In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Christine Anne Perfect, known professionally as Christine McVie following her marriage to John McVie, is an English singer and keyboardist, best known as one of the three lead vocalists and the keyboardist of Fleetwood Mac. She joined the band in 1970, she has released three solo albums. McVie is known for her smoky, alto vocals and her direct but poignant lyrics, which concentrated on love and relationships. AllMusic describes her as an "Unabashedly easy-on-the-ears singer/songwriter, the prime mover behind some of Fleetwood Mac's biggest hits." Eight of her songs appeared on Fleetwood Mac's 1988 Greatest Hits album. In 1998 McVie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Fleetwood Mac and received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music; the same year, after 30 years with the band, she opted to leave and lived in semi-retirement for nearly 15 years. McVie released one solo album in 2004. In September 2013, McVie appeared on stage with Fleetwood Mac at London's O2 Arena.
She rejoined the band in October 2014, ready for Fleetwood Mac's On with the Show tour. In 2014 she received the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. McVie was born in the Lake District village of Bouth and grew up in the Bearwood area of Smethwick near Birmingham, her father, Cyril Percy Absell Perfect, was a concert violinist and music lecturer at St Peter's College of Education, Saltley and taught violin at St Philip's Grammar School, Birmingham. McVie's mother Beatrice Edith Maud Perfect, was a medium and faith healer. McVie's grandfather was an organist at Westminster Abbey. Although McVie was introduced to the piano when she was four, she did not study music until age 11, when she was re-introduced to it by Philip Fisher, a local musician and school friend of McVie's older brother, John. Continuing her classical training until age 15, McVie shifted her musical focus to rock and roll when her brother, came home with a Fats Domino songbook.
Other early influences included The Everly Brothers. McVie studied sculpture at an art college in Birmingham for five years, with the goal of becoming an art teacher. During that time she met a number of budding musicians in Britain's blues scene, her first foray into the music field did not come until she met two friends, Stan Webb and Andy Silvester in a pub one night. At the time, they were playing in a band called Sounds Of Blue. Knowing that McVie had musical talent, they asked her to join, she sang with Spencer Davis. After five years, McVie graduated from art college with a teaching degree, but by that time Sounds of Blue had split up. McVie found she did not have enough money to launch herself into the art world, so she moved to London and worked as a department store window dresser. In 1967 McVie learned that her ex-bandmates, Andy Silvester and Stan Webb, were forming a blues band, Chicken Shack, were looking for a pianist, she wrote to them asking to join, they invited her to play keyboards/piano and to sing background vocals.
Chicken Shack's debut release was "It's Okay With Me Baby", featuring McVie. She stayed with Chicken Shack for two albums, during which her genuine feel for the blues became evident, not only in her Sonny Thompson-style piano playing, but through her authentic "bluesy" voice. Chicken Shack had a hit which featured McVie on lead vocals. McVie received a Melody Maker award for female vocalist in both 1969 and 1970. McVie left Chicken Shack in 1969 after marrying Fleetwood Mac bassist John McVie a year earlier. McVie was a fan of Fleetwood Mac, while touring with Chicken Shack, the two bands would meet, they were "label mates" at Blue Horizon, Fleetwood Mac had asked her to play piano as a session musician for Peter Green's songs on the band's second album, Mr. Wonderful. Encouraged to continue her career, McVie recorded Christine Perfect. After marrying Fleetwood Mac bassist, John McVie, she joined Fleetwood Mac in 1970, she had contributed backup vocals and painted the cover for Kiln House. The band had just lost founding member Peter Green, its members were nervous about touring without him.
McVie had been a huge fan of the Peter Green-era Fleetwood Mac. McVie went on to become an integral member, another lead vocalist, keyboardist of the group and the first album with her as a full-fledged band member was Future Games, it was recorded at London's Advision Studios and included the first with American-born member Bob Welch in place of founding member Jeremy Spencer. Danny Kirwan was still in the band at this point, but he was fired in 1972 after an incident on tour where he refused to perform at a gig after a row with Welch; the early 1970s was a rocky time for the band, with a revolving door of musicians. Furthermore, a group impersonating Fleetwood Mac was touring the United States with encouragement from the band's manager, Clifford Davis; the tour collapsed. In 1974, McVie reluctantly agreed to move with the rest of Fleetwood Mac to the United States. Within a year Stevie Nicks and Lindsey Buckingham of Buckingham Nicks joined the band, giving it an added dimension, their first album together, 1975's Fleetwood Mac, had several hit songs, with McVie's "Over My Head" and "Say You Love Me", both reaching Billboard's top-20 singles chart.
It was "Over My Head" which first put Fleetw
The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac
The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac is an enhanced compilation album released by British-American rock band Fleetwood Mac in 2002 to promote their then-upcoming album Say You Will. It was released as a double album in the US, as a single disc in the UK, it debuted on the Billboard 200 album chart at number 12 on 2 November 2002 and spent 42 weeks on the chart. It was certified gold on 12 November 2002, platinum on 10 January 2003, 4x platinum on 11 September 2018, by the RIAA; the US version contained the successful Californian era of Fleetwood Mac's work. It featured the B-side "Silver Springs", the unreleased The Dance performance of "Go Insane", several rare single remixes of key tracks, such as "Rhiannon" and "Sisters of the Moon"; the enhanced section contained rare live performances, music videos and footage of the band making their next album. The UK version of 2002 was not enhanced, contained three songs from the Peter Green-led blues era of Fleetwood Mac. In October 2009, the two-disc US version was released in the UK and many other territories in Europe and New Zealand, to coincide with the European and Australasian legs of the group's'Unleashed' world tour.
The re-released version features a different picture on the outer slipcase to previous releases, but does not contain the enhanced material of the 2002 US release. The re-release has proven to be as successful in the UK as the previous 2002 release, it re-entered the UK album chart at No. 6. Sales of both the 2002 edition and the 2009 edition combined have achieved 6× Platinum status by December 2018; the album has spent more than two years within the top 40, 360 weeks in the UK Top 100 by December 2018. The album sold over 89,000 copies in the UK in 2013 having reached as high as #34 on the album chart earlier in the year; the Very Best reached No. 1 on the Australian ARIA Catalogue Chart in December 2009, achieved platinum status in New Zealand within only five weeks of release. Entry on FleetwoodMac.net
The word shaker describes a large number of percussive musical instruments used for creating rhythm in music. They are called shakers because the method of creating the sound involves shaking them – moving them back and forth in the air rather than striking them. Most may be struck for a greater accent on certain beats. Shakers are used in rock and other popular styles to provide the ride pattern along with or substituting for the ride cymbal. A shaker may comprise a container full of small loose objects such as beans, which create the percussive sounds as they collide with each other, the inside surface, or other fixed objects inside the container – as in a rainstick, caxixi or egg shaker. Hand percussion
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Heroes Are Hard to Find
Heroes Are Hard to Find is the ninth studio album by British-American rock band Fleetwood Mac, released on 13 September 1974. This is the last album with Bob Welch, who left at the end of 1974, was replaced by Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks, it was the first Fleetwood Mac studio album properly recorded in the US as well as the first to enter the top 40 of the Billboard 200 album chart. The title track was edited and issued as a single but it failed to chart. Bob Welch would re-record Angel, Bermuda Triangle, Silver Heels for His Fleetwood Mac Years & Beyond. A re-write of Silver Heels, entitled Hustler with explicit lyrics appeared on Bob Welch Looks at Bop. Fleetwood Mac Bob Welch – guitar, vibraphone Christine McVie – keyboards, vocals, ARP String Ensemble John McVie – bass guitar Mick Fleetwood – drums, percussionAdditional musician Sneaky Pete Kleinow – pedal steel guitar on "Come a Little Bit Closer"Production Fleetwood Mac – producers Bob Hughes – engineer, producer Doug Graves – engineer, assistant engineer Lee Herschberg – remastering Nick DeCaro – horn and string arrangement Desmond Strobel – design Without a successful single to support the album, it still managed to peak at number 34 on the Billboard 200 chart, which at the time was the highest Billboard placing for any Fleetwood Mac album.
The album peaked at number 5 on the Billboard FM Action chart. The album achieved moderate success in Canada, peaking at #46 on the Canadian Albums Chart
A musical ensemble known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra; some music ensembles consist of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles; some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass and percussion. In jazz ensembles or combos, the instruments include wind instruments, one or two chordal "comping" instruments, a bass instrument, a drummer or percussionist.
Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles called rock bands or pop bands, there are guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, a rhythm section made up of a bass guitar and drum kit. Music ensembles have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, this is the band leader. In classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra. In orchestras, the individual sections have leaders called the "principal" of the section. Conductors are used in jazz big bands and in some large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles; the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of eleven musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet.
A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble. A string quartet consists of a viola and a cello. There is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet and a bassoon. A brass quartet features a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a soprano saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone, a baritone saxophone; the string quintet is a common type of group. It is similar to the string quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more the addition of a double bass. Terms such as "piano quintet" or "clarinet quintet" refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument. Mozart's Clarinet Quintet is a piece written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, a cello and a clarinet, the last being the exceptional addition to a "normal" string quartet; some other quintets in classical music are the wind quintet consisting of flute, clarinet and horn. Classical chamber ensembles of six, seven, or eight musicians are common.
In most cases, a larger classical group is referred to as an orchestra of some type or a concert band. A small orchestra with fifteen to thirty members is called a chamber orchestra. A sinfonietta denotes a somewhat smaller orchestra. Larger orchestras are called philharmonic orchestras. A pops orchestra is an orchestra that performs light classical music and orchestral arrangements and medleys of popular jazz, music theater, or pop music songs. A string orchestra has only string instruments, i.e. violins, violas and double basses. A symphony orchestra is an ensemble comprising at least thirty musicians. A symphony orchestra is divided into families of instruments. In the string family, there are sections of violins, violas and basses; the standard woodwind section consists of flutes, soprano clarinets, bassoons. The standard brass section consists of horns, trumpets and tuba; the percussion section includes the timpani, bass drum, snare drum, a