Video tape recorder
A video tape recorder is a tape recorder designed to record and playback video and audio material on magnetic tape. The early VTRs are open-reel devices, they were used in television studios, serving as a replacement for motion picture film stock and making recording for television applications cheaper and quicker. Beginning in 1963, videotape machines made instant replay during televised sporting events possible. Improved formats, in which the tape was contained inside a videocassette, were introduced around 1969. Agreement by Japanese manufacturers on a common standard recording format, so cassettes recorded on one manufacturer's machine would play on another's, made a consumer market possible, the first consumer videocassette recorder was introduced by Sony in 1971. In early 1951 Bing Crosby asked his Chief Engineer John T. Mullin if television could be recorded on tape as was the case for audio. Mullin said. Bing asked Ampex to build one and set up a laboratory for Mullin in Bing Crosby Enterprises to build one.
In 1951 it was believed that if the tape was run at a high speed it could provide the necessary bandwidth to record the video signal. The problem was that a video signal has a much wider bandwidth than an audio signal does, requiring high tape speeds to record it. However, there was another problem: the magnetic head design would not permit bandwidths over 1 meghertz to be recorded regardless of the tape speed; the first efforts at video recording, using recorders similar to audio recorders with fixed heads, were unsuccessful. The first such demonstration of this technique was done by BCE on 11 November 1951; the result was a poor picture. Another of the early efforts was the Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus, a high-speed multi-track machine developed by the BBC in 1952; this machine used a thin steel tape on a 21-inch reel traveling at over 200 inches per second. Despite 10 years of research and improvements, it was never used due to the immense length of tape required for each minute of recorded video.
By 1952 BCE had moved on to multi-track machine, but found limitations in recording bandwidth at the high speeds. In 1953 BCE discovered; this problem bandwidths exceeding the 1 megahertz limit were able to be recorded. Since BCE and AMPEX were working together on the video recorder the new head design was shared with them, AMPEX used it in their recorder. In 1955 BCE demonstrated a broadcast quality color recorder that operated at 100 inches per second and CBS ordered three of them. Many other fixed-head recording systems were tried but all required an impractically high tape speed, it became clear that practical video recording technology depended on finding some way of recording the wide-bandwidth video signal without the high tape speed required by linear-scan machines. In 1953 Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki developed a prototype helical scan video tape recorder. Another solution was transverse-scan technology, developed by Ampex around 1954, in which the recording heads are mounted on a spinning drum and record tracks in the transverse direction, across the tape.
By recording on the full width of the tape rather than just a narrow track down the center, this technique achieved a much higher density of data per linear centimeter of tape, allowing a lower tape speed of 15 inches per second to be used. The Ampex VRX-1000 became the world's first commercially successful videotape recorder in 1956, it uses the 2" quadruplex format, using two-inch tape. Because of its US$50,000 price, the Ampex VRX-1000 could be afforded only by the television networks and the largest individual stations. Ampex's quadruplex magnetic tape video recording system has certain limitations, such as the lack of clean pause, or still-frame, because when tape motion is stopped, only a single segment of the picture recording is present at the playback heads, so it can only reproduce recognizable pictures when the tape is playing at normal speed.) But in spite of its drawbacks it remained the broadcasting studio standard until about 1980. The helical scan system overcame this limitation.
In 1959 Toshiba released the first commercial helical-scan video tape recorder. In 1963, Philips introduced its EL3400 1" helical scan recorder, Sony marketed the 2" PV-100, its first open-reel VTR intended for business, medical and educational use; the Telcan, produced by the Nottingham Electronic Valve Company and demonstrated on June 24, 1963, was the first home video recorder. It could be bought as a unit or in kit form for £60. However, there were several drawbacks: it was expensive, not easy to put together, can record for only 20 minutes at a time in black-and-white; the Sony model CV-2000, first marketed in 1965, is their first VTR intended for home use and is based on half-inch tape. Ampex and RCA followed in 1965 with their own open-reel monochrome VTRs priced under US $1,000 for the home consumer market. Prerecorded videos for home replay became available in 1967; the EIAJ format is a standard half-inch format used by various manufacturers. EIAJ-1 is an open-reel format. EIAJ-2 uses a cartridge, but not the take-up reel.
Since the take-up reel is part of the recorder, the tape has to be rewound before removing the cartridge, a slow procedure. The development of the videocassette followed other replacements of open-reel systems with a cassette or cartridge in consumer items: the Stereo-Pak 4-trac
The Kooyong Classic is a professional tennis exhibition singles-only tournament, played on outdoor hard courts. It is held annually in January, right before the Australian Open, at the Kooyong Stadium in Kooyong, Australia. Eight invited players participate in the tournament in a promotion/relegation format, playing three matches each over four days to determine the standings from the first place to the eighth. Aside from the competition, exhibition matches take place during the tournament; the Kooyong Classic draw includes eight invited Association of Tennis Professionals players, seeded according to the ATP rankings of the week preceding the tournament. Four first round matches are played, after which the four winners advance to the semifinals, while the four losers are relegated to a play-off draw; the two semifinals of the main draw and of the play-off draw are played, setting four new matches: the main draw final, to decide of the champion and of the runner-up, the main draw consolation match, to decide of the third and fourth places, the play-off draw final, to decide of the fifth and sixth places, the play-off draw consolation match, to decide of the seventh and eighth places.
The tournament takes place over four days, with the four first round matches taking place on the first day, the two first round matches of the play-off draw, one semifinal of the main draw taking place on the second day, the final and the consolation match of the play-off draw, the second semifinal of the main draw taking place on the third day, the final and the consolation match of the main draw taking place on the fourth and last day. Unlike in official tournaments, players retiring during or withdrawing before a match are not automatically eliminated from the tournament, can still participate to the play-offs or the consolation match –as in the 2008 event, when Nikolay Davydenko withdrew due to fatigue before his play-off draw first round match against Brydan Klein, but went on to play and win the play-off draw consolation match against Ivan Ljubičić. Players who decide to withdraw from the competition due to injury are replaced by an alternate for the play-offs or the consolation match –as in the 2006 edition, when David Nalbandian's withdrawal allowed alternate Max Mirnyi to enter the draw.
All matches. The Kooyong Classic taking place the week before the first Grand Slam of the regular season, the Australian Open, exhibition matches are organised by the event, outside of the competition, to allow top players lacking practice to play matches before the Open; the first Kooyong exhibition tournament took place in 1988, the year the Australian Open moved from the courts of the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club, which had become too small to host the event, to the newly built National Tennis Centre at Flinders Park. Initiated by Colin Stubs, still the director of the tournament in 2009, the first Kooyong Invitational was created to continue the tradition of having a world-class tennis tournament at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club. Set in December 1988, to allow participants to prepare for the 1989 Australian Open, played on the club's traditional grass courts, the sixteen-men event comprised fifteen Australian players and Goran Ivanišević from Croatia, saw the victory of 1988 Australian Open runner-up Pat Cash over countryman Wally Masur in the final.
As it started a sponsoring partnership with Colonial Mutual in 1990, the tournament changed its competition format to an eight-men round-robin tournament, with each player of the two four-men groups playing two round robin games, a third match for the standings. The tournament's success increased during the Colonial-sponsored years, started to attract more and more international players, outside of the Australian constituency, as it became the most important warm-up event to the first Grand Slam of the season –the only one to be held in the same city as the Open, in Melbourne; the first non-Australian champion was crowned in 1991, when Australian Open quarterfinalist Goran Prpić from Croatia defeated Richard Fromberg for the title, the first all-foreign final came in 1993, with eventual World No. 1 Thomas Muster from Austria edging Russian Alexander Volkov. The 1993 Kooyong tournament included for the first time an eight-players women's event, running concurrently with the men's; the first women's Colonial Mutual Classic featured an all-Australian final, where 1992 Barcelona Olympics doubles bronze medalist Rachel McQuillan defeated fellow bronze medalist Nicole Provis in three sets.
The next year, the Colonial Classic was held in mid-January one, just before the 1995 Australian Open, switched from grass to hard courts, to make the playing conditions closer to that of the Rebound Ace-surfaced Grand Slam tournament. The new-style Colonial Classic saw American champions like Pete Sampras, Andre Agassi and Michael Chang starting to compete, with the latter starting a series of three victories at the event from 1995 to 1997. Eventual 2003 Wimbledon Championships runner-up Mark Philippoussis from Australia won the last edition played in a round-robin format in 1998, as the 1999 event was the first played under the current promotion/relegation system, with Swede Thomas Enqvist coming off as the winner. Agassi became the most successful player at the event after his 1998 runner-up finish, reaching five more finals consecutively from 2000 to 2004. Commonwealth Bank took over the sponsorship of the tournament f
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in
A television studio called a television production studio, is an installation room in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons; these rooms are connected via intercom, personnel will be divided among these workplaces. The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded and viewed take place. A typical studio floor has the following characteristics and installations: decoration and/or sets professional video camera mounted on pedestals microphones and foldback speakers stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment. Several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room a small public address system for communication a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is desired, but not always possibleWhile a production is in progress, people composing a television crew work on the studio floor.
The on-screen presenters themselves, any guests - the subjects of the television show. A floor manager, who has overall charge of the studio area stage management, who relays timing and other information from the television director. One or more camera operators who operate the cameras, though in some instances these can be operated from the PCR using remotely controlled robotic pan tilt zoom camera heads. Possibly a teleprompter operator if this is a live television news broadcast The production control room is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place; the production control room is also called a studio control room or a "gallery" – the latter name comes from the original placement of the director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC's first studio at Alexandra Palace, once referred to as like a minstrels' gallery. Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks.
Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room is smaller in size and is a scaled-down version of centralcasting; the master control room houses equipment, too noisy or runs too hot for the production control room. It makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room; this can include the actual circuitry and connections between The master control room in a US television station is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials, switch local or television network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter, or these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room; the term "studio" refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and out to the transmitter.
A television studio has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond broadcast reference monitors and studio monitors for audio. Among them are: one or more make-up and changing rooms a reception area for crew and visitors called the green room. Broadcast engineering Engineering technician Technical operator RF engineering A2 Electronic field production Electronic news-gathering Remote broadcast Outside broadcasting Television crew Television studies List of motion picture-related topics Film crew Production team Media related to Television studios at Wikimedia Commons
ABS-CBN Corporation known as ABS-CBN, is a Filipino media and entertainment group based in Quezon City, Philippines. It is the Philippines' largest entertainment and media conglomerate in terms of revenue, operating income, net income, equity, market capitalization, number of employees. ABS-CBN was formed by the merger of Chronicle Broadcasting Network. ABS was founded in 1946 by American electronics engineer James Lindenberg as Bolinao Electronics Corporation. In 1952, BEC was renamed Alto Broadcasting System, after Judge Antonio Quirino — brother of President Elpidio Quirino, who purchased the company; the company that would be merged with ABS to form ABS-CBN was founded in 1956 as Chronicle Broadcasting Network by newspaper mogul Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and his brother Fernando Lopez, the Vice President of the Philippines. The two companies were merged and incorporated as ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on 1 February 1967, renamed ABS-CBN Corporation in 2010 to reflect the company's diversification.
The common shares of ABS-CBN were first traded on the Philippine Stock Exchange in July 1992 under the ticker symbol ABS. The group owns and operates the ABS-CBN and ABS-CBN Sports+Action national television networks as well as the Radyo Patrol and My Only Radio regional radio networks; the ABS-CBN television network - in particular, is the largest contributor to the group's revenue, generating about 50 to 60 percent of the group's total annual revenue from selling airtime to advertisers. The remaining revenue is generated from consumer sales from ABS-CBN Global Ltd. which distributes international television channels such as The Filipino Channel and Myx TV and from pay TV and broadband internet provider Sky. Other companies which operate under the ABS-CBN group are motion picture company Star Cinema, music recording label Star Music, publishing firm ABS-CBN Publishing, pay TV content provider and distributor Creative Programs, talent agency Star Magic. Among the pay TV networks and channels under the ABS-CBN group are ABS-CBN HD, ABS-CBN News Channel, ABS-CBN Sports+Action HD, Cinema One, Jeepney TV, Metro Channel and Myx.
In recent years, ABS-CBN has ventured and diversified in other businesses such as over-the-top platform iWant, digital terrestrial television service ABS-CBN TV Plus, family entertainment center Kidzania Manila, home shopping network O Shopping. ABS-CBN is the principal owner of the ABS-CBN Philharmonic Orchestra; the nucleus of ABS-CBN Corporation began in 1946 with Bolinao Electronics Corporation. BEC was established by James Lindenberg, one of the founding fathers of Philippine television, an American electronics engineer who went into radio equipment assembly and radio broadcasting. At that time, the largest media company was Manila Broadcasting, with DZRH as the leading radio station. In 1949, James Lindenberg shifted Bolinao to radio broadcasting with DZBC and masterminded the introduction of television to the country in 1953. In 1951, Lindenberg partnered with Antonio Quirino, brother of then-Philippine President Elpidio Quirino, in order to try their hand at television broadcasting. In 1952, BEC was renamed as Alto Broadcasting System or ABS.
"Alto" was a contraction of Quirino's and his wife's first names and Aleli. Though they had little money and resources, ABS was able to put up its TV tower by July 1953 and import some 300 television sets; the initial test broadcasts began on September of the same year. The first full-blown broadcast, was on 23 October 1953, of a party in Tony Quirino's humble abode; the television station was known as DZAQ-TV. In turn, on 24 September 1956, the Chronicle Broadcasting Network was organized; the network, which focused only on radio broadcasting, was owned by Don Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and the then- Philippine Vice President Fernando Lopez, on launched its own TV station, DZXL-TV 9 in April 19, 1958. In 1957, Don Eugenio acquired ABS from Lindenberg. However, it was only on 1 February 1967, that the corporate name was changed to ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation to reflect the merger. Before, it was named ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, the name was reverted to the precursor of the network, Bolinao Electronics Corporation or BEC, but the ABS-CBN brand was first used in 1961.
In 1958, the network's new headquarters at Roxas Boulevard were inaugurated, all radio and television operations were consolidated into its two buildings, the radio stations at the Chronicle Building at Aduana Street, Intramuros and the TV operations at the brand new Roxas Boulevard building in Pasay City. In the late 1950s, Don Eugenio's son, Geny Lopez saw the potential of TV and radio to reach and link Filipinos across the archipelago. By the mid-1960s, the ABS network was leading the radio industry, with stations like DZXL and DZAQ Radyo Patrol in the Manila area, which featured journalists like Ernie Baron, Bong Lapira, Orly Mercado, Joe Taruc, Mario Garcia, Jun Ricafrente, Bobby Guanzon, Rey Langit, various other stations nationwide. ABS made breakthroughs in the TV industry by achieving the country's first color TV broadcast, first satellite feed, first use of videotape, among others, it featured top shows such as Your Evening with Pilita and Tawag ng Tanghalan, the country's first comedy show Buhay Artista, first Philippine game show, What's My Living and the first noontime show Student Canteen, among others.
It was pioneering in marathon election coverage in 1967 when the TV & radio stations of the networ
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones and television broadcasting, in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors. Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal; the most common are the dynamic microphone. Microphones need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced. In order to speak to larger groups of people, a need arose to increase the volume of the human voice; the earliest devices used to achieve this were acoustic megaphones. Some of the first examples, from fifth century BC Greece, were theater masks with horn-shaped mouth openings that acoustically amplified the voice of actors in amphitheatres.
In 1665, the English physicist Robert Hooke was the first to experiment with a medium other than air with the invention of the "lovers' telephone" made of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end. In 1861, German inventor Johann Philipp Reis built an early sound transmitter that used a metallic strip attached to a vibrating membrane that would produce intermittent current. Better results were achieved in 1876 with the "liquid transmitter" design in early telephones from Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray – the diaphragm was attached to a conductive rod in an acid solution; these systems, gave a poor sound quality. The first microphone that enabled proper voice telephony was the carbon microphone; this was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US. Although Edison was awarded the first patent in mid-1877, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses some years earlier, most historians credit him with its invention.
The carbon microphone is the direct prototype of today's microphones and was critical in the development of telephony and the recording industries. Thomas Edison refined the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter of 1886; this microphone was employed at the first radio broadcast, a performance at the New York Metropolitan Opera House in 1910. In 1916, E. C. Wente of Western Electric developed the next breakthrough with the first condenser microphone. In 1923, the first practical moving coil microphone was built; the Marconi-Sykes magnetophone, developed by Captain H. J. Round, became the standard for BBC studios in London; this was improved in 1930 by Alan Blumlein and Herbert Holman who released the HB1A and was the best standard of the day. In 1923, the ribbon microphone was introduced, another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Olson, who reverse-engineered a ribbon speaker. Over the years these microphones were developed by several companies, most notably RCA that made large advancements in pattern control, to give the microphone directionality.
With television and film technology booming there was demand for high fidelity microphones and greater directionality. Electro-Voice responded with their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in 1963. During the second half of 20th century development advanced with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58 and SM57; the latest research developments include the use of fibre optics and interferometers. The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its capsule. Sound is first converted to mechanical motion by means of a diaphragm, the motion of, converted to an electrical signal. A complete microphone includes a housing, some means of bringing the signal from the element to other equipment, an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the equipment being driven. A wireless microphone contains a radio transmitter. Microphones are categorized by their transducer principle, such as condenser, etc. and by their directional characteristics. Sometimes other characteristics such as diaphragm size, intended use or orientation of the principal sound input to the principal axis of the microphone are used to describe the microphone.
The condenser microphone, invented at Western Electric in 1916 by E. C. Wente, is called a capacitor microphone or electrostatic microphone—capacitors were called condensers. Here, the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, the vibrations produce changes in the distance between the plates. There are two types, depending on the method of extracting the audio signal from the transducer: DC-biased microphones, radio frequency or high frequency condenser microphones. With a DC-biased microphone, the plates are biased with a fixed charge; the voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation, where Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts. The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor; the assembly of fixed and movable plates is called an "element" or "capsule". A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capa
Electronic field production
Electronic field production is a television industry term referring to a video production which takes place in the field, outside of a formal television studio, in a practical location or special venue. Zettl defines EFP as using "both ENG and studio techniques. From ENG it borrows its flexiblity. EFP takes place on location and has to adapt to the location conditions... Good lighting and audio are always difficult to achieve in EFP, regardless of whether you are outdoors or indoors. Compared to ENG, in which you respond to a situation, EFP needs careful planning." Typical applications of electronic field production include awards shows, major interviews for newsmagazine shows like Inside Edition and Dateline NBC, large conventions such as the Democratic National Convention, Republican National Convention or San Diego Comic-Con International, celebrity red-carpet events and sporting events. EFP ranges from a camera operator or crew of two capturing high-quality imagery, to a multiple-camera setup utilizing videography, advanced graphics and sound.
Sports television is one facet of EFP. Major television networks once owned their own production trucks for covering major events, but today, with the explosion in networks on cable and over-the-air, they rent television production trucks by the day or week from broadcast rental companies for more routine or remote broadcast productions. A typical sports production truck includes: A large video switcher with an external digital video effects unit and several mix/effect busses, to allow the Television director flexibility in calling for certain visual effects in the broadcast. Several tripod-mounted and handheld professional video cameras. A variety of zoom lenses for the tripod-mounted "hard" cameras at least 50× to 100× magnification, a maximum focal length of at least 600mm; the extreme amount of magnification is necessary because the cameras can be located quite a distance from the action. Several video recording and playback devices such as VCRs, hard disk recorders and video servers. Certain cameras or video feeds can be "isolated" to specific decks, when something happens that the producer or director wants to see again, the deck can be rewound and shown on the air as an instant replay.
Hard disk recorders allow some limited editing capabilities, allowing highlight reels to be edited together in the middle of a game. Several character generators allowing scores and statistics to be shown on screen; the scoreboards used in most sports facilities can be linked to the truck to drive the television production's graphics as well as the arena scoreboards. An audio mixing console booth and a variety of microphones to capture audio from the sportscasters and from the field of play. Several miles of various types of cable. Television News magazines are longer and more in-depth TV programming than shorter "breaking news" clips that focus on an issue in a documentary style, they are driven by interviews of people who are directly involved in the topic covered and last for from 30 minutes to three hours. The first known television news magazine was Panorama on the BBC in 1953. Since the genre rose in popularity through the years including CBS’s 60 Minutes, debuting in 1968, its spin-off, 60 Minutes II debuted in 1999.
Electronic Field Production for a typical news magazine story may include one or several interviews with B-roll gathered by a three-person crew. Locations vary; the crew shoots the interview at the home or workplace of the interviewee. They may go to additional locations that are a backdrop to the story. Lighting and shooting style are consistent with each's criteria. After the interviews and B-Roll have been gathered, the producer may either hand-deliver the media to the studio, ship it by messenger service or a shipping company, or "feed it" in real time via a local satellite service. Contrasted with the production values of EFP, in electronic journalism or electronic news-gathering, the emphasis is on quickness and agility in acquisition and rapidity in the process of editing, leading to final transmission to the audience is the goal; the two terms are seen paired as EFP-ENG and vice versa. Many episodic television shows, four-camera situation comedy, television drama, such as PBS' Masterpiece Theatre all draw upon forms of EFP.
Electronic journalism Electronic news-gathering Outside broadcasting Remote broadcast Television crew Television studies