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Owain Gwynedd

Owain ap Gruffudd was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan. He was called "Owain the Great" and the first to be styled "Prince of Wales", he is considered to be the most successful of all the North Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He became known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from the contemporary king of Powys Wenwynwyn, Owain ap Gruffydd ap Maredudd, who became known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, the senior branch of the dynasty of Rhodri the Great, his father, Gruffudd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin of Tegeingl. Owain Gwynedd was the second son of Angharad, his elder brother, was killed in fighting in Powys in 1132.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success, his elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm. On Gruffydd's death in 1137, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales.

In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile. Owain took advantage of the Anarchy, a civil war between Stephen, King of England, the Empress Matilda, to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than before. In 1146 he captured Mold Castle and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys; the prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious. All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr; the invasion met with mixed fortunes. Henry's forces ravaged eastern Gwynedd and destroyed many churches thus enraging the local population; the two armies met at Ewloe. Owain's men ambushed the royal army in a narrow, wooded valley, routing it with King Henry himself narrowly avoiding capture; the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey. At the end of the campaign, Owain was forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.

Forty years after these events, the scholar Gerald of Wales, in a rare quote from these times, wrote what Owain Gwynedd said to his troops on the eve of battle: "My opinion, indeed, by no means agrees with yours, for we ought to rejoice at this conduct of our adversary. We therefore most devoutly promise God that we will henceforth pay greater reverence than to churches and holy places." Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills; the invasion was met with Owain as the undisputed leader. However, apart from a small melee at the Battle of Crogen there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder; the infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.

Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months. The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor; when the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland; the dispute continued, the see remained vacant until well after Owain's death. He was put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy; the annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, unconquered from his youth".

He is believed to have commissionedThe Life of an account of his father's life. Following his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Tr

Retreat from Gettysburg

The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia began its Retreat from Gettysburg on July 4, 1863. Following General Robert E. Lee's failure to defeat the Union Army at the Battle of Gettysburg, he ordered a retreat through Maryland and over the Potomac River to relative safety in Virginia; the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, was unable to maneuver enough to launch a significant attack on the Confederates, who crossed the river on the night of July 13–14. Confederate supplies and thousands of wounded men proceeded over South Mountain through Cashtown in a wagon train that extended for 15–20 miles, enduring harsh weather, treacherous roads, enemy cavalry raids; the bulk of Lee's infantry departed through Fairfield and through the Monterey Pass toward Hagerstown, Maryland. Reaching the Potomac, they found that rising waters and destroyed pontoon bridges prevented their immediate crossing. Erecting substantial defensive works, they awaited the arrival of the Union army, pursuing over longer roads more to the south of Lee's route.

Before Meade could perform adequate reconnaissance and attack the Confederate fortifications, Lee's army escaped across fords and a hastily rebuilt bridge. Combat operations cavalry battles and skirmishes, occurred during the retreat at Fairfield, Monterey Pass, Hagerstown, Boonsboro and around Williamsport and Falling Waters. Additional clashes after the armies crossed the Potomac occurred at Shepherdstown and Manassas Gap in Virginia, ending the Gettysburg Campaign of June and July 1863; the culmination of the three-day Battle of Gettysburg was the massive infantry assault known as Pickett's Charge, in which the Confederate attack against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge was repulsed with significant losses. The Confederates returned to their positions on Seminary Ridge and prepared to receive a counterattack; when the Union attack had not occurred by the evening of July 4, Lee realized that he could accomplish nothing more in his Gettysburg Campaign and that he had to return his battered army to Virginia.

His ability to supply his army by living off the Pennsylvania countryside was now reduced and the Union could bring up additional reinforcements as time passed, whereas he could not. Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton, Lee's artillery chief, reported to him that all of his long-range artillery ammunition had been expended and there were no early prospects for resupply. However, despite casualties of over 20,000 officers and men, including a number of senior officers, the morale of Lee's army remained high and their respect for the commanding general was not diminished by their reverses. Lee began his preparations for retreat on the night of July 3, following a council of war with some of his subordinate commanders, he consolidated his lines by pulling Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps from the Culp's Hill area back through the town of Gettysburg and onto Oak Ridge and Seminary Ridge, his men constructed breastworks and rifle pits that extended 2.5 miles from the Mummasburg Road to the Emmitsburg Road.

He decided to send his long train of wagons carrying equipment and supplies, captured in great quantities throughout the campaign, to the rear as as possible, in advance of the infantry. The wagon train included ambulances with his 8,000 wounded men who were fit to travel, as well as some of the key general officers who were wounded, but too important to be abandoned; the great bulk of the Confederate wounded—over 6,800 men—remained behind to be treated in Union field hospitals and by a few of Lee's surgeons selected to stay with them. There were two routes the army could take over South Mountain to the Cumberland Valley, from where it would march south to cross the Potomac at Williamsport, Maryland: the Chambersburg Pike, which passed through Cashtown in the direction of Chambersburg, and. For the Confederate army, it now had its full complement of cavalry available for reconnaissance and screening activities, a capability it lacked earlier in the campaign while its commander, Maj. Gen. J.

E. B. Stuart, was separated from the army with his three best cavalry brigades on "Stuart's ride". For the Confederate Army, once they reached the Potomac they would find it difficult to cross. Torrential rains that started on July 4 flooded the river at Williamsport, making fording impossible. Four miles downstream at Falling Waters, Union cavalry dispatched from Harpers Ferry by Maj. Gen. William H. French destroyed Lee's guarded pontoon bridge on July 4; the only way to cross the river was a small ferry at Williamsport. The Confederates could be trapped, forced to defend themselves against Meade with their backs to the river; the Union Army of the Potomac and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia retained their general organizations with which they fought at the Battle of Gettysburg. By July 10, some of the Union battle losses had been replaced and Meade's Army stood at about 80,000 men; the Confederates received no reinforcements during the campaign and had only about 50,000 men available.

The Army of the Potomac had significant changes in general officer assignments because of its battle losses. Meade's chief of staff, Maj. Gen. Daniel Butterfield, was wounded on July 3 and was replaced on July 8 by Maj. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys. Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, killed on July 1, was replaced by Maj. Gen. John

Nevada State Medical Association

The Nevada State Medical Association is the professional organization representing physicians in Nevada. Founded in 1875 and incorporated in 1904, the NSMA is a non-profit organization that consists of physicians, medical students, residents, it is based in Reno, Nevada. The NSMA is the Nevada affiliate of the American Medical Association. Henry Bergstein, MD was elected to the Nevada Assembly in 1874, sponsored a successful bill to regulate the practice of medicine in the state; the law passed in 1875, it limited the practice of medicine and surgery to graduates of bona fide medical schools. The law required physicians to register with their county, assigned a fine to those who were not in compliance. In 1875, Bergstein founded the Nevada State Medical Society in Virginia City, Nevada to enforce the new law. John W. Van Zant, MD was elected the first president; the Nevada Supreme Court upheld the law as constitutional, in 1899, the Nevada State Board of Medical Examiners was created to supplant the enforcement role of the NSMS.

The NSMS was incorporated in 1904 with the Nevada Secretary of State, the first annual meeting of the reorganized NSMS was held in Reno on May 6, 1905. The Clark County Medical Society was granted a charter in 1930, the White Pine County Medical Society held their first meeting in 1931; the name of the organization was changed to the Nevada State Medical Association to more reflect that it is composed of many county societies. Tomas Hinojosa, MD, President Weldon D. Havins, MD, President-Elect Howard I. Baron, MD, Secretary Steven Parker, MD, Treasurer Mitchell D. Forman, DO, Immediate Past President G. Norman Christiensen, MD, Rural Representative Wayne C. Hardwick, MD, Chief AMA Delegate Florence Jameson, MD, AMA Delegate Peter R. Fenwick, MD, AMA Alternate Delegate Catherine O'Mara, JD, Executive Director Carson Douglas County Medical Society Central Counties Medical Society Clark County Medical Society Elko County Medical Society Washoe County Medical Society White Pine County Medical Society Nevada State Medical Association - Official Site

Lewis Pease

Reverend Louis or Lewis Morris Pease was an American Methodist clergyman and prominent reformer during the mid-to late 19th century. He founded the Five Points Mission and the Five Points House of Industry, established in New York City's infamous Five Points district, which provided religious teaching and work for the area's predominantly working-class Irish Catholics. Born to Philo Pease and Polly Orton in Lisle, New York on August 25, 1818, Lewis Morris Pease joined the New York Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was ordained an elder in 1845, he had been commissioned by the Methodist Conference of 1850 to establish a mission in order to reform the area, efforts towards this having been attempted as early as the 1830s, was able to do so under the supervision of the Ladies' Home Missionary Society that spring. Upon arriving in the Five Points, he and his wife made their home in a room on Cross Street, near the Old Brewery, opened their mission; the Ladies' Home Missionary Society believed that the mission's primary purpose was to preach the gospel, provide religious services and bring in converts for the Methodists, which Pease did for several months, however he came to the conclusion that rehabilitation could more be achieved by providing education and employment to those who, without other alternatives, would turn to crime in order to survive.

In spite of his humanitarian efforts, Pease was dismissed by Ladies' Home Missionary Society within a year. This was prompted when a group a ladies from the society came to visit Pease and learned that he had not preached a sermon in two days having been "too busy carting great loads of cloth from the manufacturing houses in Broadway to his Five Points workrooms", he was replaced by evangelist Rev. John Luckey and the society publicly criticized his work in the area. In 1854, the society published a book on the history of the Methodist mission in the Five Points, The Old Brewery, in which Pease received no mention with exception to a brief reference to "our first missionary". Pease and his wife instead opened a nondenominational mission. After the falling out between him and the society and his wife leased several buildings and established the Five Points House. Schools for children and adults were held and, supervised by Pease and his wife, workrooms were opened in which material was received from local clothing manufacturers to be made into cheap garments.

His reputation and success grew and other reformers joined his cause. He received generous donations from wealthy and prominent New Yorkers; the Five Points House of Industry was founded in 1854 and organized under a Board of Trustees with Pease elected as a member. He held the position of superintendent for eight years, its first building, a commodious home, was erected in Anthony Street two years and, in 1864, the old tenements in Cow Bay were purchased and torn down to build a larger mission house. He and his wife retired to a farm in Westchester, New York, owned by the Five Points House of Industry and which taught farming and agricultural methods. In 1870, Pease left New York and settled in Asheville, North Carolina where he spent the next thirty years dedicated to providing education to poor and disadvantaged children, he founded the Pease Industrial School and the Normal & Collegiate School for white girls, the Boys Industrial and Farm School for white boys, the Colored Industrial School for negro boys and girls.

Pease died in Asheville on the night of May 30, 1897. Anbinder, Tyler. Five Points: The 19th-century New York City Neighborhood that Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, Became the World's Most Notorious Slum. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-85995-5 Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890

Grevillea montis-cole

Grevillea montis-cole is a shrub, endemic to central-western Victoria, Australia. It has similarities in appearance to Grevillea microstegia, Grevillea floripendula and Grevillea aquifolium but has larger floral bracts; the flowers, which appear between October and March in its native range, have greenish to fawn perianths and red styles. The species was first formally described in Muelleria in 1983. There are two recognised subspecies: subsp. Montis-cole occurs in Mount Cole State Forest, it is a shrub that grows to between 1 and 1.5 m in height and has pistils which are greater than 20 mm in length. It is found growing as an understorey shrub in tall eucalypt forest on soil derived from decomposed granite at c.500-900 metres altitude The subspecies is listed as "Rare in Victoria" on the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment's Advisory List of Rare Or Threatened Plants In Victoria. Subsp. Brevistyla occurs on the upper slopes of Mount Langi Ghiran at an altitude of 800-900 metres AHD among granitic outcrops.

It is a low spreading shrub growing to 1 m in height that has pistils which are less than 20 mm in length and shorter and broader leaves than subsp. Montis-cole; the subspecies is listed as "Vulnerable" under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, "threatened" in Victoria under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 and "Vulnerable in Victoria" on the Department of Sustainability and Environment's Advisory List of Rare Or Threatened Plants In Victoria. Other plant species found in close proximity include Bundy, Shiny Tea-tree, Wedge-leaf Hop-bush, Hairy Correa, Violet Kunzea and Cranberry Heath. Evidence from preliminary genetic data combined with morphological and habitat differences indicates that Grevillea montis-cole subsp. Brevistyla may require recognition as a distinct species

Ryburn Valley High School

Ryburn Valley High School is a secondary school and sixth form located in the town of Sowerby Bridge, West Yorkshire, England. Built in the 1950s, it moved into a new building in 2005. Ryburn Valley High School opened in February 1959 as Ryburn County Secondary Modern School, it was a new mixed secondary school representing the merger of Sowerby Bridge Girls' School and Sowerby Bridge Boys' School. The advent of the comprehensive system gave birth to the name Ryburn Valley High School in 1979, it has grown from 600 pupils in 1959 to 1500 in 2013. The new building was confirmed in 2001 and was built from 2004 to 2005; the pupils moved into the building after spring half term in 2005. Ryburn Valley High School was awarded specialist status in Media Arts in 2004. In 2016, the first Ryburrn Academy Awards were held at the Victoria Theater in Halifax The school received a rating of Grade 2,'Good', for overall effectiveness in its 2013 Ofsted inspection report; the school converted to academy status in September 2014.

1959-1969 – Robert Miles 1969-1976 – John Widdows 1976- 1978 1986 – Morton Roberts 1978-1986 - William Nicholson 1986-1998 – Tony Thorne 1998 – Bridget Rickwood 1999-2008 – Ian Adam 2008-2013 – Honor Byford 2013-Present - David Lord Craig Fleming