Over-the-counter drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription. In many countries, OTC drugs are selected by a regulatory agency to ensure that they contain ingredients that are safe and effective when used without a physician's care. OTC drugs are regulated according to their active pharmaceutical ingredient rather than final products. By regulating APIs instead of specific drug formulations, governments allow manufacturers the freedom to formulate ingredients, or combinations of ingredients, into proprietary mixtures; the term over-the-counter refers to a medication that can be purchased without a medical prescription. In contrast, prescription drugs require a prescription from a doctor and should only be used by the prescribed individual; some drugs may be classified as over-the-counter, but may only be dispensed by a pharmacist after an assessment of the patient's needs or the provision of patient education.
In many countries, a number of OTC drugs are available in establishments without a pharmacy, such as general stores and gas stations. Regulations detailing the establishments where drugs may be sold, authorized to dispense them, whether a prescription is required vary from country to country; as of 2011, around a third of older adults in the U. S. used OTC drugs. By 2018, the prevalence of use by adults in the U. S. as first-line treatment for minor illnesses had reached 81%. In Canada, there are four drug schedules: Schedule 1: Requires a prescription for sale and are provided to the public by a licensed pharmacist. Schedule 2: Does not require a prescription but requires an assessment by a pharmacist prior to sale; these drugs are kept in an area of the pharmacy where there is no public access and may be referred to as "behind-the-counter" drugs. Schedule 3: Does not require a prescription but must be kept in an area under the supervision of a pharmacist; these drugs are kept in an area of the retail outlet where self-selection is possible, but a pharmacist must be available to assist in the self-selection of medication if required.
Unscheduled: may be sold in any retail outlet. All medications other than Schedule 1 may be considered an OTC drug, as they do not require prescriptions for sale. While the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities provides recommendations on the scheduling of drugs for sale in Canada, each province may determine its own scheduling; the drugs found in each schedule may vary from province to province. In November 2016, India's Drug Consultative Committee announced it was embarking on establishing a definition of drugs which could be dispensed without a prescription. Prior to this, the general assumption was that any drug which did not fall into a prescription schedule could be purchased without a prescription. However, the needed definition had not been enacted by early 2018; the lack of a legal definition for OTC drugs has led to this US$4 billion market segment being unregulated. In the Netherlands, there are four categories: UR: prescription only UA: pharmacist only UAD: pharmacist or drugstore only AV: can be sold in general storesA drug, UA can be sold OTC but only by pharmacists.
The drug can be on the shelves like any other product. Examples are domperidone, 400 mg ibuprofen up to dextromethorphan. A drug, UAD can be sold at drugstores, stores where no prescription can be filed and there is only a small selection of popular drugs like painkillers and cough medicine; the drugs are on the shelves, the store sells items like toys, gadgets and homeopathic products. The drugs in this category have limited addiction potential. Examples are naproxen and diclofenac in small amounts, cinnarizine, 400 mg ibuprofen up to 20 tablets and 500 mg paracetamol up to 50 tablets. Drugs in the AV category can be sold at supermarkets, gas stations etc. and include only drugs with minimal risk to the public, like paracetamol up to 20 tablets, 200 mg ibuprofen up to 10 tablets and loperamide. In the United States, the manufacture and sale of OTC substances are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration; the FDA requires that all "new drugs" obtain a New Drug Application before entering interstate commerce, but the act exempts any drugs recognized as safe and effective.
To deal with the vast number of OTC drugs that were on the market before the requirement that all drugs obtain an NDA, the FDA created the OTC monograph system to review classes of drugs and to categorize them as GRAS/E after review by expert panels. Certain classes of OTC drugs would not be required to obtain an NDA and could remain on the market if they conformed to the monograph guidelines for doses and warnings finalized in the Code of Federal RegulationsThus, an OTC drug product is allowed to be marketed either pursuant to an FDA monograph or pursuant to an NDA for products that do not fit within a specific monograph. There is the possibility that certain OTC drug products are marketed under the grandfathering provisions of the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, but the FDA has never formally acknowledged that any legitimate grandfathered OTC drug exists. Examples of OTC substances approved in the United States are sunscreens, anti-microbial and anti-fungal products and internal analgesics such as lidocaine and aspirin and eczema topical treatments, anti-dandruff shampoos containing co
Swartland Shale Renosterveld is a critically endangered vegetation type of the Western Cape, South Africa. This unique type of Renosterveld vegetation occurs over the Swartland and Boland areas, on the West Coast lowlands to the north of Cape Town, it extends from southwards as far as Somerset West. Around 10 percent of this area lies within the Cape Town metropol and, over 90 percent of this vegetation has been destroyed for farming and other development; the remaining patches are threatened by invasive alien plants and further development, making this vegetation type critically endangered. Undisturbed, it forms tall, open shrubland over undulating plains, it grows in clay soils that are derived from the Malmesbury Group Shales. Termite mounds create large, round hummocks called “heuweltjies”, that are a prominent feature of this vegetation type, appearing as pale spots on the landscape. Indigenous trees and older thicket occur around these features; the Renosterbos is common in this vegetation, but this may be due to recent overgrazing – the renosterbos is rather inedible and livestock tend to avoid it.
The vast majority of Swartland Shale Renosterveld has been lost. Remnants survive in tiny isolated patches within farmland only on rougher, steeper ground that cannot be cultivated. Only a few pockets are protected, most surviving areas are threatened by invasive alien plants such as Acacia saligna, Acacia mearnsii and a variety of other invasive trees and herbs. There are a great many plant species within this ecosystem which are endemic - existing in this vegetation type and nowhere else in the world. A partial list is included below. Biodiversity of Cape Town List of nature reserves in Cape Town Peninsula Shale Renosterveld Renosterveld
The Hanriot H.170, H.180, H.190 were a family of light utility aircraft produced in France in the 1930s. All introduced in 1934, they appeared side-by-side at the Paris Air Show that year, the model numbers distinguishing between versions powered by Salmson, Régnier engines respectively. In basic construction, the different variants were otherwise identical, as conventional monoplanes with high, strut-braced wings and fixed, tailskid undercarriage; the pilot and one or two passengers sat in an enclosed cabin. Although described as a monoplane, this family of aircraft all featured small, stub wings at the bottom of the fuselage; these served as a mounting point for the wing struts and undercarriage. An interesting feature was that the upper portion of the rear fuselage was a removable module, allowing it to be replaced with alternative modules for different roles, for example to carry a stretcher, or a second, open cockpit for pilot or gunnery training; the H.182 was the major production version, accounting for 346 out of the total of 392 aircraft built.
Most of these were produced as part of a government order for machines to equip the Cercles Aériens Régionaux reserve flying units, with 172 aircraft still operational at the Fall of France in 1940. Ten more were purchased by the Second Spanish Republic for use in the Spanish Civil War, 50 aircraft ordered by the French government were diverted to Turkey as part of a military aid agreement. H.170 - two-seat military observation version with Salmson 6Te engine H.171 - three-seat civil tourer version of H.170 H.172 H.172B - two-seat trainer H.172N - three-seat tourer H.173 - aerobatic trainer version H.174 - three-seat trainer H.175 - liaison aircraft for French Navy H.180 H.180T - three-seat tourer with Renault 4Pdi engine H.180M - two-seat military observation version with Renault 4Pei engine H.181 - air ambulance version of H.180T H.182 - main production version as trainer aircraft for French reserve aviation units. H.183 - aerobatic trainer with Renault 438 engine H.184 - trainer version with uprated version of Renault 4Pei engine H.185 - two-seat liaison version for French navy H.190 H.190M - two-seat observation aircraft with Régnier 60-01 engine H.191 - three-seat tourer H.192 H.192B - two-seat trainer H.192N - two-seat civil trainer with Régnier 6Bo.1 engine H.195 - two-seat liaison aircraft with Régnier 6Bo.1 engine FranceFrench Air Force French Navy SpainSpanish Republican Air Force TurkeyTurkish Air Force General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.22 m Wingspan: 12.00 m Height: 3.15 m Wing area: 19.0 m2 Empty weight: 604 kg Gross weight: 887 kg Powerplant: 1 × Renault 4Pei, 104 kW Performance Maximum speed: 190 km/h Range: 600 km Service ceiling: 5,500 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. Pp. 470–71. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 10. Media related to Hanriot H.180 at Wikimedia Commons