Owens Valley

Owens Valley is the now-arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin. The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is about 4,000 feet, making the valley the deepest in the United States; the Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a rain shadow, which makes Owens Valley "the Land of Little Rain." The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat, sits on the southern end of the valley. The valley provides water to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, the source of one-third of the water for Los Angeles, is infamous as the scene of one of the fiercest and longest-running episodes of the California Water Wars; these episodes inspired aspects of the 1974 film Chinatown. The current arid nature of the valley is due to LADWP diverting the water of the region. For example, Owens Lake was emptied by 1926, only 13 years after LA began diverting water.

Towns in the Owens Valley include Bishop, Lone Pine and Big Pine. The major road in the Owens Valley is U. S. Route 395. About three million years ago, the Sierra Nevada Fault and the White Mountains Fault systems became active with repeated episodes of slip earthquakes producing the impressive relief of the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountain escarpments that bound the northern Owens Valley-Mono Basin region. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults—the westernmost in the Basin and Range Province, it is part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane. The western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada; these unsorted piles of rock and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age. An excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168; this graben was formed by a long series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, that have moved the graben down and helped move the Sierra Nevada up.

The graben is much larger. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills; the Owens Valley has many mini-volcanoes, such as Crater Mountain in the Big Pine volcanic field. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, by Little Lake; the valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom, is endemic to Owens Valley; the valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family; the closest related languages are Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language, Numic but is more related to Northern Paiute; the Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony. The Eastern Mono live in several colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop.

Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley and coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record. On May 1, 1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. Walker and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, back up the Humboldt River to the Rocky Mountains. In 1845, John C. Fremont named the Owens valley and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4, 1862, during the Owens Valley Indian War. From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California. In the early 20th century, the valley became the scene of a struggle between local residents and the city of Los Angeles over water rights. William Mulholland, superintendent of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, planned the 223-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913, which diverted water from the Owens River.

The water rights were acquired in a deceitful manner splitting water cooperatives and pitting neighbors against one another. In 1924, local farmers were fed up with the purchases and erupted in violence, sabotaging parts of the water system. Los Angeles acquired a large portion of the water rights to over 300,000 acres of land in the valley completely diverting the inflows of water away from Owens Lake. Gary Libecap of the University of California, Santa Barbara observed that the price that Los Angeles was willing to pay to other water sources per acre-foot of water was far higher than what the farmers received. Farmers who resisted the pressure from Los Angeles until 1930 received the highest price for their land. However, the sale of their land brought the farmers more income than if they had kept the land for farming and ranching. None of the sales were made under threat of eminent domain; as a result of these acquisitions, the lake subsequently dried up leaving


Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11. As a member of the heat shock protein 70 family and a chaperone protein, it facilitates the proper folding of newly translated and misfolded proteins, as well as stabilize or degrade mutant proteins, its functions contribute to biological processes including signal transduction, autophagy, protein homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation. It has been associated with an extensive number of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, cell senescence, aging; this gene encodes a 70kDa heat shock protein, a member of the heat shock protein 70 family. As a Hsp70 protein, it has a C-terminal protein substrate-binding domain and an N-terminal ATP-binding domain; the substrate-binding domain consists of two subdomains, a two-layered β-sandwich subdomain and an α-helical subdomain, which are connected by the loop Lα,β. SBDβ contains the peptide binding pocket while SBDα serves as a lid to cover the substrate binding cleft.

The ATP binding domain consists of four subdomains split into two lobes by a central ATP/ADP binding pocket. The two terminal domains are linked together by a conserved region referred to as loop LL,1, critical for allosteric regulation; the unstructured region at the end of the C-terminal is believed to be the docking site for co-chaperones. The heat shock protein 70 family contains both heat-inducible and constitutively expressed members; the latter are called heat-shock cognate proteins. The heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 known as Hsc70 belongs to the heat-shock cognate subgroup; this protein binds to nascent polypeptides to facilitate correct protein folding. In order to properly fold non-native proteins, Hsp70 chaperones interact with the hydrophobic peptide segments of proteins in an ATP-controlled fashion. Though the exact mechanism still remains unclear, there are at least two alternative modes of action: kinetic partitioning and local unfolding. In kinetic partitioning, Hsp70s repetitively bind and release substrates in cycles that maintain low concentrations of free substrate.

This prevents aggregation while allowing free molecules to fold to the native state. In local unfolding, the binding and release cycles induce localized unfolding in the substrate, which helps to overcome kinetic barriers for folding to the native state, its role in protein folding contributes to its function in signal transduction, protein homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation. Hsc70 is known to localize to the cytoplasm and lysosome, where it participates in chaperone-mediated autophagy by aiding the unfolding and translocation of substrate proteins across the membrane into the lysosomal lumen. Through this pathway, Hsc70 contributes to the degradation of the proapoptotic BBC3/PUMA under normal conditions, thus conferring cytoprotection. Hsc70 additionally carcinogenesis. For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane components through the cell.

It works with auxilin to remove clathrin from coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is an important protein involved in vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins being degraded by this lysosomal pathway. Human Hsc70 has 85% identity with human Hsp70; the scientific community has long assumed that Hsp70 and Hsc70 have similar cellular roles, but this assumption proved incomplete. While Hsc70 performed chaperone functions under normal conditions, unlike canonical heat shock proteins, Hsc70 is constitutively expressed and performs functions related to normal cellular processes, such as protein ubiquitylation and degradation; the Hsp70 member proteins are important apoptotic constituents. During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus.

This is followed by fragmentation into apoptotic bodies that are removed by phagocytes, thereby preventing an inflammatory response. It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological and molecular changes, it was first described as a "shrinkage necrosis", this term was replaced by apoptosis to emphasize its role opposite mitosis in tissue kinetics. In stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements; the ultrastructural appearance of necrosis is quite different, the main features being mitochondrial swelling, plasma membrane breakdown and cellular disintegration. Apoptosis occurs in many pathological processes, it plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. Hsp70 member proteins, including Hsp72, inhibit apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-α, doxorubicin.

This role leads to its involvement in many pathological processes, such as oncogenesis, neurodegeneration, senescence. In particular, overe

HikĊtei Jidai

Hikōtei Jidai is a fifteen-page, all-watercolor manga by Hayao Miyazaki, on which his animated film Porco Rosso is based. It was published in Model Graphix in three parts, a monthly magazine about scale models, as a part of Hayao Miyazaki's "Zassou Note" series. Like other manga in this series, "Hikōtei Jidai" is a manifestation of his love for old planes, it is filled with aircraft from the 1920s and their technical details, as well as with the men who love them. Hikōtei Jidai was published in 1992 by Dainippon Kaiga, it is a book of about 60 pages, includes the'Porco Rosso' manga, several airplane vignettes, resin-kit models of aircraft, photos of some real counterparts of the floatplanes which appeared in the film, some interviews with Miyazaki regarding airplane model kits. Compared with the anime version, the manga is much more light-hearted. Other than being a "retired Italian Air Force pilot", Porco's past is not discussed, although the rise of fascism and the sentiment against it are mentioned.

Gina doesn't appear at all, Porco is much more lighthearted. Still, the basic story line and its charm are carried over into the anime. For the dogfight between Porco and Donald Chuck, Miyazaki wrote, but this is a comic. I have no choice but to rely on the imagination of you, good readers." Mamma Aiuto, who Porco saves in Part One, is the name of a seaplane pirate gang in the movie. It is Italian for "Help, mom!" It's the 1920s over the Adriatic Sea. Air pirates with their seaplanes plague the sea, attacking ships, robbing money, kidnapping women. Enter a bounty hunter, Porco Rosso. Flying his red seaplane, he is the best in the business, he is a dashing fellow and women love him. There is, one peculiarity about him - he is a pig. Part OnePorco Rosso saves a girl from the Mamma Aiuto gang. Part TwoPorco is shot down by an American, Donald Chuck. Porco takes his plane to SPA, for repairs. Fio, a 17-year-old girl and improves his plane. Part ThreePorco and Chuck have a great air battle for Italian pride.

Hayao Miyazaki's Daydream Data Notes, the entire series of Miyazaki's manga publications in Model Graphix magazine