Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of the People's Republic of China, its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, Taiwan. Although a vast majority are Han Chinese, the group represents all ethnic groups in China. Huáqiáo or Hoan-kheh in Hokkien, refers to people of Chinese origin residing outside of China. At the end of the 19th century, the Chinese government realized that the overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment and a bridge to overseas knowledge; the modern term haigui refers to returned overseas Chinese and guīqiáo qiáojuàn to their returning relatives. Huáyì refers to people of Chinese descent residing outside of China, regardless of citizenship. Another often-used term is 海外華人, it is used by the PRC government to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship. Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as 唐人, pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.
It means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling China proper. This term is used by the Cantonese, Hoochew and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people and has little relevance to the ancient dynasty; the term shǎoshù mínzú is added to the various terms for the overseas Chinese to indicate those who would be considered ethnic minorities in China. The terms shǎoshù shǎoshù mínzú hǎiwài qiáobāo are all in usage; the Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes. For example, members of the Tibetan people may travel to China on passes granted to certain people of Chinese descent. Various estimates of the Chinese emigrant minority population include 3.1 million, 3.4 million, 5.7 million, or one tenth of all Chinese emigrants. Cross-border ethnic groups are not considered Chinese emigrant minorities unless they left China after the establishment of an independent state on China's border.
Some ethnic groups who have historic connections with China, like the Hmong may not associate themselves as part of the Chinese diaspora. The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty, he sent people – many of them Cantonese and Hokkien – to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean. When China was under the imperial rule of the Qing Dynasty, subjects who left the Qing Empire without the Administrator's consent were considered to be traitors and were executed, their family members faced consequences as well. However, the establishment of the Lanfang Republic in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as a tributary state of Qing China, attests that it was possible to attain permission; the republic lasted until 1884. Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside the Republic of China through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong and Shanghai.
These migrations are considered to be among the largest in China's history. Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down in South East Asia between the years 1911–1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost to the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Most of the nationalist and neutral refugees fled Mainland China to Southeast Asia as well as Taiwan. Many nationalists who stayed behind were persecuted or executed. Most of the Chinese who fled during 1911–1949 under the Republic of China settled down in Singapore and Malaysia and automatically gained citizenship in 1957 and 1963 as these countries gained independence. Kuomintang members who settled in Malaysia and Singapore played a major role in the establishment of the Malaysian Chinese Association and their meeting hall at Sun Yat Sen Villa. There is some evidence that they intend to reclaim mainland China from the Communists by funding the Kuomintang in China. During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution.
During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with Southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation. Different waves of immigration led to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, the Caribbean, South America, South Africa, Europe. In the 19th century
Passenger load factor, or load factor, measures the capacity utilization of public transport services like airlines, passenger railways, intercity bus services. It is used to assess how efficiently a transport provider fills seats and generates fare revenue. According to the International Air Transport Association, the worldwide load factor for the passenger airline industry during 2015 was 79.7%. Passenger load factor is an important parameter for the assessment of the performance of any transport system. All transport systems have high fixed costs, these costs can only be recovered through selling tickets. Airlines calculate a load factor at which the airline will break even. At a load factor lower than the break level, the airline will lose money, above will record a profit; the environmental performance of any transport mode improves. The weight of passengers is a small part of the total weight of any transport vehicle, so increasing the number of passengers changes the emissions and fuel consumption to only a small degree.
As a vehicle is more loaded, the fuel consumed per passenger drops, loaded transport vehicles can be fuel efficient. Heavy loading of a transport vehicle are described as a crush load. Crush loading is a high level of loading where passengers are crushed against one another. Commenting in May 2017 on the United Express Flight 3411 incident, in which a passenger was forcibly removed, investor Warren Buffett said that passenger demand for cheap flights was resulting in high load factors, resulting in "a fair amount of discomfort." The load factor is the dimensionless ratio of passenger-kilometres travelled to seat-kilometres available. For example, say that on a particular day an airline makes 5 scheduled flights, each of which travels 200 kilometers and has 100 seats, sells 60 tickets for each flight. To calculate its load factor: = 60, 000 passenger ⋅ km 100, 000 seat ⋅ km = 0.6 = 60 % Thus, during that day the airline flew 60,000 passenger-kilometres and 100,000 seat-kilometres, for an overall load factor of 60%.
Crush load PLF
A. K. Sajan is an Indian Malayalam screenwriter and film director, best known for his directorial debut Stop Violence; the movie had debutant Prithviraj Chandra Lakshman in the lead roles. He is best known for scripting many superhits in the industry, his notable works include Dhruvam, Kashmeeram, Crime File, Chinthamani Kolacase, Nadiya Kollappetta Rathri and Puthiya Niyamam. His brother AK Santhosh is a script writer and have scripted various movies like Sooryaputhran, Minnaminuginum Minnukettu, a Tamil - Malayalam bilingual movie Vande Matharam. Began his film career as a story writer for some movies in late 1980s. In the early 1990 he pitched the story idea of Dhruvam, began to pen the script. By mid 1991 with the completed draft he approached Joshiy, the film started to roll, his next movie Butterflies with Mohanlal turned out to be a blockbuster. In 1994, Kashmeeram with Suresh Gopi in the lead emerged as a super hit which reaffirmed stardom for Suresh Gopi. From there on, they both established as a pair and worked on several films together.
Their notable films were Crime File, Chinthamani Kolacase and Nadiya Kollappetta Rathri. His directorial debut was in 2002 with the movie Stop Violence starring Prithviraj Sukumaran in the lead; the movie depicted the life of dark underworld prevailed in the city of Kochi. Upon its release it garnered critical acclaim for its realistic approach in making. A. K. Sajan on IMDb