, with a shorter mizzen mast carried astern the rudderpost more for balancing the helm than propulsion. Traditional sailboats are monohulls. Monohull boats rely on ballast for stability and are displacement hulls; this stabilizing ballast can, in boats designed for racing, be as much as 50% of the weight of the boat, but is around 30%. It creates two problems. Secondly, unless it has been built with buoyant foam or air tanks, if a monohull fills with water, it will sink. Multihulls rely on the geometry and the broad stance of their multiple hulls for their stability, eschewing any form of ballast. Multihulls are designed to be as light-weight as possible while still maintaining structural integrity, they are built with foam-filled flotation chambers and many modern commercial trimarans are rated as unsinkable, meaning that, should every crew compartment be filled with water, the hull itself has sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat. This absence of ballast results in performance gains in terms of acceleration, top speed, maneuverability.
The lack of ballast makes it much easier to get a multihull on plane, reducing its wetted surface area and thus its drag. The absence of drag improves wind precision. Compared to a monohull, acceleration to top speed is near-instantaneous. Reduced overall weight means a reduced draft, with a much reduced underwater profile. This, in turn, results directly in reduced wetted surface area and drag.. Without a ballast keel, multihulls can go in shallow waters. There are trade offs, however, in multihull design. A well designed ballasted boat can recover from a capsize from turning over completely. Righting a multihull that has gotten upside down is difficult in any case and impossible without help unless the boat is small or carries special equipment for the purpose. Multihulls prove more difficult to tack, since the reduced weight leads directly to reduced momentum, causing multihulls to more lose speed when headed into the wind. Structural integrity is much easier to achieve in a one piece monohull than in a two or three piece multihull whose connecting structure must be substantial and well connected to the hulls.
All these hull types may be manufactured as, or outfitted with, hydrofoils. All vessels have a keel, it is the backbone of the hull. In traditional construction, it is the structure upon. Modern monocoque designs include a virtual keel. Multihulls have keels. On a sailboat, the word "keel" is used to refer to the area, added to the hull to improve its lateral plane; the lateral plane is what allows sailing towards the wind. This can be a part of the hull. Most monohulls larger. Depending on the design of the boat, ballast may be 20 to 50 percent of the displacement; the ballast is integrated into their keels as large masses of lead or cast iron. This gets it as low as possible to improve its effectiveness. External keels are cast in the shape of the keel. A monohull's keel is made effective by a combination of weight and length. Most modern monohull boats ha
In watercraft, a racing shell is an narrow, comparatively long, rowing boat designed for racing or exercise. It is outfitted with long oars, outriggers to hold the oarlocks away from the boat, sliding seats; the boat's long length and semicircular cross-section reduce drag to a minimum. This makes the boat both unstable, it must be balanced by the rowers to avoid tipping. Being able to balance – or "set" – the boat while putting maximum effort into the oars is therefore an essential skill of sport rowing; the racing shell evolved from the simple working rowboat. Boats with longer hulls and narrower in beam were developed in the early 19th century for team racing; these dedicated boats were the first boats that could be called racing shells, they evolved into the specialized forms used today. A narrower boat provides a sharper angle to the bow and a smaller cross-sectional area reducing drag and wave drag, avoiding hull speed limitations at race speed; the first racing shells, while narrower than working rowboats, were limited by the width necessary to mount the oarlocks on the boat's sides.
By attaching outriggers to the gunwales, the oarlocks could be placed farther out. This resulted in two things: oars got much longer, providing more length to the strokes, hulls got narrower until they were as narrow as possible while still retaining sufficient buoyancy and balance. Made from lapstrake wood, shells are now always made from a composite material for strength and weight advantages; the first composite shells became popular in the 1870s. These paper shells were sold world-wide by the Waters Paper Boat Factory of New York; the next evolution of rowing shells were created from thin plywood sandwiching a cardboard honeycomb structure with a fiberglass outer hull. Modern shells are made of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic in a honeycomb structure, they are manufactured by either cold laying up of the carbon, left to set, or by using heat curing, which ensures that the carbon fibre composite is properly set. The best shells are characterized by their "stiffness", as the lack of flexing means none of the force exerted by the rower is wasted in twisting the boat.
A rower on a fixed seat is limited in the amount of power he can apply to the oars by the strength in his upper body and the distance he can pull the oars on each stroke. After riggers were added to the shell allowing the use of longer oars, rowers took advantage by taking longer strokes and using their legs during the stroke. At first, the athletes wore trousers with wear resistant leather bottoms covered in grease and the shells had concave, longitudinal seats; the athletes could use their legs to slide along the seat, adding the power of their legs and letting them lengthen the stroke. This led to the modern sliding seat, mounted on rollers, which allows nearly frictionless movement of the rower's body. Rolling seats were introduced around the year 1880, they differed from modern seats. Several inventors produced designs which avoided the friction which would result from use of a simple axle and bushing design. Patents were granted to Octavius Hicks, George Warin, Michael F. Davis. Hicks, of Etobicoke, was a boat builder, hotelier and bridge contractor.
Warin, of Toronto, a boat builder and famous decoy maker, was coach to world rowing champion Ned Hanlan. With the advent of the sliding seat, Hanlan was able to outperform his English and American counterparts; the Davis seat used rollers in a race similar to a ball bearing. The same advantages may be obtained by mounting the outriggers on rollers. Now the athletes body mass remains stationary and the boat doesn't pitch bow to stern nearly as much; this improves the boat speed significantly. The disadvantage is that this arrangement may result in blisters on one's buttocks and in the risk of sliding off one's seat when exerting too much explosive force at the beginning of a race. In April 1877 Michael Davis of Portland Maine applied for a patent for a sliding rigger/foot-board with fixed seat. In 1981, the German Peter-Michael Kolbe won the FISA World Championship using a sliding rigger. In August 1983 FISA banned the use of the sliding-rigger because it was thought to be more costly than sliding-seat boats.
There are a large number of different types of boats. They are classified using: Number of rowers. In all forms of modern competition the number of rowers can be 1, 2, 4, or 8. In the 19th century, there were races with 6, 10 and 12 rowers per boat. Position of coxswain. Boats are either bow-coxed, or stern-coxed. In coxless boats, a steersman is responsible for steering by either use of a mechanism connecting one of his shoes by wire to the rudder—the swiveling of the shoe turns the rudder, or by using a hand controlled string, called a tiller rope, parallel to the gunwales or the boat, controls the rudder in a similar fashion. Singles and doubles do not employ a rudder in competition. In competition, bow- and stern-coxed boats may race one another. Although sculling and sweep boats are identical to each other, they are referred to using different names: Sweep: straight pair, coxed pair, straight four, coxed four, eight Sculling: single, straight quad, coxed quad, octuple The Stämpfli Expr
Capsizing or keeling over occurs when a boat or ship is turned on its side or it is upside down in the water. The act of reversing a capsized vessel is called righting. If a capsized vessel has enough flotation to prevent sinking, it may recover on its own if it is not stable inverted. Vessels of this design are called self-righting. In dinghy sailing, a practical distinction can be made between being knocked down, called a capsize, being inverted, called being turtled. Small dinghies capsize in the normal course of use and can be recovered by the crew; some types of dinghy are deliberately capsized, as capsizing and righting the vessel again can be the fastest means of draining water from the boat. Capsizing is an inherent part of dinghy sailing, it is not a question of "if" but a question of "when". For those who do not want the experience, a keelboat monohull has physics on its side, but yachts can capsize and turtle in extraordinary conditions, so design considerations are important. Such events can overcome experience.
A capsized kayak may be righted with a eskimo rescue. As long as the kayaker knows how to react, the water is not too shallow, the location is not close to dangers that require evasive action by the kayaker – which cannot be taken while capsized – capsizing itself is not considered dangerous. In whitewater kayaking, capsizing occurs and is accepted as an ordinary part of the sport. For sailing vessels, the "capsize ratio" is a published number used as a guideline for safe operation, where a ratio of less than 2.0 is considered suitable for offshore operation. However the only variables that go into "capsize ratio" are a vessel's beam and its displacement, a thorough assessment of ship stability needs to consider various other factors. A vessel may be designated as "self-righting" if it is designed to be able to capsize return to upright without intervention. Most small craft intended as lifeboats with rigid hulls designed since about the middle of the twentieth century are self-righting. In a storm large vessels may be rolled by being hit broadside by a large wave or "pitchpoled" stem over stern in extreme waves.
This is catastrophic for larger ships, smaller yachts can be dismasted due to the drag as the boat is forced to roll over. Among ship types, a roll-on-roll-off ship is more prone to capsizing as it has large open car decks near the waterline. If the watertight car-deck doors fail through damage or mismanagement, one of the largest peacetime maritime disasters when MS Estonia sank off of the Finnish archipelago, water entering the car-deck is subject to the free surface effect and may cause a capsize; as a RORO ferry rolls, vehicles can break free and slide down if not secured, adversely altering the ship's centre of gravity, accelerating the roll, turning an otherwise recoverable roll into a capsize. A ship, holed may capsize. In 2012 the large cruise ship Costa Concordia was holed, lost its propulsion, drifted into shallow water where she sank, resting on her side with most of her structure out of the water. Technically, this was not a capsize as her bottom was only exposed. A vessel which capsizes without being holed may allow water to enter in places above the waterline.
The ship may not be able to right itself. In competitive yacht racing, a capsized boat has certain special rights. A boat is deemed capsized. Good racers can recover from a capsize with minimal loss of time; the capsize can result from extreme broaching if the keel has insufficient leverage to tilt the vessel upright. Motor life boats are designed to be self-righting if capsized. Intermediate sailors are encouraged to capsize their dinghies in a safe location with supervision at least once to become acquainted with their boat's floating properties and the capsize process; the boat is righted, bailed out, the sails reset, so that in the event of an uncontrolled capsize, the boat and its occupants are familiar with the procedure and may recover. Most small monohull sailboats can be righted by standing or pulling down on the centreboard, daggerboard to lift the mast clear of the water. Depending on the design of the hull, the boat's righting moment will take effect once the mast is around 30 degrees from horizontal and help pull the boat vertical.
Righting a catamaran, lying on its side involves using a righting line fed over the upper hull. The crew pulls back on the righting line. In small catamarans such as the Hobie 16 it is imperative that at least one crew member assumes this task as soon as possible as there is a chance that the boat will turtle and become difficult to recover without assistance; some monohulls and catamarans use a small flotation device mounted at the tip of the mast or mainsail to ensure that the craft cannot assume an inverted position, or at least that a inverted position is not stable. In both cases, having a crew mem
The Yami people known as the Tao people, are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the tiny outlying Orchid Island of Taiwan. These indigenous peoples have been more recognized as the Yami people, following a Japanese anthropologist's coining of the name. However, as a collective, these Orchid Island inhabitants prefer "Tao people" as their group identifier, they are part of the Austronesian family, designated members of the Taiwanese aborigines. Despite being linked to both indigenous Taiwanese and Filipino populations, the Tao people remain unique in their customs and cultural practices. Composed of 3,100 individuals, the island populace relies on fishing for survival; the Tao people's emphasis on fishing and ocean culture reflects their intense connection to the sea as being about much more than survival. Their ways of life have been threatened by the continued emigration to the mainland of Taiwan in search of jobs and education; as a result, the continuation of past traditions has been hindered.
Citing threats to their cultures and health concerns, the Tao people have been protesting the nuclear waste plant imposed on their island by the government in 1982 and advocating for its removal. The origin of the Tao people is unknown; however they are presumed more related to individuals of the Philippines than those of Taiwan. A common theory tracing their ancestry posits that their ancestors left the Batan Archipelago in the Philippines, made home of Orchid Island 800 years ago; this reasoning is based on the language similarities of the Batanese and the Tao people. It appears that these two groups traded goats, pigs and gold until about 300 years ago due to continuous warfare. However, there is still no certainty as to. In addition to the Tao people of Orchid Island, there is a growing population of Taiwanese and Chinese individuals; these populations add 1,000 people to the number of inhabitants on the island. The word "Tao" means "people" in the language of the Tao people; the word Yami originated from Japanese ethnologist Torii Ryūzō.
He used the term to refer to the language of the Tao People. In recent years, some Tao people have rejected the name. While this indigenous group identifies collectively by the name Tao or Yami, individual communities on the island affiliate with unique names tied to their locality; the language of the Tao people can be referred to as Tao or Yami. It is a subgroup of Austronesian languages. More it is considered a Western Malayo-Polynesian language, one of two primary branches in the Austronesian subgroup—the other being Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian; as of 1994, there were a total of 3,000 speakers, 3,255 individuals deemed ethnically Yami. Orchid Island referred to as Lanyu or Pongso no Tao, is located 40 miles off the southeastern coast of Taiwan, directly north of the Batanes Islands of the Philippines, it is a small island of about 45 square kilometers with an estimated total population of 4,000 inhabitants. It was referred to as Hongtou Island, however was renamed Orchid Island in 1947 for its rich orchid produces.
There are few plains on the island, instead its geography is composed of steep mountains and hilly terrain. Most villages are located at mountain bases, because river run-off is considered an ample source of fresh water. In 1877, the Qing Dynasty claimed Orchid Island as part of its Chinese empire, but was unable to rule effectively; the island was ceded to Japan along with Taiwan in 1895. Japan's rule of the island lasted from 1895 to 1945. During this time, the government declared the island off limits to outsiders, deemed it an ethnological research area; the Japanese government monitored any outside influence that may drastically interfere with the Tao people's ways of life. As a result, the Tao people remain the most primitive of Taiwan's aboriginal societies. Following Japan's defeat in World War II, the Republic of China took control of Orchid Island in 1945. Tourism was introduced to the island in 1967, the Tao people were introduced to a new variety of modernization. Due to westernization, their indigenous beliefs have melded with Christian practices.
As a result, they have a belief system made of components from ancestral beliefs and Christian ideologies. Ancestral Tao belief systems consisted of several layers, each host to a variety of gods and spirits; the first layer is home to Simo-Rapao, who oversees all other gods. According to Tao mythology, he created the Earth's first two individuals from a piece of rock, a piece of bamboo, he doles out punishment, is responsible for all natural calamities that affect the island. Sio-Mima is native of the second layer of the Tao cosmogony, he is believed to control the rest of the world, deemed dominated by white people. The third level is home to Si-Lovolovoin. Si Toriao controls the rain and lightning, while Si-Lovolovoin serves as a messenger to all of the gods. In the final layer of their ancient religious belief system resides the malevolent gods who may punish the Tao peoples with invasions of caterpillars and locusts. Ancestral Tao people believed. According to their lore, there were separate goddesses for each gender.
These goddesses dictated the lifetimes of the Tao populace. The length of an individual's life was determined by cracking a coconut and
A Borobudur ship is the 8th-century wooden double outrigger, sailed Jong vessel of Maritime Southeast Asia depicted in some bas reliefs of the Borobudur Buddhist monument in Central Java, Indonesia. This has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; the ships depicted on Borobudur were most the type of vessels used for inter-insular trades and naval campaigns by the Sailendran and Srivijayan thalassocracy empire that ruled the region around the 7th to the 13th century. The function of the outrigger was to stabilize the ship, it is considered by scholars to have been the most type of vessel used for their voyages and exploration across Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. In the late 20th century, Philip Beale, a British sailor, became interested in depictions of the ship at Borobudur and decided to reconstruct one. Aided by government and international bodies, he organized an expedition team that constructed the ship and, from 2003 to 2004, sailed it from Indonesia to Madagascar and to Ghana, proving that long-distance trade had occurred.
The Samudra Raksa Museum was constructed at Borobudur Archeological Park to house the ship, opening in 2005, provides other displays to interpret the ancient maritime history of Indonesians. Based on archeological and other evidence, scholars have learned that the bas reliefs of Borobudur depict the everyday life of 8th-century ancient Java, from courtly palace life to that of commoners in the village. An array of temple, architecture and fauna, dress and fashion are portrayed, as well as modes of transportation including palanquins, horse carriages and ships. In 1982, Philip Beale, a British sailor who served in the British Royal Navy, visited Borobudur to study traditional ships and marine traditions, he planned to reenact the ancient maritime trade route. Working from limited data — five stone carvings — but his extensive naval experience, Beale organized an expedition team to reconstruct the ship and sail it from Jakarta in Indonesia to Madagascar, around the Cape of Good Hope to the west coast of Africa.
He enlisted artisan scholars in the effort. Extensive research and design work preceded the building of the ship by a team of experienced Indonesian ship builders, based in the Kangean Islands some 60 miles north of Bali. Nick Burningham, an acknowledged expert on Indonesian watercraft and maritime archaeology, supervised the building of the vessel; the ship was built by Assad Abdullah al-Madani, a seasoned Indonesian traditional ship builder, his men, with little more than a balsa wood model that Burningham had created to help him. The vessel is named Samudra Raksa and was inaugurated in Benoa Harbor, Bali on 15 July 2003 by the Minister for Tourism and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, I Gede Ardika, together with Philippe Delanghe, UNESCO Office Jakarta Program Specialist for Culture; the keel is 17.29 m long and the hull about 19 m overall with a beam of 4.25 m and moulded depth of 2.25m. The sailing draft was 1.5m. The ship was propelled by two layar tanja; the hull planking was bungor and decks were teak.
The expedition took place during the 6 months from August 2003 until February 2004. It started in Tanjung Priok harbour, Jakarta on 30 August 2003, launched by President Megawati Sukarnoputri, arrived in the port of Tema, Ghana on 23 February 2004; the epic voyage demonstrated ancient trading links between Africa. Vessels traveled by what was called the "Cinnamon shipping route" from Indonesian waters across the Indian Ocean to the Seychelles and past South Africa to Ghana for trade. Today the Samudra Raksa is housed and displayed in Samudra Raksa Museum, located a few hundred meters north of Borobudur temple within the complex of Borobudur Archaeological Park; the Ship Museum Samudra Raksa was opened by Coordinating Minister for Welfare, Prof. Dr. Alwi Shihab of the Republic of Indonesia, on 31 August 2005, it was a tribute to all who worked with and supported the Borobudur Ship Expedition. This style ship has been memorialized on stamps: one image from the bas-relief on the temple, the other to commemorate the Borobudur Ship Expedition of 2003-2004.
Renderings of the five ships with outriggers in the Borobudur bas-reliefs in Conradus Leemans' Boro-Boedoer. Note that the ships are of different types; the well known replica is housed at Samudra Raksa museum, Central Java, Indonesia. One replica is moored on Marine March of Resorts World Sentosa dock in Singapore. Borobudur relief serve as the basis for constructing "Spirit of Majapahit", a replica of Majapahit ship. A replica of Borobudur ship was featured in the opening ceremony of the Asian Games 2018 on 18 August 2018 in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Jakarta. Borobudur ship and ship carving are featured in the Age of Empires II expansion pack, Rise of the Rajas. Borobudur ship serve as the basis for the model of Majapahit Jong in video game Civilization VI, with double outriggers, double quarter rudder, rowers. Karakoa Kora kora K'un-lun po, a type of vessel used in the archipelago as early as 1st century A. D. Pareanom, Yusi Avianto. Cinnamon Route, The Samudraraksa Borobudur Expedition. Yogyakarta: PT.
Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Republic of Indonesia, Lontar Foundation. ISBN 978-979-8083-58-7. Note: The
The Austronesian peoples or more Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a group of various peoples in Southeast Asia and East Africa that speak Austronesian languages. The nations and territories predominantly populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia, they include Taiwanese aborigines, the majority of ethnic groups in Brunei, East Timor, Madagascar, Micronesia, the Philippines and Polynesia, as well as the Malays of Singapore. They are found in the regions of Southern Thailand, the Cham areas in Vietnam and Cambodia, parts of Myanmar, the Hainan island province of China, parts of Sri Lanka and some of the Andaman Islands. Additionally, modern-era migration brought Austronesian-speaking people to the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, mainland Europe, Cocos Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Hainan, Hong Kong and West Asian countries. Ethnic Maldivians possess a genetic connection to the Austronesian-speaking groups of maritime Southeast Asia via gene flow from the Malay Archipelago.
Another term used by Wilhelm G. Solheim II to refer to Austronesian-speakers with a maritime-oriented culture is Nusantao, as part of his Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network hypothesis; the linguistic connections between Madagascar and Southeast Asia were recognized early in the Colonial Era by European authors the remarkable similarities between Malagasy and Polynesian numerals. The first formal publications on these relationships was in 1708 by the Dutch Orientalist Adriaan Reland, who recognized a "common language" from Madagascar to western Polynesia; the Spanish philologist Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro devoted a large part of his Idea dell' Universo to the establishment of a language family linking the Malaysian Peninsula, the Maldives, the Sunda Islands, the Philippines, the Pacific Islands eastward to Easter Island. Multiple other authors corroborated this classification, the language family came to be known as "Malayo-Polynesian," first coined by the German linguist Franz Bopp in 1841.
The term "Malayo-Polynesian" was first used in English by the British ethnologist James Cowles Prichard in 1842 to refer to a historical racial category equivalent to the Austronesian peoples today, not to the language family. However, the Malayo-Polynesian language family excluded Melanesia and Micronesia, due to what they perceived were marked physical differences between the inhabitants of these regions from the Malayo-Polynesian speakers. However, there was growing evidence of their linguistic relationship to Malayo-Polynesian languages, notably from studies on the Melanesian languages by Georg von der Gabelentz, Robert Henry Codrington and Sidney Herbert Ray. Codrington coined and used the term "Ocean" language family rather than "Malayo-Polynesian" in 1891, in opposition to the exclusion of Melanesian and Micronesian languages; this was adopted by Ray who defined the "Oceanic" language family as encompassing the languages of Southeast Asia and Madagascar, Micronesia and Polynesia. In 1899, the Austrian linguist and ethnologist Wilhelm Schmidt coined the term "Austronesian" to refer to the language family.
Schmidt had the same motivations as Cordington. He proposed the term as a replacement to "Malayo-Polynesian", because he opposed the implied exclusion of the languages of Melanesia and Micronesia in the latter name, it became the accepted name for the language family, with Oceanic and Malayo-Polynesian languages being retained as names for subgroups. The term "Austronesian", or more "Austronesian-speaking peoples", came to refer the people who speak the languages of the Austronesian language family; some authors, object to the use of the term to refer to people, as they question whether there is any biological or cultural shared ancestry between all Austronesian-speaking groups. This is true for authors who reject the prevailing "Out of Taiwan" hypothesis and instead offer scenarios where the Austronesian languages spread among preexisting static populations through borrowing or convergence, with little or no population movements. Despite these objections, the general consensus is that the archeological, cultural and linguistic evidence all separately indicate varying degrees of shared ancestry among Austronesian-speaking peoples that justifies their treatment as a "phylogenetic unit."
This has led to the use of the term "Austronesian" in academic literature to refer not only to the Austronesian languages, but the Austronesian-speaking peoples, their societies, the geographic area of Austronesia. Serious research into the Austronesian languages and its speakers has been ongoing since the 19th century. Modern scholarship on Austronesian dispersion models is credited to two influential papers in the late 20th century: The Colonisation of the Pacific: A Genetic Trail, The Austronesian Dispersal and the Oigin of Languages; the topic is interesting to scientists for the remarkably unique characteristics of the Austronesian speakers: their extent and rapid dispersal. Regardless certain d
A rowlock UK:, sometimes spur, oarlock or gate is a brace that attaches an oar to a boat. When a boat is rowed, the rowlock acts as a fulcrum, and, in doing so, the propulsive force that the rower exerts on the water with the oar is transferred to the boat by the thrust force exerted on the rowlock. On ordinary rowing craft, the rowlocks are attached to the gunwales. In the sport of rowing, the rowlocks are attached to outriggers, which project from the boat and provide greater leverage. In sport rowing, the rowlocks are U-shaped and attached to a vertical pin which allows the rowlock to pivot around the pin during the rowing stroke, they additionally have a locking mechanism across the top of the "U" to prevent the oar from unintentionally popping out of the rowlock. Rowlocks were two wooden posts or thole pins that the shaft of the oar nestled between. Single THOLE PINS may be used when the oars have holes cut into the loom which sits over/around the THOLE PIN. In sport rowing oarlocks were brass or bronze and open.
With the advent of modern materials oarlocks are now injection moulded plastic and precision made to minimize play between the oar collar and the oarlock. The most recent sport racing oarlocks have a spring loaded feature to keeps the oar collar against the pin at all times. Oarlocks are technical pieces of equipment in sport rowing, holding the oar shaft and therefore the oar blade at the correct angle in the water to ensure optimum performance; the Norwegian municipalities of Fosnes, Radøy and Tjøme have rowlocks in their coats-of-arms