The ovipositor is a tube-like organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs. In insects, an ovipositor consists of a maximum of three pairs of appendages; the details and morphology of the ovipositor vary, but its form is adapted to functions such as transmitting the egg, preparing a place for it, placing it properly. For insects, the organ is used to attach the egg to some surface, but for many parasitic species, it is a piercing organ as well; some ovipositors only retract when not in use, the basal part that sticks out is known as the scape, or more oviscape, the word scape deriving from the Latin word scāpus, meaning "stalk" or "shaft". Grasshoppers use their ovipositors to force a burrow into the earth to receive the eggs. Cicadas pierce the wood of twigs with their ovipositors to insert the eggs. Sawflies slit the tissues of plants by means of the ovipositor and so do some species of long-horned grasshoppers. In the wasp genus Megarhyssa, the females have a slender ovipositor several inches long, used to drill into the wood of tree trunks.

These species are parasitic in the larval stage on the larvae of horntail wasps, hence the egg must be deposited directly into the host's body as it is feeding. The ovipositor of the giant ichneumon wasp is the longest egg-laying organ known among biologists; the stings of the Aculeata are ovipositors modified and with associated venom glands. They are used as defensive weapons; the penetrating sting plus venom allows the wasp to lay eggs with less risk of injury from the host. In some cases the injection introduces virus particles that suppress the host's immune system and prevent it from destroying the eggs. However, in all stinging Hymenoptera, the ovipositor is no longer used for egg-laying. An exception is the family Chrysididae, members of the Hymenoptera, in which species such as Chrysis ignita have reduced stinging apparatus and a functional ovipositor. Members of the Dipteran families Tephritidae and Pyrgotidae have well-developed ovipositors that are retracted when not in use, with the part that sticks out being the oviscape.

Oestridae, another family within Diptera have short hairy ovipositors, the species Cuterebra fontinella has one of the shortest within the family. Female bitterlings in the genus Rhodeus have an ovipositor in the form of a tubular extension of the genital orifice. During breeding season, they use it when depositing eggs in the mantle cavity of freshwater mussels, where their eggs develop in reasonable security. Seahorses have an ovipositor for introducing eggs into the brood pouch of the male, who carries them until it is time to release the fry into a suitable situation in the open water

Gregory Abowd

Gregory Dominic Abowd is a computer scientist best known for his work in ubiquitous computing, software engineering, technologies for autism. He is the J. Z. Liang Professor in the School of Interactive Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he joined the faculty in 1994. Gregory Abowd was raised in Farmington Hills, a suburb of Detroit, Michigan, he graduated summa cum laude with a B. S. in Honors Mathematics from the University of Notre Dame in 1986. He attended the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom as a Rhodes Scholar, where he received his M. Sc. in 1987 and his D. Phil. in 1991, both in the field of Computation. He was a research associate from 1989 to 1992 at the University of York and a postdoctoral research associate from 1992 to 1994 at Carnegie Mellon University. In 1994, he was appointed to the faculty at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he remains today. Abowd's published work is in the areas of Human-Computer Interaction, Ubiquitous Computing, Software Engineering, Computer Supported Cooperative Work.

He is known for his work in ubiquitous computing, where he has made contributions in the areas of automated capture and access, context-aware computing, smart home technologies. Abowd's research has an applications focus, where he has worked to develop systems for health care, the home, individuals with autism. At Georgia Tech, he teaches in the School of Interactive Computing in the College of Computing, he is a member of the GVU Center and directs the Ubiquitous Computing and Autism and Technology research groups. Abowd was the founding Director of the Aware Home Research Initiative and is Executive Director of the Health Systems Institute at Georgia Tech. In 2008, he founded the Atlanta Autism Consortium, a group of researchers interested in autism in Atlanta, Georgia, he is one of the authors of Human-Computer Interaction, a popular human-computer interaction textbook. Abowd's contributions to the fields of Human-Computer Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing have been recognized through his numerous awards and extensive published work.

In 2008, he was named a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, one of the top honors for computer science researchers. Within the field of Human-Computer Interaction, he has been recognized at the CHI Conference, the most prestigious publication venue in HCI, as a top researcher through induction to the CHI Academy in 2008 and was awarded the Social Impact Award in 2007, he is one of the most prolific authors in computer science and in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. In March 2016, Abowd was named the J. Z. Liang Professor in the School of Interactive Computing. Kientz, J. A. R. I. Arriaga, G. D. Abowd: Baby Steps: Evaluation of a System to Support Record-Keeping for Parents of Young Children. CHI 2009. Hayes, G. R. L. M. Gardere, G. D. Abowd, K. N. Truong: CareLog: a selective archiving tool for behavior management in schools. CHI 2008: 685-694 Kientz, J. A. G. R. Hayes, T. L. Westeyn, T. Starner, G. D. Abowd: Pervasive Computing and Autism: Assisting Caregivers of Children with Special Needs.

IEEE Pervasive Computing 6: 28-35 Patel, S. N. K. N. Truong, G. D. Abowd. PowerLine Positioning: A Practical Sub-Room-Level Indoor Location System for Domestic Use. Proceedings of Ubicomp 2006. Kientz, J. A. G. R. Hayes, G. D. Abowd, R. E. Grinter: From the war room to the living room: decision support for home-based therapy teams. CSCW 2006: 209-218 Hayes, G. R. J. A. Kientz, K. N. Truong, D. R. White, G. D. Abowd, Trevor Pering: Designing Capture Applications to Support the Education of Children with Autism. Ubicomp 2004: 161-178 Abowd, G. D. and E. D. Mynatt: Charting past and future research in ubiquitous computing. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 7: 29-58 Abowd, G. D.: Classroom 2000: An Experiment with the Instrumentation of a Living Educational Environment. IBM Systems Journal 38: 508-530 Abowd, G. D. A. K. Dey, P. J. Brown, N. Davies, M. Smith, P. Steggles: Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness. HUC 1999: 304-307 Kidd, C. D. R. Orr, G. D. Abowd, C. G. Atkeson, I. A. Essa, B. MacIntyre, E. D. Mynatt, T. Starner, W. Newstetter: The Aware Home: A Living Laboratory for Ubiquitous Computing Research.

CoBuild 1999: 191-198 Abowd, G. D. C. G. Atkeson, J. I. Hong, S. Long, R. Kooper, M. Pinkerton: Cyberguide: A mobile context-aware tour guide. Wireless Networks 3: 421-433 Abowd, G. D. R. B. Allen, D. Garlan: Formalizing Style to Understand Descriptions of Software Architecture. ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. 4: 319-364 Mark Weiser Jennifer Mankoff Anind Dey Shwetak Patel CHI Academy Abowd's personal home page Georgia Tech Ubiquitous Computing Research Group Georgia Tech Autism and Technology Research Group Aware Home Research Initiative Health Systems Institute Atlanta Autism Consortium

Calila e Dimna

Calila e Dimna is an Old Castilian collection of tales from 1251, translated from the Arabic text Kalila wa-Dimna by the order of the future King Alfonso X while he was still a prince. The Arabic text is itself an 8th-century translation by Ibn al-Muqaffa' of a Middle Persian version of the Sanskrit Panchatantra from about 300, it is linked with the wisdom manuals of prince's education through the eastern method of questions and answers between the king and a philosopher that leads to exemplary tales or exempla told by and featuring animals: an ox, a lion and two jackals called Calila and Dimna, which are who tell the majority of the tales. This structure is used in Don Juan Manuel's Tales of Count Lucanor; this story has arrived to us through two manuscripts named as A and B. In the last part of the first one it is said that the book "was translated from Arabic to Latin it was Romanised by order of don Alfonso in 1261". However, as the Spanish version is near the Arabic one, a translation to Latin can be discarded.

The fact that Alfonso is called "infante" leads to set the date of composition in 1251 what would convert the book into the first prose-fiction work written in the Iberian Peninsula. The main structure of the work is the narrative frame, it has three parts differentiated: The introduction by Al-Muqaffa, an apology of knowledge and its practice nature. Bercebuey's story: His trip to India searching for knowledge. Contemptu mundi. Calila e Dimna's story. In it we can distinguish two parts: From chapter III to VI, the nearest part to Panchatantra. Other, which encompasses the rest of the chapters and that follows simple organisative schemes and with Oriental parallelims; the King Dabschelim is visited by the philosopher Bidpai who tells him a collection of stories with important morals for a King. The stories are in response to requests of parables from Dabschelim and they follow a Russian doll format, with stories interwoven within the stories. Story One - The person who infiltrates a friendship to break it up and its consequences Main Story - The Lion and the Ox The Ox, was abandoned by his master due to being stuck in a mud pit and was left to be watched by a servant.

However, the servant grew tired of waiting and abandoned Shatrabah and told his master that the ox had died. Shatrabah managed to free himself and make his way to a lush pasture where he lived in peace, but the solitude took its toll on Shatrabah and he would moo loudly in despair and loneliness. The sounds of his wails reached the ears of the lion king; the lion had never heard the wailing of an ox. From the lion's court were two doormen jackals, the brothers Kalila and Dimnah. Dimnah was an ambitious jackal and wanted to earn the favour of the king and become his most trusted member of the court. Kalila was rebuffed by Dimnah's ambition. Dimnah managed to gain entry into the court with his silvertongue, which impressed the lion king and so, he rose in rank and became the lion's closest advisor. Upon hearing the wails of Shatrabah, the lion became anxious and wary of venturing outside, as his scouts had reported on the marvellous beast, with its huge horns and menacing frame, the source of the noise.

Dimnah was concerned with the king's abandonment of his daily patrol and duties, so he approached the king and calmed him down. Dimnah went and confronted Shatrabah and painted the picture of the fierce lion king and his court of predators to the ox. Shatrabah was in awe and fear of the king described to him and obeyed Dimnah's claim of a summons from the king and went back with Dimnah. However, on arrival the ox and the lion struck up a friendship and as days passed, their bond grew and Shatrabah took Dimnah's place as the main confidant of the king; as the days passed, a fierce jealousy consumed. He confided in his brother Kalila, who warned him to no avail. Dimnah first approached the lion and told him that Shatrabah was plotting against him and was planning to usurp the power for himself; the king was skeptical of Dimnah's claims of treason, due to his knowledge of the meek nature of his ox friend. But Dimnah persisted and convinced the lion of Shatrabah's planned treachery and Dimnah advised the lion that the only way to resolve the treason was to punish the ox by death.

The lion decided to confront Shatrabah about these plans and exile him. Dimnah, knowing the plan would be unravelled if they were allowed to talk, told the lion that if Shatrabah's limbs were trembling and if he was moving his horns as if preparing to charge there was no doubt regarding his treason. Dimnah quickly went to Shatrabah and told him of the lion's plan to kill him and feast on his flesh with his court, but Shatrabah was skeptical of Dimnah's claims as he knew of no crime that he had committed which could have resulted in such a punishment. But he was convinced that the evil members of the lion's court had turned the king against him and that only Dimnah stood by his side. Shatrabah reasoned that the lion's carnivorous nature had won out and that a herbivore like himself had held no place in such a court in the first place. Spurred by Dimnah's whisperings, Shatrabah prepared himself to engage the lion in combat to save his life. Dimnah told the ox that if the lion approaches you with his chest out and mouth open know he has come to kill you.

Dimnah went to his brother and told him of his near success before scampering off