"Over the Rainbow" is a ballad composed by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Yip Harburg. It was written for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz and was sung by actress Judy Garland in her starring role as Dorothy Gale, it became Garland's signature song. About five minutes into the film, Dorothy sings the song after failing to get Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, the farmhands to listen to her story of an unpleasant incident involving her dog and the town spinster, Miss Gulch. Aunt Em tells her to "find yourself a place where you won't get into any trouble"; this prompts musing to Toto, "Some place where there isn't any trouble. Do you suppose there is such a place, Toto? There must be. It's not a place you can get to by a train. It's far away. Behind the moon, beyond the rain...", at which point she begins singing. Composer Harold Arlen and lyricist Yip Harburg worked in tandem, Harburg suggesting an idea or title for Arlen to set to music, before Harburg contributed the lyrics. For their work together on The Wizard of Oz, Harburg claimed his inspiration was "a ballad for a little girl who... was in trouble and... wanted to get away from...
Kansas. A dry, colorless place, she had never seen anything colorful in her life except the rainbow". Arlen decided the idea needed "a melody with a long broad line". By the time all the other songs for the film had been written, Arlen was feeling the pressure of not having the required song for the Kansas scene. Arlen would carry blank pieces of music manuscript in his pockets to jot down short melodic ideas. Arlen described how inspiration for the melody to Over the Rainbow came to him while his wife Anya drove: “I said to Mrs. Arlen... ‘let’s go to Grauman’s Chinese... You drive the car, I don’t feel too well right now.’ I wasn’t thinking of work. I wasn’t consciously thinking of work, I just wanted to relax, and as we drove by Schwab’s Drug Store on Sunset I said, ‘Pull over, please.’... And we stopped and I don’t know why —bless the muses— and I took out my little bit of manuscript and put down what you know now as ‘Over the Rainbow.’”Arlen wrote the contrasting bridge section based on the idea of'a child's piano exercise'.
The "Over the Rainbow" and Kansas scenes were directed by the uncredited King Vidor. The song was deleted from the film after a preview in San Luis Obispo because MGM chief executive Louis B. Mayer and producer Mervyn LeRoy thought it "slowed down the picture" and sounded "like something for Jeanette MacDonald, not for a little girl singing in a barnyard", but the song was returned to the film due to the persistence of associate producer Arthur Freed and Roger Edens, Judy Garland's vocal coach and mentor. At the start of the film, part of the song is played by the MGM orchestra over the opening credits. A reprise of it was deleted after being filmed. An additional chorus was to be sung by Dorothy while she was locked in the Witch's castle, helplessly awaiting death as the hourglass ran out. However, although the visual portion of that reprise is lost, the soundtrack of it survives and was included in the 2-CD Deluxe Edition of the film's soundtrack released by Rhino Entertainment in 1995. In that intense rendition, Dorothy cries her way through it, unable to finish, concluding with, "I'm frightened, Auntie Em, I'm frightened!"
This phrase was retained in the film and is followed by Aunt Em's brief appearance in the crystal ball, where she is soon replaced by the visage of the witch and taunting Dorothy before turning toward the camera to cackle. Another instrumental version is played in the underscore in the final scene and over the closing credits. On October 7, 1938, Judy Garland recorded the song on the MGM soundstage with an arrangement by Murray Cutter. In September 1939, a studio recording of the song, not from the film soundtrack, was recorded and released as a single for Decca. In March 1940, that same recording was included on a Decca 78 four-record studio cast album entitled The Wizard of Oz. Although this isn't the version that appeared in the film, Decca continued to release the "cast album" into the 1960s after it was reissued on disc, a 331⁄3-rpm album; the film version of "Over the Rainbow" was unavailable to the public until the soundtrack was released by MGM in 1956 to coincide with the television premiere of The Wizard of Oz.
The soundtrack version has been re-released several times over the years, including a deluxe edition by Rhino in 1995. After The Wizard of Oz appeared in 1939, "Over the Rainbow" became Garland's signature song, she performed it for thirty years. She said she wanted to remain true to the character of Dorothy and to the message of being somewhere over the rainbow. An introductory verse, omitted from the film is sometimes used in theatrical productions of The Wizard of Oz and is included in the piano sheet music from the film, it was used in versions by Tony Bennett, Al Bowlly, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan, Trisha Yearwood, Melissa Manchester, Hilary Kole, Norma Waterson. Judy Garland sang the introductory verse only once, on a 1948 radio broadcast of The Louella Parsons Show. Lyrics for a second verse appeared in the British edition of the sheet music. In March 2017, "Over the Rainbow" sung by Judy Garland was entered in the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress as music, "culturally or artistically significant".
The 1914 Auckland City mayoral election was part of the New Zealand local elections held that same year. In 1914, elections were held for the Mayor of Auckland; the polling was conducted using the standard first-past-the-post electoral method. Incumbent mayor James Parr was re-elected unopposed with no alternative candidates emerging. At the same time the Borough of Grey Lynn was amalgamated with Auckland City. Grey Lynn's mayor George Baildon and its seven councillors were made members of the Auckland City Council until the next elections, which saw the number of councillors increased from eighteen to twenty-one. Bush, Graham W. A.. Decently and in Order: The Government of the City of Auckland 1840-1971. Auckland: Collins
Guarino Veronese or Guarino da Verona was an early figure in the Italian Renaissance. He was born in Verona and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras, he was a student of John of Ravenna. When he set out to return home, he had with him two cases of precious Greek manuscripts which he had taken great pains to collect, it is said that the loss of one of these by shipwreck caused him such distress that his hair turned grey in a single night. On arriving back in Italy, he earned a living as a teacher of Greek, first in Verona and afterwards in Venice and Florence. In 1436, he became a professor of Greek at Ferrara through the patronage of Leonello, the marquis of Este, his method of instruction was renowned and it attracted many students from Italy and the rest of Europe as distant as England. Many of them, notably Vittorino da Feltre, afterwards became well-known scholars and, as Vittorino would he would support poor students from his own funds.
From 1438 on he interpreted for the Greeks at the councils of Florence. He was influenced by the philosopher Gemistus Pletho, he died at Ferrara in 1460. His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the Lives of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysoloras, a series of commentaries on Persius, the Satires of Juvenal, on some of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero; the layout of the Studiolo of the Palazzo Belfiore is attributed to him. He corresponded with humanist Isotta Nogarola; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Guarino da Verona". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 660. Guarino da Verona at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Guarino da Verona from Catholic Encyclopedia Guarino da Verona in Ferrara Marsh, D.. Lucian and the Latins: Humor and Humanism in the Early Renaissance. University of Michigan Press. P. 21. ISBN 9780472108466. Retrieved 2015-11-03. Durant, Will.. The Renaissance.
The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon & Schuster. P. 269. Omont, Henri: Portrait de Guarino de Veronese, Bulletin de la Societé Nationale des Antiquaires de France, 1904, 323-326. Https://archive.org/stream/bulletin1904sociuoft#page/n339/mode/2up